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1.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(3): e25887, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797859

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The PROMISE study was launched in 2018 to assess and document the implementation of changes to an existing HIV Care Coordination Programme (CCP) designed to address persistent disparities in care and treatment engagement among persons with HIV in New York City. We evaluated provider endorsement of features of the CCP to understand drivers of engagement with the programme. METHODS: We used a discrete choice experiment to measure provider endorsement of four CCP attributes, including: (1) how CCP helps with medication adherence, (2) how CCP helps with primary care appointments, (3) how CCP helps with issues other than primary care and (4) where CCP visits take place (visit location). Each attribute had three to four levels. Our primary outcomes were relative importance and part-worth utilities, measures of preference for the levels of the four CCP program attributes, estimated using a hierarchical-Bayesian multinomial logit model. All non-medical providers in the core CCP positions of patient navigator, care coordinator and programme director or other administrator from each of the 25 revised CCP-implementing agencies were eligible to participate. RESULTS: We received responses from 152 providers, 68% of whom identified as women, 49% identified as Latino/a, 34% identified as Black and 60% were 30-49 years old. Visit location (28.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 27.0-30.3%) had the highest relative importance, followed by how staff help with ART adherence (24.3%, 95% CI 22.4-26.1%), how staff help with issues other than primary care (24.2%, 95% CI 22.7-25.7%) and how staff help with primary care appointments (22.9%, 95% CI 21.7-24.1%). Within each of the above attributes, respectively, the levels with the highest part-worth utilities were home visits 60 minutes from the program or agency (utility 19.9, 95% CI 10.7-29.0), directly observed therapy (utility 26.1, 95% CI 19.1-33.1), help with non-HIV specialty medical care (utility 26.5, 95% CI 21.5-31.6) and reminding clients about and accompanying them to primary care appointments (utility 20.8, 95% CI 15.6-26.0). CONCLUSIONS: Ongoing CCP refinements should account for how best to support and evaluate the intensive CCP components endorsed by providers in this study.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Adult , Appointments and Schedules , Bayes Theorem , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Medication Adherence , Middle Aged , New York City
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785667

ABSTRACT

In Namibia, the prevalence of hypertension among women and men aged 35-64 years is high, ranging from 44% to 57%. In this study, we aimed to determine adherence and predictors to antihypertensive therapy in Khomas region, Namibia. A cross-sectional study was performed to consecutively sample 400 patients from urban and peri-urban settings in Namibia. Results were validated using the Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale. Crude associations between predictors of adherence and compliance were tested using the Pearson chi-square test. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was then performed on adherence variables found to be significant to adjust for confounders, and the results are presented as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 400 patients participated in this study. The participants' mean age and standard deviation were Mean ± SD = 48.9 ± 12.5. In this study, 351 (87.7%) patients were estimated to have good adherence. Education, employment, and the presence of other chronic diseases were associated with adherence. Following multivariate adjustment, the following factors were significantly associated and are therefore predictors of adherence (95%CI, p < 0.005): receiving enough medication at last check-up until next one (OR = 5.44, CI 1.76-16.85), lack of encouragement from family and friends (OR = 0.11 (0.03-0.42)), and attendance of follow-ups on schedule (OR = 8.49, CI = 3.82-18.85). The success of hypertension therapy is dependent on the healthcare systems and healthcare professionals in supplying enough medication, support of friends/family, and maintaining scheduled follow-ups. A combination of interventions using low-cost mobile technology led by healthcare professionals could be endorsed. To fully practice universal access to medication, public and private hospitals in Namibia should collaborate.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Agents , Hypertension , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Medication Adherence , Namibia/epidemiology
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 730845, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775860

