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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265434, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the established efficacy of PrEP to prevent HIV and the advantages of a user-controlled method, PrEP uptake and persistence by women in both trials and demonstration projects has been suboptimal. We utilized real-world data from an HIV service provider to describe persistence on oral PrEP among female sex workers (FSW) in eThekwini, South Africa. METHODS: We examined time from PrEP initiation to discontinuation among all FSW initiating PrEP at TB HIV Care in eThekwini between 2016-2020. We used a discrete time-to-event data setup and stacked cumulative incidence function plots, displaying the competing risks of 1) not returning for PrEP, 2) client discontinuation, and 3) provider discontinuation. We calculated hazard ratios using complementary log-log regression and sub-hazard ratios using competing risks regression. RESULTS: The number of initiations increased each year from 155 (9.3%, n = 155/1659) in 2016 to 1224 (27.5%, n = 1224/4446) in 2020. Persistence 1-month after initiation was 53% (95% CI: 51%-55%). Younger women were more likely to discontinue PrEP by not returning compared with those 25 years and older. Risk of discontinuation through non-return declined for those initiating in later years. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, a greater number of initiations and sustained persistence were observed in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of PrEP persistence were observed, consistent with data among underserved women elsewhere. Encouragingly, the proportion of women persisting increased over time, even as the number of women newly initiating PrEP and staff workload increased. Further research is needed to understand which implementation strategies the program may have enacted to facilitate these improvements and what further changes may be necessary.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Administration, Oral , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Medication Adherence/psychology , Sex Workers/psychology , South Africa/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Lupus ; 31(2): 221-227, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic diseases are potential candidates for inadequate follow-up of drug therapy, tending to incur damage to the intended results. This deserves greater attention in the pandemic period, as they are in the considered risk group. METHODS: We aim to assess Treatment Adherence Measure and analyze associations with characteristics related to the patient, treatment, disease, health professionals and service, and sociodemographic issues in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). W conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 116 participants, whose data were collected through individual interviews and review of medical records, during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Adherence was measured using the Treatment Adherence Measure, and associations were evidenced through described and inferential statistics. RESULTS: The percentage of adherent patients was 55.2%. An association was found between MTA (Medication Treatment Adherence) and physical exercise practice (p = 0.032), and difficulties with treatment (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Participants who did not practice physical exercise were 3.71 times more likely to not adhere to the treatment. Individuals who identified difficulties in the treatment were 3.43 times more likely to not adhere to the treatment; we believe that the pandemic may have influenced this result. More targeted studies are needed to measure the impact on MTA in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Medication Adherence , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pemetrexed
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e24893, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal adherence to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is prevalent in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and associated with increased risk of relapse. Rapid uptake of personal technology makes mobile health (mHealth) an attractive platform to promote adherence. OBJECTIVE: Study objectives were to examine access to mobile technology and preferences for an mHealth intervention to improve medication adherence in pediatric ALL. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered in oncology clinic to parents of children with ALL as well as adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with ALL receiving maintenance chemotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 49 parents (median age [IQR] 39 [33-42] years; female 76% [37/49]) and 15 patients (median age [IQR] 17 [16-19]; male 80% [12/15]) participated. All parents and AYAs owned electronic tablets, smartphones, or both. Parents' most endorsed mHealth app features included a list of medications (71%, 35/49), information about 6-MP (71%, 35/49), refill reminders (71%, 35/49), and reminders to take 6-MP (71%, 35/49). AYAs' most endorsed features included refill reminders (73%, 11/15), reminders to take 6-MP (73%, 11/15), and tracking 6-MP (73%, 11/15). CONCLUSIONS: Parents and AYAs reported ubiquitous access to mobile technology and strong interest in multiple adherence-specific mHealth app features. Parents and AYAs provided valuable insight into preferred features for a multifunctional behavioral intervention (mHealth app) to promote medication adherence in pediatric ALL.


