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1.
Math Biosci ; 338: 108645, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492387

ABSTRACT

With more than 1.7 million COVID-19 deaths, identifying effective measures to prevent COVID-19 is a top priority. We developed a mathematical model to simulate the COVID-19 pandemic with digital contact tracing and testing strategies. The model uses a real-world social network generated from a high-resolution contact data set of 180 students. This model incorporates infectivity variations, test sensitivities, incubation period, and asymptomatic cases. We present a method to extend the weighted temporal social network and present simulations on a network of 5000 students. The purpose of this work is to investigate optimal quarantine rules and testing strategies with digital contact tracing. The results show that the traditional strategy of quarantining direct contacts reduces infections by less than 20% without sufficient testing. Periodic testing every 2 weeks without contact tracing reduces infections by less than 3%. A variety of strategies are discussed including testing second and third degree contacts and the pre-exposure notification system, which acts as a social radar warning users how far they are from COVID-19. The most effective strategy discussed in this work was combining the pre-exposure notification system with testing second and third degree contacts. This strategy reduces infections by 18.3% when 30% of the population uses the app, 45.2% when 50% of the population uses the app, 72.1% when 70% of the population uses the app, and 86.8% when 95% of the population uses the app. When simulating the model on an extended network of 5000 students, the results are similar with the contact tracing app reducing infections by up to 79%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Disease Notification/standards , Models, Theoretical , Social Network Analysis , Adult , Computer Simulation , Humans , Medical Informatics Applications , Mobile Applications , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Students , Young Adult
2.
Yearb Med Inform ; 30(1): 210-218, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392951

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To summarise the state of the art during the year 2020 in consumer health informatics and education, with a special emphasis on "Managing Pandemics with Health Informatics - Successes and Challenges". METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of articles published in PubMed using a predefined set of queries, which identified 147 potential articles for review. These articles were screened according to topic relevance and 15 were selected for consideration of best paper candidates, which were then presented to a panel of international experts for full paper review and scoring. The top five papers were discussed in a consensus meeting. Three papers received the highest score from the expert panel, and these papers were selected to be representative papers on consumer informatics for managing pandemics in the year 2020. RESULTS: Bibliometrics analysis conducted on words found in abstracts of the candidate papers revealed 4 clusters of articles, where the clustering outcomes explained 77.04% of the dispersion. The first cluster composed of articles related to the use of mobile apps for video consultation and telehealth during the pandemic. The second revealed studies reporting the lived experience of healthcare workers and patients during COVID-19. The third focused on ways people used the internet to seek for health information during the pandemic and the dissemination of fake news. The last cluster composed of articles reporting the use of social listening methods (e.g., via tweet hashtags) to explore the spread of the virus around the world. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) constitutes a grave risk to the global community and sparks a significant increase in public interest and media coverage, especially on social media. Consumers are facing a new set of challenges that were not considered before COVID-19, often finding themselves in a world that is constantly changing-blended with facts and fake information-and unable to decide what to do next. Despite most people understanding the good will behind public health policies, one must not forget it is individuals we are supporting and that their personal circumstances may affect how they perceive and comply with these policies. Consumers more than ever need help to make sense of the uncertainty and their situation and we need to help them navigate the best option in a world that is constantly evolving.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Consumer Health Informatics , Medical Informatics Applications , Consumer Health Information , Female , Health Services Research , Humans , Male
3.
Yearb Med Inform ; 30(1): 26-37, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is currently spreading exponentially around the globe. Various digital health technologies are currently being used as weapons in the fight against the pandemic in different ways by countries. The main objective of this review is to explore the role of digital health technologies in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic and address the gaps in the use of these technologies for tackling the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. The articles were searched using electronic databases including MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Library, and Hinari. In addition, Google and Google scholar were searched. Studies that focused on the application of digital health technologies on COVID-19 prevention and control were included in the review. We characterized the distribution of technological applications based on geographical locations, approaches to apply digital health technologies and main findings. The study findings from the existing literature were presented using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2,601 potentially relevant studies were generated from the initial search and 22 studies were included in the final review. The review found that telemedicine was used most frequently, followed by electronic health records and other digital technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, and the internet of things (IoT). Digital health technologies were used in multiple ways in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including screening and management of patients, methods to minimize exposure, modelling of disease spread, and supporting overworked providers. CONCLUSION: Digital health technologies like telehealth, mHealth, electronic medical records, artificial intelligence, the internet of things, and big data/internet were used in different ways for the prevention and control of the COVID-19 pandemic in different settings using multiple approaches. For more effective deployment of digital health tools in times of pandemics, development of a guiding policy and standard on the development, deployment, and use of digital health tools in response to a pandemic is recommended.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Technology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Information Management , Medical Informatics Applications , Artificial Intelligence , Telemedicine
5.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 9999504, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262424