ABSTRACT

Background: The number of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing. Medication treatment is of great importance to stabilize blood glucose. Previous studies have reported that neuroticism, self-efficacy, and social support are factors associated with medication adherence, but few studies have fully investigated the mechanisms between these factors and medication adherence in patients with T2D. Purpose: To explore the prevalence of medication adherence and the factors associated with medication adherence in patients with T2D. Methods: A cross-sectional study consisting of 483 patients with T2D was conducted from July to December 2020. Questionnaires containing sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8), the neuroticism subscale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale (EPQ-RS), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Diabetes Management Self-efficacy Scale (DMSES) were used to collect data. The structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses. Results: This study included 305 (63.1%) medication adherence and 178 (36.9%) medication non-adherence patients with T2D. Social support directly influenced medication adherence (ß = 0.115, P = 0.029) and indirectly influenced medication adherence through self-efficacy (ß = 0.044, P = 0.016). Self-efficacy directly influenced medication adherence (ß = 0.139, P = 0.023). Neuroticism indirectly affected medication adherence through social support (ß = -0.027, P = 0.023) and self-efficacy (ß = -0.019, P = 0.014). Moreover, there was a sequential mediating effect of social support and self-efficacy on the relationship between neuroticism and medication adherence (ß = -0.010, P = 0.012). After controlling for age and gender, similar results were obtained. The model fit indices showed a good fit. Conclusions: The medication adherence of patients with T2D needs to be improved. Neuroticism, social support, and self-efficacy had direct or indirect effects on medication adherence in patients with T2D. Healthcare providers should comprehensively develop intervention programs based on neuroticism, social support, and self-efficacy to improve medication adherence in patients with T2D.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Medication Adherence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Self Efficacy
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 628725, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760274

ABSTRACT

There is limited research on adolescent boys and young men (ABYM)'s initial and onward HIV seropositive status disclosure, coping strategies and treatment adherence journeys especially in Zimbabwe. This qualitative exploratory study employed in-depth individual interviews at Chiredzi General Hospital in Zimbabwe to explore the dynamics of disclosure, coping and treatment adherence among ABYM. Twenty-one HIV positive ABYM with ages ranging from 14 to 21 were recruited from their scheduled visit to collect medication at the hospital. Findings indicate that ABYM disclosure journeys began with shock, confusion or misunderstanding and ended in a positive life outlook. Treatment adherence among ABYM was very poor due to poverty, erratic food supply, feeling sick after taking medication, forgetfulness and the public nature of medication collection centers. The study concluded that ABYM maintained secrecy in order to be accepted by their peers but also to protect themselves from stigma and isolation.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Disclosure , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Medication Adherence , Zimbabwe
5.
JAMA ; 327(9): 846-855, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750254