Subject(s)
Behavior Therapy/methods , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Technology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Smartphone , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(5): 2243-2247, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566689

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic created concerns among patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Frequency of COVID-19 and impact of lockdown on treatment compliance in patients with vasculitis are largely unknown. Patients and method: Patients with ANCA-associated and large vessel vasculitis that have been followed-up in our clinic were contacted by phone and a questionnaire containing home isolation status, treatment adherence and history of COVID -19 between March 1st and June 30th, 2020 was applied. Results: The survey was applied to 103 patients (F/M: 59/44, mean age: 53.2±12.5). Thirty-three (32%) patients didn?t attend at least one appointment; 98(95.1%) noted that they spent 3 months in home isolation. Five patients (4.8%) received immunosuppressives irregularly and 3(2.9%) developed symptoms due to undertreatment. Four (3.9%) patients admitted to hospital with a suspicion of COVID-19, but none of them had positive PCR or suggestive findings by imaging. COVID-19 diagnosed in a patient with granulomatosis with polyangiitis during hospitalization for disease flare and she died despite treatment. Discussion: Frequency of COVID-19 was low in patients with vasculitis in our single center cohort. Although outpatient appointments were postponed in one-third of our patients, high compliance with treatment and isolation rules ensured patients with vasculitis overcome this period with minimal morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Vasculitis/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Systemic Vasculitis/complications , Time Factors , Turkey
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0259696, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine factors independently associated with early COVID-19 vaccination and adherence to two-dose regimens. METHODS: Among persons receiving care in the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system (n = 5,766,638), we identified those who received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination through the VA, during the first ~3months following emergency use authorization, from December 11, 2020 to March 9, 2021 (n = 1,569,099, or 27.2%, including 880,200 (56.1%) Moderna, 676,279 (43.1%) Pfizer-BioNTech and 12,620 (0.8%) Janssen vaccines). RESULTS: Follow-up for receipt of vaccination began on December 11, 2020. After adjustment for baseline characteristics ascertained as of December 11, 2020, factors significantly associated with vaccination included older age, higher comorbidity burden, higher body mass index category, Black (vs. White) race (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.19, 95% CI 1.19-1.20), Hispanic (vs. non-Hispanic) ethnicity (AHR 1.12, 95% CI 1.11-1.13), urban (vs. rural) residence (AHR 1.31, 95% CI 1.31-1.31), and geographical region, while AI/AN race (vs. White), was associated with lower vaccination rate (AHR 0.85, 95% CI 0.84-0.87). Among persons who received both doses of Moderna or Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines, 95.3% received the second dose within ±4 days of the recommended date. Among persons who received the first vaccine dose, only 3.2% did not receive the second dose within 42 days for Pfizer versus 4.0% for Moderna (p<0.001). Factors independently associated with higher likelihood of missing the second dose included younger age (10.83% in 18-50 yo vs. 2.72% in 70-75 yo), AI/AN race, female sex, rural location, geographical region and prior positive test for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: We identified sociodemographic and clinical factors that may be used to target vaccination efforts and to further improve adherence to second vaccine dosing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Medication Adherence/ethnology , Middle Aged , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Veterans/psychology , Young Adult
6.
Ophthalmology ; 129(3): 258-266, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540882

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Emerging evidence suggests that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is disrupting health behaviors such as medication adherence. The objective of this study was to determine whether adherence to ocular hypotensive medication was affected by the pandemic and to identify factors associated with this change. DESIGN: In this cohort study, we used a controlled interrupted time series design in which the interruption was the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States on March 13, 2020. The 300-day monitoring period, which evenly bracketed this declaration, started on October 16, 2019, and ended on August 10, 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal National Institutes of Health-funded study initiated before the onset of the pandemic were selected if they were prescribed ocular hypotensive medication and had adherence data spanning the 300-day period. METHODS: We applied segmented regression analysis using a "slope change following a lag" impact model to obtain the adherence slopes in the periods before and after the segmentation. We compared the 2 slopes using the Davies test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measure was daily adherence to ocular hypotensive medication, defined as the number of doses taken divided by the number of doses prescribed, expressed in percent. Adherence was measured objectively using Medication Event Monitoring System caps. We assessed the associations between change in adherence and demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. RESULTS: The sample included 79 patients (mean age, 71 years [standard deviation, 8 years]). Segmented regression identified a breakpoint at day 28 after the declaration of the pandemic. The slope in the period after the breakpoint (-0.04%/day) was significantly different from zero (P < 0.001) and from the slope in the period before the breakpoint (0.006%/day; P < 0.001). Mean adherence in the period before the segmentation breakpoint was significantly worse in Black patients (median, IQR: 80.6%, 36.2%) compared with White patients (median, IQR: 97.2%, 8.7%; chi-square, 15.4; P = 0.0004). A significant positive association was observed between the Connor-Davidson resilience score and the change in slope between the periods before and after the breakpoint (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to ocular hypotensive medication worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic and seems to be related to patient resilience. This collateral consequence of the pandemic may translate into vision loss that may manifest beyond its containment.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/drug therapy , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Cohort Studies , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Male , Middle Aged , Ophthalmic Solutions , Patients/psychology , Psychology , Resilience, Psychological , United States/epidemiology
7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(5): 448-456, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511112

