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2.
Am J Prev Med ; 62(4): 538-547, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1663375

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A total of 3 vaccines are recommended for U.S. adolescents: tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis; meningococcal conjugate; and human papillomavirus. To understand the disparities in vaccine availability and hesitancy, adolescent-, household-, and area-level characteristics associated with patterns of vaccine coverage are described. METHODS: In 2020-2021, the authors generated national estimates among 8 possible combinations of vaccine coverage and identified the associated characteristics using 2015-2017 National Immunization Survey-Teen for male and female adolescents aged 13-17 years (N=63,299) linked to area (ZIP code) characteristics. Next, the factors associated with a missed opportunity for human papillomavirus vaccine (i.e., receipt of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis and meningococcal conjugate only compared with coverage of all the 3 vaccines) were identified using logistic regression. RESULTS: Most U.S. adolescents received all the 3 vaccines (42.9%) or tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis and meningococcal conjugate only (32.1%); fewer received no vaccines (7.7%) or tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis only (6.6%); and the remainder received some combination of 1-2 vaccines. Missed opportunities for human papillomavirus vaccination were more likely among adolescents who were male, were of White race, were uninsured, were in middle-income households, and were living in rural areas and were less likely among adolescents who were older, who were Medicaid insured, whose parents completed surveys in Spanish, who were in poverty-level households, and who were living in high-poverty areas. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial number of U.S. adolescents are not fully vaccinated, and coverage varies by vaccine type, population, and place. Providers should routinely stock all the 3 vaccines and promote simultaneous, same-day vaccination to avoid missed vaccine opportunities. More research and interventions are needed to understand and modify patient, provider, payer, vaccine supply/storage, or other reasons for suboptimal coverage of all the recommended vaccines.


Subject(s)
Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines , Meningococcal Vaccines , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , Medically Uninsured , United States , Vaccination
5.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1127-1138, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525996

ABSTRACT

In 2010, the US health insurance system underwent one of its most substantial transformations with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, which increased coverage for millions of people in the USA, including those with and at risk of HIV. Even so, the system of HIV care and prevention services in the USA is a complex patchwork of payers, providers, and financing mechanisms. People with HIV are primarily covered by Medicaid, Medicare, private insurance, or a combination of these; many get care through other programmes, particularly the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, which serves as the nation's safety net for people with HIV who remain uninsured or underinsured but offers modest to no support for prevention services. While uninsurance has drastically declined over the past decade, the USA trails other high-income countries in key HIV-specific metrics, including rates of viral suppression. In this paper in the Series, we provide an overview of the coverage and financing landscape for HIV treatment and prevention in the USA, discuss how the Affordable Care Act has changed the domestic health-care system, examine the major programmes that provide coverage and services, and identify remaining challenges.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Insurance Coverage/legislation & jurisprudence , Insurance, Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Gender Identity , HIV Infections/economics , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Medicaid/statistics & numerical data , Medically Uninsured/statistics & numerical data , Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
6.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 62(1): 334-339, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adult vaccine rates remain low despite public health efforts. Despite the likelihood that underserved patients face more barriers to vaccination, little is known on the perceptions underserved patients have about vaccines as a whole. Additional information could guide health care providers in efforts to improve adult vaccination rates in the medically underserved population. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this survey was to assess perceived susceptibility to and severity of vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) and perceived safety and effectiveness of vaccines in a medically underserved population. METHODS: This cross-sectional, descriptive study evaluated vaccine perceptions using a self-administered paper survey in a free clinic providing care to uninsured, low-income adults. All patients with scheduled appointments in the clinic were eligible to participate. Two Likert-type items were used to define responses regarding trust and beliefs. Level of trust was defined as "Not at all" (1), "A little" (2), "Not sure" (3), "Some" (4), and "A lot" (5). Responses to vaccine belief items were defined as "Strongly disagree" (1), "Disagree" (2), "Neither agree nor disagree" (3), "Agree" (4), and "Strongly agree" (5). Statistical analyses were descriptive in nature. RESULTS: Final analysis included 131 surveys. Health care providers were the most common patient-reported vaccine information source (73.3%) and the most trusted (median: 5). Despite clear agreement among respondents that vaccines are safe (median: 3.94) and effective (median: 4) in adults, with similar results regarding children, the results regarding personal risk from VPDs were less definitive (median: 3). CONCLUSION: Overall, survey responses in this uninsured, low-income population indicate that vaccines are perceived as safe and effective, but there is less consensus regarding the individual risk patients face from VPD. Focusing patient education on individual risk as much as overall vaccine safety and efficacy may help improve low adult vaccination rates in the medically underserved.