ABSTRACT

Technology has become an integral part of everyday lives. Recent years have witnessed advancement in technology with a wide range of applications in healthcare. However, the use of the Internet of Things (IoT) and robotics are yet to see substantial growth in terms of its acceptability in healthcare applications. The current study has discussed the role of the aforesaid technology in transforming healthcare services. The study also presented various functionalities of the ideal IoT-aided robotic systems and their importance in healthcare applications. Furthermore, the study focused on the application of the IoT and robotics in providing healthcare services such as rehabilitation, assistive surgery, elderly care, and prosthetics. Recent developments, current status, limitations, and challenges in the aforesaid area have been presented in detail. The study also discusses the role and applications of the aforementioned technology in managing the current pandemic of COVID-19. A comprehensive knowledge has been provided on the prospect of the functionality, application, challenges, and future scope of the IoT-aided robotic system in healthcare services. This will help the future researcher to make an inclusive idea on the use of the said technology in improving the healthcare services in the future.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Internet of Things , Medical Informatics Applications , Robotics , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic , Remote Sensing Technology , Telemedicine
6.
Yearb Med Inform ; 30(1): 61-68, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196881

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify the ways in which healthcare information and communication technologies can be improved to address the challenges raised by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study population included health informatics experts who had been involved with the planning, development and deployment of healthcare information and communication technologies in healthcare settings in response to the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected via an online survey. A non-probability convenience sampling strategy was employed. Data were analyzed with content analysis. RESULTS: A total of 65 participants from 16 countries responded to the conducted survey. The four major themes regarding recommended improvements identified from the content analysis included: improved technology availability, improved interoperability, intuitive user interfaces and adoption of standards of care. Respondents also identified several key healthcare information and communication technologies that can help to provide better healthcare to patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, including telehealth, advanced software, electronic health records, remote work technologies (e.g., remote desktop computer access), and clinical decision support tools. CONCLUSIONS: Our results help to identify several important healthcare information and communication technologies, recommended by health informatics experts, which can help to provide better care to patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results also highlight the need for improved interoperability, intuitive user interfaces and advocating the adoption of standards of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Information Technology , Medical Informatics Applications , Medical Informatics , Health Information Interoperability , Humans , Internationality , Software , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 598778, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133909