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the COVID-19 pandemic, modified guidance for opioid agonist therapy (OAT) allowed prescribers to increase the number of take-home doses to promote treatment retention. Whether this was associated with an increased risk of overdose is unclear. Objective: To evaluate whether increased take-home doses of OAT early in the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with treatment retention and opioid-related harm. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective propensity-weighted cohort study of 21 297 people actively receiving OAT on March 21, 2020, in Ontario, Canada. Changes in OAT take-home dose frequency were assessed between March 22, 2020, and April 21, 2020, and individuals were observed for up to 180 days to assess outcomes (last date of follow-up, October 18, 2020). Exposures: Exposure was defined as extended take-home doses in the first month of the pandemic within each of 4 cohorts based on OAT type and baseline take-home dose frequency (daily dispensed methadone, 5-6 take-home doses of methadone, daily dispensed buprenorphine/naloxone, and 5-6 take-home doses of buprenorphine/naloxone). Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were opioid overdose, interruption in OAT, and OAT discontinuation. Results: Among 16 862 methadone and 4435 buprenorphine/naloxone recipients, the median age ranged between 38 and 42 years, and 29.1% to 38.2% were women. Among individuals receiving daily dispensed methadone (n = 5852), initiation of take-home doses was significantly associated with lower risks of opioid overdose (6.9% vs 9.5%/person-year; weighted hazard ratio [HR], 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56-0.96]), treatment discontinuation (51.0% vs 63.6%/person-year; weighted HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.72-0.90]), and treatment interruption (19.0% vs 23.9%/person-year; weighted HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.67-0.95]) compared with no change in take-home doses. Among individuals receiving daily dispensed buprenorphine/naloxone (n = 662), there was no significant difference in any outcomes between exposure groups. Among individuals receiving weekly dispensed OAT (n = 11 010 for methadone; n = 3773 for buprenorphine/naloxone), extended take-home methadone doses were significantly associated with lower risks of OAT discontinuation (14.1% vs 19.6%/person-year; weighted HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.62-0.84]) and interruption in therapy (5.1% vs 7.4%/person-year; weighted HR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.53-0.90]), and extended take-home doses of buprenorphine/naloxone were significantly associated with lower risk of interruption in therapy (9.5% vs 12.9%/person-year; weighted HR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.56-0.99]) compared with no change in take-home doses. Other primary outcomes were not significantly different between groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In Ontario, Canada, during the COVID-19 pandemic, dispensing of increased take-home doses of opioid agonist therapy was significantly associated with lower rates of treatment interruption and discontinuation among some subsets of patients receiving opioid agonist therapy, and there were no statistically significant increases in opioid-related overdoses over 6 months of follow-up. These findings may be susceptible to residual confounding and should be interpreted cautiously.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Narcotic Antagonists/administration & dosage , Opiate Overdose/epidemiology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Buprenorphine/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Medication Adherence , Methadone/administration & dosage , Naloxone/administration & dosage , Ontario/epidemiology , Opiate Substitution Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies
6.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265434, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the established efficacy of PrEP to prevent HIV and the advantages of a user-controlled method, PrEP uptake and persistence by women in both trials and demonstration projects has been suboptimal. We utilized real-world data from an HIV service provider to describe persistence on oral PrEP among female sex workers (FSW) in eThekwini, South Africa. METHODS: We examined time from PrEP initiation to discontinuation among all FSW initiating PrEP at TB HIV Care in eThekwini between 2016-2020. We used a discrete time-to-event data setup and stacked cumulative incidence function plots, displaying the competing risks of 1) not returning for PrEP, 2) client discontinuation, and 3) provider discontinuation. We calculated hazard ratios using complementary log-log regression and sub-hazard ratios using competing risks regression. RESULTS: The number of initiations increased each year from 155 (9.3%, n = 155/1659) in 2016 to 1224 (27.5%, n = 1224/4446) in 2020. Persistence 1-month after initiation was 53% (95% CI: 51%-55%). Younger women were more likely to discontinue PrEP by not returning compared with those 25 years and older. Risk of discontinuation through non-return declined for those initiating in later years. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, a greater number of initiations and sustained persistence were observed in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of PrEP persistence were observed, consistent with data among underserved women elsewhere. Encouragingly, the proportion of women persisting increased over time, even as the number of women newly initiating PrEP and staff workload increased. Further research is needed to understand which implementation strategies the program may have enacted to facilitate these improvements and what further changes may be necessary.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Administration, Oral , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Medication Adherence/psychology , Sex Workers/psychology , South Africa/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264754, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714785

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bosnia and Herzegovina is among ten countries in the world with the highest mortality rate due to COVID-19. Lack of lockdown, open borders, high mortality rate, no vaccination plan, and strong domestic anti-vaccination movement present serious COVID-19 concerns in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In such circumstances, we set out to study 1) the willingness of general public to receive the vaccine, 2) factors that affect vaccine rejection, and 3) motivation for vaccine acceptance. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 10471 adults in Bosnia and Herzegovina to assess the acceptance or rejection of participants toward COVID-19 vaccination. Using a logistic regression model, we examined the associations of sociodemographic characteristics with vaccine rejection, reasons for vaccine hesitancy, preferred vaccine manufacturer, and information sources. RESULTS: Surprisingly, only 25.7% of respondents indicated they would like to get a COVID-19 vaccine, while 74.3% of respondents were either hesitant or completely rejected vaccination. The vaccine acceptance increased with increasing age, education, and income level. Major motivation of pro-vaccination behavior was intention to achieve collective immunity (30.1%), while the leading incentive for vaccine refusal was deficiency of clinical data (30.2%). The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is shown to be eightfold more preferred vaccine compared to the other manufacturers. For the first time in Bosnia, vaccine acceptance among health care professionals has been reported, where only 39.4% of healthcare professionals expressed willingness to get vaccinated. CONCLUSION: With the high share of the population unwilling to vaccinate, governmental impotence in securing the vaccines supplies, combined with the lack of any lockdown measures suggests that Bosnia and Herzegovina is unlikely to put COVID-19 pandemic under control in near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Medication Adherence , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Refusal , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bosnia and Herzegovina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e053183, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714410