Subject(s)
Medically Uninsured , Vaccines , Adult , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Vaccination
8.
JAMA ; 326(3): 250-256, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338163

ABSTRACT

Importance: Medical debt is an increasing concern in the US, yet there is limited understanding of the amount and distribution of medical debt, and its association with health care policies. Objective: To measure the amount of medical debt nationally and by geographic region and income group and its association with Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data on medical debt in collections were obtained from a nationally representative 10% panel of consumer credit reports between January 2009 and June 2020 (reflecting care provided prior to the COVID-19 pandemic). Income data were obtained from the 2014-2018 American Community Survey. The sample consisted of 4.1 billion person-month observations (nearly 40 million unique individuals). These data were used to estimate the amount of medical debt (nationally and by geographic region and zip code income decile) and to examine the association between Medicaid expansion and medical debt (overall and by income group). Exposures: Geographic region (US Census region), income group (zip code income decile), and state Medicaid expansion status. Main Outcomes and Measures: The stock (all unpaid debt listed on credit reports) and flow (new debt listed on credit reports during the preceding 12 months) of medical debt in collections that can be collected on by debt collectors. Results: In June 2020, an estimated 17.8% of individuals had medical debt (13.0% accrued debt during the prior year), and the mean amount was $429 ($311 accrued during the prior year). The mean stock of medical debt was highest in the South and lowest in the Northeast ($616 vs $167; difference, $448 [95% CI, $435-$462]) and higher in poor than in rich zip code income deciles ($677 vs $126; difference, $551 [95% CI, $520-$581]). Between 2013 and 2020, the states that expanded Medicaid in 2014 experienced a decline in the mean flow of medical debt that was 34.0 percentage points (95% CI, 18.5-49.4 percentage points) greater (from $330 to $175) than the states that did not expand Medicaid (from $613 to $550). In the expansion states, the gap in the mean flow of medical debt between the lowest and highest zip code income deciles decreased by $145 (95% CI, $95-$194) while the gap increased by $218 (95% CI, $163-$273) in the nonexpansion states. Conclusions and Relevance: This study provides an estimate of the amount of medical debt in collections in the US based on consumer credit reports from January 2009 to June 2020, reflecting care delivered prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, and suggests that the amount of medical debt was highest among individuals living in the South and in lower-income communities. However, further study is needed regarding debt related to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Financing, Personal/economics , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/economics , Humans , Income , Insurance, Health/economics , Medicaid/economics , Medically Uninsured , Social Determinants of Health , United States
9.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(7): 1117-1125, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302018

ABSTRACT

Puerto Rico is a US territory and a popular destination for Latino immigrants in the Caribbean. Even with few language and cultural barriers, however, many Latino immigrants in Puerto Rico are uninsured. Using data from the 2014-19 Puerto Rico Community Survey, we examined inequities in health insurance coverage for non-Puerto Rican Latinos ages 18-64 living in Puerto Rico according to citizenship status and Latino subgroup (Dominican, Cuban, Mexican, and other Latino). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that noncitizen Dominicans had a significantly lower probability of having any health insurance (57.2 percent) and having any private insurance (31.5 percent). Regardless of similarities in culture and language, Latino immigrants on the island, particularly Dominicans, experience major health insurance coverage inequities. Considering that Puerto Rico's immigration system is regulated by US federal statute, both federal and local policy makers should acknowledge and focus on reducing these immigrant disparities in health insurance coverage.