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies project thousands of additional AIDS-related deaths because of COVID-19-related disruptions in HIV care. However, the extent to which disruptions in care have materialized since the start of the pandemic is not well understood. METHODS: We use electronic health records to investigate how the pandemic has affected clinic visits, patients' antiretroviral therapy (ART) supply, and viral suppression for a cohort of 14,632 HIV clients from a large HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda. We complement this with an analysis of electronically measured longitudinal ART adherence data from a subcohort of 324 clients. RESULTS: Clinic visits decreased by more than 50% after a national lockdown started. The risk of patients running out of ART on a given day increased from 5% before the lockdown to 25% 3 months later (Relative Risk Ratio of 5.11, 95% confidence interval: 4.99 to 5.24) and remained higher than prelockdown 6 months later at 13% (Relative Risk Ratio of 2.60; 95% confidence interval: 2.52 to 2.70). There was no statistically significant change in electronically measured adherence or viral suppression. CONCLUSION: We document substantial gaps in HIV care after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in Uganda. This suggests that measures to improve access should be explored as the pandemic persists. However, ART adherence was unaffected for the subcohort for whom we measured electronic adherence. This suggests that some clients may have stockpiles of ART tablets from previous prescriptions that allowed them to keep taking their medication even when they could not visit the clinic for ART refills.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/virology , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Viral Load/drug effects , Adult , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Uganda/epidemiology
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2123453, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400714

ABSTRACT

Importance: Older adults who are homebound can be difficult to reach owing to their functional limitations and social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic, leaving their health needs unrecognized at an earlier stage. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a telecare case management program for older adults who are homebound during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was conducted among 68 older adults in Hong Kong from May 21 to July 20, 2020, with a last follow-up date of October 20, 2020. Inclusion criteria were being 60 years or older, owning a smartphone, and going outside less than once a week in the previous 6 months. Interventions: Participants in the telecare group received weekly case management from a nurse supported by a social service team via telephone call and weekly video messages covering self-care topics delivered via smartphone for 3 months. Participants in the control group received monthly social telephone calls. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the change in general self-efficacy from before the intervention to after the intervention at 3 months. Self-efficacy was measured by the Chinese version of the 10-item, 4-point General Self-efficacy Scale, with higher scores representing higher self-efficacy levels. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Results: A total of 68 participants who fulfilled the criteria were enrolled (34 in the control group and 34 in the intervention group; 56 [82.4%] were women; and mean [SD] age, 71.8 [6.1] years). At 3 months, there was no statistical difference in self-efficacy between the telecare group and the control group. Scores for self-efficacy improved in both groups (ß = 1.68; 95% CI, -0.68 to 4.03; P = .16). No significant differences were found in basic and instrumental activities of daily living, depression, and use of health care services. However, the telecare group showed statistically significant interactions of group and time effects on medication adherence (ß = -8.30; 95% CI, -13.14 to -3.47; P = .001) and quality of life (physical component score: ß = 4.99; 95% CI, 0.29-9.69; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, participants who received the telecare program were statistically no different from the control group with respect to changes in self-efficacy, although scores in both groups improved. After the intervention, the telecare group had better medication adherence and quality of life than the control group, although the small sample size may limit generalizability. A large-scale study is needed to confirm these results. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04304989.