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore patients' and healthcare practitioners' (HCPs) views about non-adherence to hypertension medication and potential content of a combined very brief face-to-face discussion (VBI) and digital intervention (DI). METHODS: A qualitative study (N=31): interviews with patients with hypertension (n=6) and HCPs (n=11) and four focus groups with patients with hypertension (n=14). Participants were recruited through general practices in Eastern England and London. Topic guides explored reasons for medication non-adherence and attitudes towards a potential intervention to support adherence. Stimuli to facilitate discussion included example SMS messages and smartphone app features, including mobile sensing. Analysis was informed methodologically by the constant comparative approach and theoretically by perceptions and practicalities approach. RESULTS: Participants' overarching explanations for non-adherence were non-intentional (forgetting) and intentional (concerns about side effects, reluctance to medicate). These underpinned their views on intervention components: messages that targeted forgetting medication or obtaining prescriptions were considered more useful than messages providing information on consequences of non-adherence. Tailoring the DI to the individuals' needs, regarding timing and number of messages, was considered important for user engagement. Patients wanted control over the DI and information about data use associated with any location sensing. While the DI was considered limited in its potential to address intentional non-adherence, HCPs saw the potential for a VBI in addressing this gap, if conducted in a non-judgemental manner. Incorporating a VBI into routine primary care was considered feasible, provided it complemented existing GP practice software and HCPs received sufficient training. CONCLUSIONS: A combined VBI-DI can potentially address intentional and non-intentional reasons for non-adherence to hypertension medication. For optimal engagement, recommendations from this work include a VBI conducted in a non-judgmental manner and focusing on non-intentional factors, followed by a DI that is easy-to-use, highly tailored and with provision of data privacy details about any sensing technology used.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Mobile Applications , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Medication Adherence , Primary Health Care , Qualitative Research
9.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 24(3): 271-275, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712339

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understand the current uses for telehealth as well as future directions as it relates to the COVID-19 pandemic and cardiovascular medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: Telehealth interventions in various forms have proven to be efficacious in the management of obesity, hypertension, glycemic control in diabetes, hyperlipidemia, medication adherence, and ICU length of stay and mortality. The use and study of such interventions have been greatly expanded during the pandemic partly due to the expanded coverage by payers. However, heterogenous interventions and a relative lack of cost analyses are barriers to more widespread adoption. Telehealth has proven efficacy for modifying risk factors for cardiovascular disease. To date, this has not been shown to translate to a reduction in hard cardiovascular endpoints such as mortality. With ongoing research and expanded funding, the role of telehealth is likely to evolve as the COVID pandemic continues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Medication Adherence , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 34: eAPE000086, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1687914

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Analisar a aceitabilidade da vacina contra COVID-19 entre pessoas com diagnóstico de síndrome gripal. Métodos Estudo transversal, com amostra aleatória composta por 454 participantes. Os dados foram coletados no período de março a agosto de 2020, em duas etapas: na primeira, coletaram-se os dados disponíveis nos sistemas de informação, utilizando-se instrumento adaptado da ficha de investigação de síndrome gripal suspeito de doença por COVID-19, e na segunda etapa, procedeu-se a coleta do dado primário junto ao participante, por meio de ligação telefônica. Na análise bivariada foi realizado o teste qui-quadrado de Pearson (X2). Para explicar o efeito conjunto das variáveis preditoras sobre a variável dependente foi utilizada a Regressão de Logística Múltipla (RLM) com razão de chance ajustada (ORa). Resultados os participantes mais dispostos a receber uma vacina contra COVID-19 são os que se informaram sobre a mesma nas redes sociais (ORa = 4,56, IC 95%: 1,77-11,72) e nos jornais e TV (ORa =2,74. IC95%= 1,07-7,04). Conclusão Ter informação sobre a vacina, seja por meio das redes sociais ou dos jornais e TV, aumentou a predisposição para tomá-la. Assim, se faz necessária a intensificação de informações efetivas sobre os benefícios das vacinas que serão aprovadas pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar la aceptación de la vacuna contra la COVID-19 entre personas con diagnóstico de síndrome gripal. Métodos Estudio transversal con muestra aleatoria compuesta por 454 participantes. Los datos fueron recopilados en el período de marzo a agosto de 2020, en dos etapas. En la primera, se recopilaron datos disponibles en los sistemas de información, utilizando instrumento adaptado de la ficha de investigación del síndrome gripal con sospecha de enfermedad por COVID-19; y en la segunda etapa, se realizó la recopilación del dato primario con el participante, por medio de llamada telefónica. En el análisis bivariado se realizó la prueba χ2 de Pearson. Para explicar el efecto conjunto de las variables predictoras sobre la variable dependiente, se utilizó la regresión logística múltiple (RLM) con razón de momios ajustada (ORa). Resultados Los participantes más dispuestos a recibir una vacuna contra la COVID-19 son los que se informaron sobre ella en las redes sociales (ORa = 4,56, IC 95 %: 1,77-11,72) y en periódicos y por televisión (ORa =2,74. IC95 %= 1,07-7,04). Conclusión Tener información sobre la vacuna, ya sea por medio de las redes sociales o periódicos y televisión, aumentó la predisposición a recibirla. De esta forma, es necesario intensificar la información efectiva sobre los beneficios de las vacunas que serán aprobadas por la Agencia Nacional de Control Sanitario.