Subject(s)
Emigrants and Immigrants , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Medically Uninsured , Middle Aged , Puerto Rico , United States , Young Adult
10.
Prev Med ; 151: 106559, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294320

ABSTRACT

Women from racial and ethnic minority groups face a disproportionate burden of cervical and breast cancers in the United States. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic might exacerbate these disparities as supply and demand for screening services are reduced. The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides cancer screening services to women with low income and inadequate health insurance. We examined COVID-19's impact on NBCCEDP screening services during January-June 2020. We found the total number of NBCCEDP-funded breast and cervical cancer screening tests declined by 87% and 84%, respectively, during April 2020 compared with the previous 5-year averages for that month. The extent of declines varied by geography, race/ethnicity, and rurality. In April 2020, screening test volume declined most severely in Health and Human Services Region 2 - New York (96% for breast, 95% for cervical cancer screening) compared to the previous 5-year averages. The greatest declines were among American Indian/Alaskan Native women for breast cancer screening (98%) and Asian Pacific Islander women for cervical cancer screening (92%). Test volume began to recover in May and, by June 2020, NBCCEDP breast and cervical cancer screening test volume was 39% and 40% below the 5-year average for that month, respectively. However, breast cancer screening remained over 50% below the 5-year average among women in rural areas. NBCCEDP programs reported assisting health care providers resume screening.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Medically Uninsured , Minority Groups , New York , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis
11.
Gynecol Oncol ; 161(2): 414-421, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151485

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current coronavirus pandemic caused a significant decrease in cancer-related encounters resulting in a delay in treatment of cancer patients. The objective of this study was to examine the survival effect of delay in starting concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in women with locally-advanced cervical cancer. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study querying the National Cancer Database from 2004 to 2016. Women with stage IB2-IVA squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix who received definitive CCRT with known wait-time for CCRT initiation after cancer diagnosis were eligible (N=13,617). Cox proportional hazard regression model with restricted cubic spline transformation was fitted to assess the association between CCRT wait-time and all-cause mortality in multivariable analysis. RESULTS: The median wait-time to start CCRT was 6 (IQR 4-8) weeks. In a multivariable analysis, older age, non-Hispanic black and Hispanic ethnicity, recent year of diagnosis, Medicaid and uninsured status, medical comorbidities, and absence of nodal metastasis were associated with longer CCRT wait-time (P<.05). Women with aggressive tumor factors (poorer differentiation, large tumor size, nodal metastasis, and higher cancer stage) were more likely to have a short CCRT wait-time (P<.05). After controlling for the measured covariates, CCRT wait-time of 6.1-9.8 weeks was not associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to a wait-time of 6 weeks. Similar association was observed when the cohort was stratified by histology, cancer stage, tumor size, or brachytherapy use. CONCLUSION: An implication of this study for the current coronavirus pandemic is that in the absence of aggressive tumor factors, a short period of wait-time to start definitive CCRT may not be associated with increased risk of mortality in women with locally-advanced cervical cancer.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/therapy , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Adenosquamous/therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy , Adenocarcinoma/secondary , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Adenosquamous/secondary , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/secondary , Chemoradiotherapy , Female , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Medicaid/statistics & numerical data , Medically Uninsured/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Staging , Proportional Hazards Models , Race Factors , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , Tumor Burden , United States , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology
12.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(3): 559-565, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic reshaped the health care system in 2020. COVID-19 infection has been associated with poor outcomes after orthopedic surgery and elective, general surgery, but the impact of COVID-19 on outcomes after trauma is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to Pennsylvania trauma centers from March 21 to July 31, 2020. The exposure of interest was COVID-19 (COV+) and the primary outcome was inpatient mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of stay and complications. We compared demographic and injury characteristics between positive, negative, and not-tested patients. We used multivariable regression with coarsened exact matching to estimate the impact of COV+ on outcomes. RESULTS: Of 15,550 included patients, 8,170 (52.5%) were tested for COVID-19 and 219 (2.7%) were positive (COV+). Compared with COVID-19-negative (COV-) patients, COV+ patients were similar in terms of age and sex, but were less often white (53.5% vs. 74.7%, p < 0.0001), and more often uninsured (10.1 vs. 5.6%, p = 0.002). Injury severity was similar, but firearm injuries accounted for 11.9% of COV+ patients versus 5.1% of COV- patients (p < 0.001). Unadjusted mortality for COV+ was double that of COV- patients (9.1% vs. 4.7%, p < 0.0001) and length of stay was longer (median, 5 vs. 4 days; p < 0.001). Using coarsened exact matching, COV+ patients had an increased risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 6.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.29-15.99), any complication (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.08-3.16), and pulmonary complications (OR, 5.79; 95% CI, 2.02-16.54) compared with COV- patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with concomitant traumatic injury and COVID-19 infection have elevated risks of morbidity and mortality. Trauma centers must incorporate an understanding of these risks into patient and family counseling and resource allocation during this pandemic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, Prognostic Study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Medically Uninsured/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology
13.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(1): 3-12, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240149