Subject(s)
Case Management , Homebound Persons/psychology , Homebound Persons/statistics & numerical data , Self Efficacy , Telemedicine/methods , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Case Managers , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Nurses , Pilot Projects , Professional-Patient Relations , Quality of Life
10.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI51-SI58, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the adherence of patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) to their immunomodulatory medication during the three-month lockdown in Germany. METHODS: From 16th March until 15th June 2020, IRD patients from private practices and rheumatology departments were asked to answer a questionnaire addressing their behaviour with respect to their immunomodulating therapy. Eight private practices and nine rheumatology departments that included rheumatology primary care centres and university hospitals participated. A total of 4252 questionnaires were collected and evaluated. RESULTS: The majority of patients (54%) were diagnosed with RA, followed by psoriatic arthritis (14%), ankylosing spondylitis (10%), connective tissue diseases (12%) and vasculitides (6%). Most of the patients (84%) reported to continue their immunomodulatory therapy. Termination of therapy was reported by only 3% of the patients. The results were independent from the type of IRD, the respective immunomodulatory therapy and by whom the patients were treated (private practices vs rheumatology departments). Younger patients (<60 years) reported just as often as older patients to discontinue their therapy. CONCLUSION: The data show that most of the patients continued their therapy in spite of the pandemic. A significant change in behaviour with regard to their immunomodulatory therapy was not observed during the three months of observation. The results support the idea that the immediate release of recommendations of the German Society of Rheumatology were well received, supporting the well-established physician-patient relationship in times of a crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Adult , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Germany , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Transplant Proc ; 53(8): 2447-2450, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has put an enormous burden on health care systems worldwide. Limited access to medical care and fear of increased infective risks due to the use of immunosuppressive medication (IM) have increased concerns about IM adherence in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The aim of this study was to determine the various dimensions of IM nonadherence in KTRs during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This was a single-center, cross-sectional study using a convenient sampling approach. KTRs with follow-up in Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong between May 1, 2020 and September 30, 2020, were invited to complete a self-reported questionnaire on IM adherence. The sociodemographic factors associated with IM adherence were extracted from medical records. RESULTS: Overall, 210 patients completed the questionnaires. The overall IM nonadherence rate was 35.2% in the 4 weeks before survey completion. None of the patients stopped taking IMs without instructions from their health care providers. The most common pattern of IM nonadherence was timing adherence (n = 63; 30.1%), followed by dose-skipping item. Among the different sociodemographic factors studied, only marital status was an independent risk factor of IM nonadherence (odds ratio, 1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-3.72; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: The impact of COVID-19 on IM adherence in KTRs was not significant. All the patients continued their IM despite of the pandemic. Good family support can have a positive influence on treatment adherence in KTRs during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Medication Adherence , Transplant Recipients , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics
13.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 37(8): 624-626, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322601

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reduced the access of HIV patients to reference centers. However, retention-in-care is critical to maintain adherence to therapy and viral suppression. During lockdown in Italy, our center implemented several measures to ensure HIV-care continuum. To assess whether these efforts were successful, we investigated HIV viral load trend for a 1-year period (September 2019-August 2020), which included lockdown and partial lockdown months in our country. No significant changes overtime in the proportion of undetectable HIV-RNA were observed. Continuity of service made it possible to maintain viral suppression in our patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/virology , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Viral Load , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Rome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Appl Nurs Res ; 60: 151448, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240174