Abstract Objective To analyze COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among people diagnosed with flu-like illness. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with a random sample consisting of 454 participants. Data were collected from March to August 2020, in two stages: in the first, data available in the information systems were collected, using an instrument adapted from the investigation form of flu-like illness suspected by COVID-19, and in the second stage, primary data was collected from the participant through a telephone call. For the bivariate analysis, Pearson's chi-square test was performed (X2). To explain the joint effect of predictor variables on the dependent variable, Multiple Logistics Regression (MRL) with adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) was used. Results Participants most willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccine are those who learned about it on social media (aOR = 4.56, 95% CI: 1.77-11.72) and on newspapers and TV (aOR =2.74. 95%CI= 1.07-7.04). Conclusion Having information about the vaccine, whether through social networks or newspapers and TV, increased the predisposition to take it. Thus, it is necessary to intensify effective information about the benefits of vaccines that will be approved by the Brazilian National Health Regulatory Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária - ANVISA).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vaccines , Medication Adherence , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies
11.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 26(1): 1-3, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677751
12.
Lupus ; 31(2): 221-227, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic diseases are potential candidates for inadequate follow-up of drug therapy, tending to incur damage to the intended results. This deserves greater attention in the pandemic period, as they are in the considered risk group. METHODS: We aim to assess Treatment Adherence Measure and analyze associations with characteristics related to the patient, treatment, disease, health professionals and service, and sociodemographic issues in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). W conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 116 participants, whose data were collected through individual interviews and review of medical records, during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Adherence was measured using the Treatment Adherence Measure, and associations were evidenced through described and inferential statistics. RESULTS: The percentage of adherent patients was 55.2%. An association was found between MTA (Medication Treatment Adherence) and physical exercise practice (p = 0.032), and difficulties with treatment (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Participants who did not practice physical exercise were 3.71 times more likely to not adhere to the treatment. Individuals who identified difficulties in the treatment were 3.43 times more likely to not adhere to the treatment; we believe that the pandemic may have influenced this result. More targeted studies are needed to measure the impact on MTA in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Medication Adherence , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pemetrexed
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643607

ABSTRACT

Concerns, behaviours, and beliefs influence how people deal with COVID-19. Understanding the factors influencing adherence behaviour is of utmost importance to develop tailored interventions to increase adherence within this context. Hence, we aimed to understand how COVID-19 affected adherence behaviour in Portugal. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between 1 March and 3 April 2021. Descriptive statistics were performed, as well as univariable and multivariable regression models. Of the 1202 participants, 476 who were taking at least one medication prescribed by the doctor were selected. Of these, 78.2% were female, and the mean age was 40.3 ± 17.9 years old. About 74.2% were classified as being highly adherent. During the pandemic, 8.2% of participants reported that their adherence improved, while 5.9% had worsened adherence results. Compared with being single, widowers were 3 times more prone to be less adherent (OR:3.390 [1.106-10.390], p = 0.033). Comorbid patients were 1.8 times (OR:1.824 [1.155-2.881], p = 0.010) more prone to be less adherent. Participants who reported that COVID-19 negatively impacted their adherence were 5.6 times more prone to be less adherent, compared with those who reported no changes (OR:5.576 [2.420-12.847], p < 0.001). None of the other variables showed to be significantly associated with pharmacological adherence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Medication Adherence , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Portugal/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Nature ; 601(7894): 496, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641925

Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Drug Development/trends , Drug Resistance, Viral , Research Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/supply & distribution , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Cytidine/administration & dosage , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/pharmacology , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Drug Approval , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxylamines/administration & dosage , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Lactams/administration & dosage , Lactams/pharmacology , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/administration & dosage , Leucine/pharmacology , Leucine/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Mutagenesis , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Nitriles/pharmacology , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Proline/administration & dosage , Proline/pharmacology , Proline/therapeutic use , Public-Private Sector Partnerships/economics , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e056009, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608870

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to identify levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs and factors associated with them in Northwest Ethiopia. We hypothesise that in the era of COVID-19, there would be suboptimal adherence to ART drugs. DESIGN: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted. Factors associated with the level of adherence were selected for multiple logistic regressions at a p value of less than 0.2 in the analysis. Statistically significant associated factors were identified at a p value less than 0.05 and adjusted OR with a 95% CI. SETTING: The study was conducted in one specialised hospital and three district hospitals found in the South Gondar zone, Northwest Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: About 432 people living with HIV/AIDS receiving highly active ART in South Gondar zone public hospitals and who have been on treatment for more than a 3-month period participated in the study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of adherence to ART drugs and their associated factors. RESULTS: Among 432 study participants, 81.5% (95% CI: 78% to 85.2%) of participants were optimally adherent to ART drugs. Determinants of a low level of adherence: stigma or discrimination (OR=0.4, p=0.016), missed scheduled clinical visit (OR=0.45, p=0.034), being on tuberculosis treatment (OR=0.45, p=0.01), recent CD4 cell count less than 500 cells/mm3 (OR=0.3, p=0.023) and patients who had been on WHO clinical stage III at the time of ART initiation (OR=0.24, p=0.027) were factors significantly associated with adherence to ART drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Level of adherence was relatively low compared with some local studies. The intervention targeted to reduce discrimination, counselling before initiation of treatment and awareness regarding compliance is advised to improve adherence to antiretroviral regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Medication Adherence , SARS-CoV-2
16.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261758, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to Tuberculosis (TB) medication is a serious threat to TB prevention and control programs, especially in resource-limited settings. The growth of the popularity of mobile phones provides opportunities to address non-adherence, by facilitating direct communication more frequently between healthcare providers and patients through SMS texts and voice phone calls. However, the existing evidence is inconsistent about the effect of SMS interventions on TB treatment adherence. Such interventions are also seldom developed based on appropriate theoretical foundations. Therefore, there is a reason to approach this problem more rigorously, by developing the intervention systematically with evidence-based theory and conducting the trial with strong measurement methods. METHODS: This study is a single-blind parallel-group design individual randomized control trial. A total of 186 participants (93 per group) will be individually randomized into one of the two groups with a 1:1 allocation ratio by a computer-generated algorithm. Group one (intervention) participants will receive daily SMS texts and weekly phone calls concerning their daily medication intake and medication refill clinic visit reminder and group two (control) participants will receive the same routine standard treatment care as the intervention group, but no SMS text and phone calls. All participants will be followed for two months of home-based self-administered medication during the continuation phases of the standard treatment period. Urine test for the presence of isoniazid (INH) drug metabolites in urine will be undertaken at the random point at the fourth and eighth weeks of intervention to measure medication adherence. Medication adherence will also be assessed by self-report measurements using the AIDS Clinical Trial Group adherence (ACTG) and Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) questionnaires, and clinic appointment attendance registration. Multivariable regression model analysis will be employed to assess the effect of the Ma-MAS intervention at a significance level of P-value < 0.05 with a 95% confidence interval. DISCUSSION: For this trial, a mobile-assisted medication adherence intervention will first be developed systematically based on the Medical Research Council framework using appropriate behavioural theory and evidence. The trial will then evaluate the effect of SMS texts and phone calls on TB medication adherence. Evidence generated from this trial will be highly valuable for policymakers, program managers, and healthcare providers working in Ethiopia and beyond. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered in the Pan-Africa Clinical Trials Registry with trial number PACTR202002831201865.