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) caused by viruses are increasing in frequency, causing a high disease burden and mortality world-wide. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel SARS-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) underscores the need to innovate and accelerate the development of effective vaccination strategies against EIDs. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules play a central role in the immune system by determining the peptide repertoire displayed to the T-cell compartment. Genetic polymorphisms of the HLA system thus confer a strong variability in vaccine-induced immune responses and may complicate the selection of vaccine candidates, because the distribution and frequencies of HLA alleles are highly variable among different ethnic groups. Herein, we build on the emerging paradigm of rational epitope-based vaccine design, by describing an immunoinformatics tool (Predivac-3.0) for proteome-wide T-cell epitope discovery that accounts for ethnic-level variations in immune responsiveness. Predivac-3.0 implements both CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell epitope predictions based on HLA allele frequencies retrieved from the Allele Frequency Net Database. The tool was thoroughly assessed, proving comparable performances (AUC ~0.9) against four state-of-the-art pan-specific immunoinformatics methods capable of population-level analysis (NetMHCPan-4.0, Pickpocket, PSSMHCPan and SMM), as well as a strong accuracy on proteome-wide T-cell epitope predictions for HIV-specific immune responses in the Japanese population. The utility of the method was investigated for the COVID-19 pandemic, by performing in silico T-cell epitope mapping of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein according to the ethnic context of the countries where the ChAdOx1 vaccine is currently initiating phase III clinical trials. Potentially immunodominant CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell epitopes and population coverages were predicted for each population (the Epitope Discovery mode), along with optimized sets of broadly recognized (promiscuous) T-cell epitopes maximizing coverage in the target populations (the Epitope Optimization mode). Population-specific epitope-rich regions (T-cell epitope clusters) were further predicted in protein antigens based on combined criteria of epitope density and population coverage. Overall, we conclude that Predivac-3.0 holds potential to contribute in the understanding of ethnic-level variations of vaccine-induced immune responsiveness and to guide the development of epitope-based next-generation vaccines against emerging pathogens, whose geographic distributions and populations in need of vaccinations are often well-defined for regional epidemics.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , HLA Antigens/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , HLA Antigens/genetics , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Medical Informatics Applications , Pandemics/prevention & control , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Binding , Software , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(1): e025, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1127838

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction: The challenges brought by the continuity of the university teaching-learning process in the face of the measures to combat the pandemic of COVID-19 made the debate on the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in medical education more important. Several strategies were used by teachers worldwide to continue their teaching activities. Objective: to investigate the strategies and uses of ICT in medical education in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Five databases were systematically assessed, using the terms "COVID-19", "medical education", "higher education" and "students", in Portuguese, English and Spanish, resulting in 321 initial citations, with 18 final references after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Result: Four key topics were identified in the literature: (1) Challenges for Medical Education prior to COVID-19; (2) Challenges in migrating to remote education; (3) Strategies to overcome challenges related to the learning environment; and (4) Strategies to overcome challenges related to assessments and exams. Conclusion: The use of ICT in medical education in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic showed to be especially important, with considerations regarding the improvement in areas that were already used, the migration of some more articulated areas and experiences in clinical and procedural disciplines. There was also concern about the impacts of using ICT to replace the in-person presence of students in medical learning environments.