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Health insurance is associated with better care in the U.S., but little is known about the associations of coverage disruptions (i.e., periods without insurance) with care access, receipt, and affordability. METHODS: Adults aged 18-64 years with current private (n=124,746), public (n=30,932), or no (n=31,802) insurance coverage were identified from the 2011-2018 National Health Interview Survey. Data were analyzed in 2020. Separate multivariable logistic regressions evaluated the associations of having coverage disruptions or being uninsured with care access, receipt, and affordability. RESULTS: Overall, 5.0% of currently insured adults with private and 10.7% with public insurance reported a coverage disruption in the previous year, representing nearly 9.1 million adults in 2018. Among currently uninsured, 24.9% reported coverage loss within the previous year, representing nearly 8.1 million adults in 2018. Among adults with current private or current public coverage, disruptions were associated with lower receipt of all preventive services (AOR=0.42, 95% CI=0.37, 0.46 and AOR=0.48, 95% CI=0.40, 0.58, respectively), with forgoing any needed care because of cost (AOR=4.79, 95% CI=4.44, 5.17 and AOR=4.28, 95% CI=3.86, 4.75), and with medication nonadherence because of cost (AOR=3.55, 95% CI=3.13, 4.03 and AOR=4.09, 95% CI=3.43, 4.88) compared with that among adults with continuous coverage (p<0.05). Longer disruptions among currently insured adults were significantly associated with worse care access, receipt, and affordability, with dose-response patterns. Currently uninsured adults, especially those with longer uninsured periods, reported significantly worse care access, receipt, and affordability than currently insured adults with coverage disruptions or continuous coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the importance of continuous insurance coverage; disruptions owing to the COVID-19 pandemic will likely have adverse consequences for care access and affordability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Costs and Cost Analysis , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Medically Uninsured , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
15.
Public Health Rep ; 136(3): 368-374, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138485

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Understanding the pattern of population risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is critically important for health systems and policy makers. The objective of this study was to describe the association between neighborhood factors and number of COVID-19 cases. We hypothesized an association between disadvantaged neighborhoods and clusters of COVID-19 cases. METHODS: We analyzed data on patients presenting to a large health care system in Boston during February 5-May 4, 2020. We used a bivariate local join-count procedure to determine colocation between census tracts with high rates of neighborhood demographic characteristics (eg, Hispanic race/ethnicity) and measures of disadvantage (eg, health insurance status) and COVID-19 cases. We used negative binomial models to assess independent associations between neighborhood factors and the incidence of COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 9898 COVID-19 patients were in the cohort. The overall crude incidence in the study area was 32 cases per 10 000 population, and the adjusted incidence per census tract ranged from 2 to 405 per 10 000 population. We found significant colocation of several neighborhood factors and the top quintile of cases: percentage of population that was Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, without health insurance, receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits, and living in poverty. Factors associated with increased incidence of COVID-19 included percentage of population that is Hispanic (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.23-1.28) and percentage of households living in poverty (IRR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.19-1.32). CONCLUSIONS: We found a significant association between neighborhoods with high rates of disadvantage and COVID-19. Policy makers need to consider these health inequities when responding to the pandemic and planning for subsequent health needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Medically Uninsured/statistics & numerical data , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Residence Characteristics , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Female , Food Assistance/statistics & numerical data , Geographic Mapping , Humans , Incidence , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 143, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106489