Subject(s)
Medication Adherence , Tuberculosis , Cell Phone , Humans , Single-Blind Method , Text Messaging
17.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains problematic. Regular monitoring of its barriers is clinically recommended, however, patient-provider communication around adherence is often inadequate. Our team thus decided to develop a new electronically administered patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) of barriers to ART adherence (the I-Score) to systematically capture this data for physician consideration in routine HIV care. To prepare for a controlled definitive trial to test the I-Score intervention, a pilot study was designed. Its primary objectives are to evaluate patient and physician perceptions of the I-Score intervention and its implementation strategy. METHODS: This one-arm, 6-month study will adopt a mixed method type 3 implementation-effectiveness hybrid design and be conducted at the Chronic Viral Illness Service of the McGill University Health Centre (Montreal, Canada). Four HIV physicians and 32 of their HIV patients with known or suspected adherence problems will participate. The intervention will involve having patients complete the I-Score through a smartphone application (Opal), before meeting with their physician. Both patients and physicians will have access to the I-Score results, for consideration during the clinic visits at Times 1, 2 (3 months), and 3 (6 months). The implementation strategy will focus on stakeholder involvement, education, and training; promoting the intervention's adaptability; and hiring an Application Manager to facilitate implementation. Implementation, patient, and service outcomes will be collected (Times 1-2-3). The primary outcome is the intervention's acceptability to patients and physicians. Qualitative data obtained, in part, through physician focus groups (Times 2-3) and patient interviews (Times 2-3) will help evaluate the implementation strategy and inform any methodological adaptations. DISCUSSION: This study will help plan a definitive trial to test the efficacy of the I-Score intervention. It will generate needed data on electronic PROM interventions in routine HIV care that will help improve understanding of conditions for their successful implementation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04702412; https://clinicaltrials.gov/.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Electronic Health Records , Health Services , Medication Adherence , Patient Portals , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Canada , Humans , Pilot Projects
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e24893, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal adherence to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is prevalent in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and associated with increased risk of relapse. Rapid uptake of personal technology makes mobile health (mHealth) an attractive platform to promote adherence. OBJECTIVE: Study objectives were to examine access to mobile technology and preferences for an mHealth intervention to improve medication adherence in pediatric ALL. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered in oncology clinic to parents of children with ALL as well as adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with ALL receiving maintenance chemotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 49 parents (median age [IQR] 39 [33-42] years; female 76% [37/49]) and 15 patients (median age [IQR] 17 [16-19]; male 80% [12/15]) participated. All parents and AYAs owned electronic tablets, smartphones, or both. Parents' most endorsed mHealth app features included a list of medications (71%, 35/49), information about 6-MP (71%, 35/49), refill reminders (71%, 35/49), and reminders to take 6-MP (71%, 35/49). AYAs' most endorsed features included refill reminders (73%, 11/15), reminders to take 6-MP (73%, 11/15), and tracking 6-MP (73%, 11/15). CONCLUSIONS: Parents and AYAs reported ubiquitous access to mobile technology and strong interest in multiple adherence-specific mHealth app features. Parents and AYAs provided valuable insight into preferred features for a multifunctional behavioral intervention (mHealth app) to promote medication adherence in pediatric ALL.


Subject(s)
Behavior Therapy/methods , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Technology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Smartphone , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(5): 2243-2247, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566689

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic created concerns among patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Frequency of COVID-19 and impact of lockdown on treatment compliance in patients with vasculitis are largely unknown. Patients and method: Patients with ANCA-associated and large vessel vasculitis that have been followed-up in our clinic were contacted by phone and a questionnaire containing home isolation status, treatment adherence and history of COVID -19 between March 1st and June 30th, 2020 was applied. Results: The survey was applied to 103 patients (F/M: 59/44, mean age: 53.2±12.5). Thirty-three (32%) patients didn?t attend at least one appointment; 98(95.1%) noted that they spent 3 months in home isolation. Five patients (4.8%) received immunosuppressives irregularly and 3(2.9%) developed symptoms due to undertreatment. Four (3.9%) patients admitted to hospital with a suspicion of COVID-19, but none of them had positive PCR or suggestive findings by imaging. COVID-19 diagnosed in a patient with granulomatosis with polyangiitis during hospitalization for disease flare and she died despite treatment. Discussion: Frequency of COVID-19 was low in patients with vasculitis in our single center cohort. Although outpatient appointments were postponed in one-third of our patients, high compliance with treatment and isolation rules ensured patients with vasculitis overcome this period with minimal morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Vasculitis/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Systemic Vasculitis/complications , Time Factors , Turkey
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