Resumo: Introdução: Os desafios à continuidade do processo ensino-aprendizagem universitário ante as medidas de combate à pandemia da Covid-19 tornaram mais importante o debate sobre o uso de tecnologias de informação e comunicação (TIC) no ensino médico. Diversas estratégias foram empregadas no mundo por docentes para a continuidade das atividades pedagógicas. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as estratégias e os usos de TIC no ensino médico ante a pandemia de Covid-19. Método: Examinaram-se sistematicamente cinco bases de dados, nas quais se empregaram as expressões e os termos "covid-19", "ensino médico", "educação superior" e "estudantes" em português, inglês e espanhol, o que resultou em 321 citações iniciais, com 18 referências finais após a aplicação de critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Resultado: Quatro temas-chave foram identificados na literatura: 1. "Desafios para o ensino médico anteriores à Covid-19"; 2. "Desafios na migração para o ensino a distância"; 3. "Estratégias para a superação de desafios relacionadas ao ambiente de aprendizagem virtual"; e 4. "Estratégias para a superação de desafios relacionadas às avaliações". Conclusão: No contexto da pandemia de Covid-19, o emprego de TIC no ensino médico se mostrou importantíssimo, pois se encontraram quatro estratégias, entre as quais se destacaram o aprimoramento em áreas em que as TIC já eram utilizadas, a migração de algumas áreas mais articuladas e experiências em disciplinas clínicas e procedurais. Também houve preocupação sobre os impactos do uso de TIC em substituição da presença de estudantes nos ambientes de aprendizagem médicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Teaching/trends , Medical Informatics Applications , Education, Distance , Education, Medical/trends , COVID-19 , Learning
9.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(7): 991-999, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Many countries have implemented quarantine rules during the global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding how hospitals can continue providing services in an effective manner under these circumstances is thus important. In this study, we investigate how information technology (IT) helped hospitals in mainland China better respond to the outbreak of the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a content analysis of pages published on the websites of the top 50 hospitals in mainland China between January 22 and February 21, 2020. In total, we analyzed 368 pages that the hospitals published during the initial days of the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose was to identify common themes related to the utilization of IT by these hospitals in response to the pandemic's outbreak. RESULTS: We identified 5 focal themes across the webpages published by the hospitals during our study period, including (1) popular medical science education, (2) digitalized hospital processes, (3) knowledge management for medical professionals, (4) telemedicine, and (5) new IT initiatives for healthcare services. Our analysis revealed that Chinese hospitals spent greater effort in promoting popular medical science education in the initial stages of our study period and more on telemedicine in the latter stages. DISCUSSION: We propose a configurational approach for hospitals to design response strategies to pandemic outbreaks based on their available resources. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides rich insights for hospitals to better utilize their IT resources and some recommendations for policymaker to better support hospitals in the future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Consumer Health Information , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Administration , Medical Informatics Applications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Consumer Health Information/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical , Hospitals , Humans , Internet , Medical Informatics , SARS-CoV-2 , Terminology as Topic
11.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(11): 1727-1731, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024115

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to understand how people respond to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening chatbots. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an online experiment with 371 participants who viewed a COVID-19 screening session between a hotline agent (chatbot or human) and a user with mild or severe symptoms. RESULTS: The primary factor driving user response to screening hotlines (human or chatbot) is perceptions of the agent's ability. When ability is the same, users view chatbots no differently or more positively than human agents. The primary factor driving perceptions of ability is the user's trust in the hotline provider, with a slight negative bias against chatbots' ability. Asian individuals perceived higher ability and benevolence than did White individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Ensuring that COVID-19 screening chatbots provide high-quality service is critical but not sufficient for widespread adoption. The key is to emphasize the chatbot's ability and assure users that it delivers the same quality as human agents.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Medical Informatics Applications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Telemedicine , Trust , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Communication , Female , Humans , Male , Text Messaging
12.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(12): 1313-1319, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917534

ABSTRACT

Large events and gatherings, particularly those taking place indoors, have been linked to multitransmission events that have accelerated the pandemic spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To provide real-time, geolocalized risk information, we developed an interactive online dashboard that estimates the risk that at least one individual with SARS-CoV-2 is present in gatherings of different sizes in the United States. The website combines documented case reports at the county level with ascertainment bias information obtained via population-wide serological surveys to estimate real-time circulating, per-capita infection rates. These rates are updated daily as a means to visualize the risk associated with gatherings, including county maps and state-level plots. The website provides data-driven information to help individuals and policy makers make prudent decisions (for example, increasing mask-wearing compliance and avoiding larger gatherings) that could help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2, particularly in hard-hit regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Medical Informatics Applications , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Spatial Analysis , Geographic Mapping , Humans , Risk Assessment/methods , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(3): 487-493, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915884