ABSTRACT

Zimbabwe reported its first case of COVID-19 on 20 March 2020, and since then the number has increased to over 4000. To contain the spread of the causative SARS-CoV-2 and prepare the healthcare system, public health interventions, including lockdowns, were imposed on 30 March 2020. These resulted in disruptions in healthcare provision, and movement of people and supply chains. There have been resultant delays in seeking and accessing healthcare by the patients. Additionally, disruption of essential health services in the areas of maternal and child health, sexual and reproductive health services, care for chronic conditions and access to oncological and other specialist services has occurred. Thus, there may be avoidable excess morbidity and mortality from non-COVID-19 causes that is not justifiable by the current local COVID-19 burden. Measures to restore normalcy to essential health services provision as guided by the World Health Organisation and other bodies needs to be considered and implemented urgently, to avoid preventable loss of life and excess morbidity. Adequate infection prevention and control measures must be put in place to ensure continuity of essential services whilst protecting healthcare workers and patients from contracting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Continuity of Patient Care , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Guidelines as Topic , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Medically Uninsured , Medicine , Models, Theoretical , Mortality , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Reproductive Health Services/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization , Zimbabwe/epidemiology
19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(1): 82-90, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007108

ABSTRACT

States' decisions to expand Medicaid may have important implications for their hospitals' financial ability to weather the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study estimated the effects of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion on hospital finances in 2017 to update earlier findings. The analysis also explored how the ACA Medicaid expansion affects different types of hospitals by size, ownership, rurality, and safety-net status. We found that the early positive financial impact of Medicaid expansion was sustained in fiscal years 2016 and 2017 as hospitals in expansion states continued to experience decreased uncompensated care costs and increased Medicaid revenue and financial margins. The magnitude of these impacts varied by hospital type. As COVID-19 has brought hospitals to a time of great need, findings from this study provide important information on what hospitals in states that have yet to expand Medicaid could gain through expansion and what is at risk should any reversal of Medicaid expansions occur.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Economics, Hospital , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Medicaid , Medically Uninsured , Humans , Medicaid/economics , Medicaid/statistics & numerical data , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2 , State Government , United States
20.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(1): 105-112, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007103

ABSTRACT

The return of a Democratic administration to the White House, coupled with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic-induced contractions of job-based insurance, may reignite debate over public coverage expansion and its costs. Decades of research demonstrate that uninsured people and people with copays and deductibles use less care than people with first-dollar coverage. Hence, most economic analyses of Medicare for All proposals and other coverage expansions project increased utilization and associated costs. We review the utilization surges that such analyses have predicted and contrast them with the more modest utilization increments observed after past coverage expansions in the US and other affluent nations. The discrepancy between predicted and observed utilization changes suggests that analysts underestimate the role of supply-side constraints-for example, the finite number of physicians and hospital beds. Our review of the utilization effects of past coverage expansions suggests that a first-dollar universal coverage expansion would increase ambulatory visits by 7-10 percent and hospital use by 0-3 percent. Modest administrative savings could offset the costs of such increases.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Costs and Cost Analysis/economics , Insurance Coverage/economics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Universal Health Care , COVID-19 , Humans , Medicaid/economics , Medically Uninsured , Medicare/economics , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/economics , United States
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