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study sought to describe the contributions of clinical informatics (CI) fellows to their institutions' coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a survey to capture key domains of health informatics and perceptions regarding fellows' application of their CI skills. We also conducted detailed interviews with select fellows and described their specific projects in a brief case series. RESULTS: Forty-one of the 99 CI fellows responded to our survey. Seventy-five percent agreed that they were "able to apply clinical informatics training and interest to the COVID-19 response." The most common project types were telemedicine (63%), reporting and analytics (49%), and electronic health record builds and governance (32%). Telehealth projects included training providers on existing telehealth tools, building entirely new virtual clinics for video triage of COVID-19 patients, and pioneering workflows and implementation of brand-new emergency department and inpatient video visit types. Analytics projects included reports and dashboards for institutional leadership, as well as developing digital contact tracing tools. For electronic health record builds, fellows directly contributed to note templates with embedded screening and testing guidance, adding COVID-19 tests to order sets, and validating clinical triage workflows. DISCUSSION: Fellows were engaged in projects that span the breadth of the CI specialty and were able to make system-wide contributions in line with their educational milestones. CONCLUSIONS: CI fellows contributed meaningfully and rapidly to their institutions' response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Graduate , Medical Informatics Applications , Medical Informatics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Visualization , Electronic Health Records , Fellowships and Scholarships , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Leadership , Medical Informatics/education , Public Health Informatics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , United States
14.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(2): 377-383, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915883

ABSTRACT

Assuring the safety of both patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) in hospitals has been the primary focus of every healthcare organization during the COVID 19 pandemic. This article discusses the NIH Clinical Center's interdisciplinary approach to deploying an organizational Asymptomatic Staff Testing System.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Health Personnel , Medical Informatics Applications , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Humans , Internet , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Software , United States
16.
HIV Med ; 21(9): 567-577, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646260

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to systematically review current studies reporting on clinical outcomes in people living with HIV (PLHIV) infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in Global Health, SCOPUS, Medline and EMBASE using pertinent key words and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms relating to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and HIV. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Articles are summarized in relevant sections. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-five articles were identified after duplicates had been removed. After screening, eight studies were analysed, totalling 70 HIV-infected patients (57 without AIDS and 13 with AIDS). Three themes were identified: (1) controlled HIV infection does not appear to result in poorer COVID-19 outcomes, (2) more data are needed to determine COVID-19 outcomes in patients with AIDS and (3) HIV-infected patients presenting with COVID-19 symptoms should be investigated for superinfections. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that PLHIV with well-controlled disease are not at risk of poorer COVID-19 disease outcomes than the general population. It is not clear whether those with poorly controlled HIV disease and AIDS have poorer outcomes. Superimposed bacterial pneumonia may be a risk factor for more severe COVID-19 but further research is urgently needed to elucidate whether PLHIV are more at risk than the general population.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/mortality , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/pathology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , MEDLINE , Male , Medical Informatics Applications , Risk Factors
17.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S168-S170, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616908

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has put a great strain on the physical and mental health of health care workers across the globe. This commentary provides an overview of mental health initiatives implemented at an academic medical center to support health care workers during this challenging time and highlights lessons learned. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Coronavirus Infections , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health Services , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , Adult , COVID-19 , Humans , Medical Informatics Applications , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , New York
19.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20282, 2020 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-285144

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 spreads across the globe, crowdsourced digital technology harbours the potential to improve surveillance and epidemic control, primarily through increased information coverage, higher information speed, fast case tracking and improved proximity tracing. Targeting those aims, COVID-19-related smartphone and web-based health applications are continuously emerging, leading to a multitude of options, raising ethical and legal challenges and potentially overwhelming end users. Building on an existing trustworthiness checklist for digital health applications, we searched the literature and developed a framework to guide the assessment of smartphone and web-based applications that aim to contribute to controlling the current epidemic or mitigating its effects. It further integrates epidemiological subject knowledge and a legal analysis, outlining the mechanisms through which new applications can support the fight against COVID-19. The resulting framework includes 40 questions across 8 domains on “purpose”, “usability”, “information accuracy”, “organisational attributes / reputation”, “transparency”, “privacy” and “user control / self-determination”. All questions should be primarily answerable from publicly available data, as provided by application manufacturers. The framework aims to guide end users in choosing a transparent, safe and valuable application and suggests a set of information items that developers ideally make available to allow a balanced judgement and facilitate the trustworthiness of their products.


Subject(s)
Checklist/standards , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Mobile Applications , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral , Smartphone , Telemedicine , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Medical Informatics Applications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Privacy , SARS-CoV-2
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