ABSTRACT

AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of agreement between adherence measures obtained using two technological interventions, electronic monitoring (EM) and a smartphone application (App). BACKGROUND: Clinicians, patients, and researchers depend on valid measurements of medication adherence to inform the delivery of preemptive care when needed. Technology is routinely used for monitoring medication adherence in both clinical practice and research, yet there is a dearth of research comparing novel App based approaches to traditional approaches used for assessing medication adherence. METHODS: Adherence rates were captured on both the EM and the App for 3697 daily observations from 44 participants with acute coronary syndrome over 90 days immediately following discharge from acute care. For EM, adherence was measured using EM equipped pill bottles. For the App, adherence was measured by having participants upload daily photos to the App prior to taking their daily aspirin. Agreement was assessed using a Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS: The mean adherence rate was higher on the App, 92%, than the EM, 78% (p < 0.001). The mean difference in adherence rates between these methods was 14% (95% Confidence Interval: -23%, -5%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings illustrate a lack of agreement between technological interventions used for measuring adherence in cardiovascular patient populations, with higher adherence rates observed with the App compared to EM. These findings are salient given the increased reliance on telehealth due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Medication Adherence , Mobile Applications , Smartphone , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Telemedicine
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 220, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239173

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: elderly frequently present a poly-pathology recurring polypharmacy. Therefore, strict medication adherence is essential to avoid poor health outcomes especially during health crises like the current COVID-19 pandemic. The aims of our study were to identify the predictors of medication non-adherence in elderly and to expose the role of the emergency department (ED) to improve the therapeutic adherence during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: it was a two steps study. Primary, an observational, prospective survey over one month, including 100 elderly patients consulting to the emergency department. Medication adherence was assessed by Morisky's 4-questions scale; predictors of non-adherence have been identified. Secondary, a report of elderly medication management by the emergency physicians during the COVID-19 pandemic confinement. RESULTS: first step: 100 patients, mean age of 73±8 years. The average number of drugs was 4±2. Medication non-adherence was reported in 39%, predictors of therapeutic non-adherence were: polypharmacy (OR=2.41; CI95% [1.60;3.61]), rural origin (OR=6.72; CI95% [1.47;30.63]) and metabolic diseases history (OR=5.24; CI95% [1.48;18.53]). In the second step, 816 elder lies were enrolled, mean age: 73±7 years. The therapeutic attitude in the emergency department was to prescribe the same treatment (60%) to adjust the doses of the drugs prescribed (14%) to stop one or more drugs (13%) or to indicate new treatments (13%). Thirty-five percent of patients were admitted for short-term hospitalization. CONCLUSION: medication non-adherence is common in elderly, due to several factors. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the emergency services in Tunisia played an important role in the follow-up and therapeutic continuity of these elderly patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Polypharmacy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Tunisia
16.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 37(8): 624-626, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221456

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reduced the access of HIV patients to reference centers. However, retention-in-care is critical to maintain adherence to therapy and viral suppression. During lockdown in Italy, our center implemented several measures to ensure HIV-care continuum. To assess whether these efforts were successful, we investigated HIV viral load trend for a 1-year period (September 2019-August 2020), which included lockdown and partial lockdown months in our country. No significant changes overtime in the proportion of undetectable HIV-RNA were observed. Continuity of service made it possible to maintain viral suppression in our patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/virology , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Viral Load , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Rome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249453, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167119

ABSTRACT

Patient access and adherence to chronic medications is critical. In this work, we evaluate whether disruptions related to Covid-19 have affected new and existing patients' access to pharmacological therapies without interruption. We do so by performing a retrospective analysis on a dataset of 9.4 billion US prescription drug claims from 252 million patients from May, 2019 through August, 2020 (about 93% of prescriptions dispensed within those months). Using fixed effect (conditional likelihood) linear models, we evaluate continuity of care, how many days of supply patients received, and the likelihood of discontinuing therapy for drugs from classes with significant population health impacts. Findings indicate that more prescriptions were filled in March 2020 than in any prior month, followed by a significant drop in monthly dispensing. Compared to the pre-Covid era, a patient's likelihood of discontinuing some medications increased after the spread of Covid: norgestrel-ethinyl estradiol (hormonal contraceptive) discontinuation increased 0.62% (95% CI: 0.59% to 0.65%, p<0.001); dexmethylphenidate HCL (ADHD stimulant treatment) discontinuation increased 2.84% (95% CI: 2.79% to 2.89%, p<0.001); escitalopram oxalate (SSRI antidepressant) discontinuation increased 0.57% (95% CI: 0.561% to 0.578%, p<0.001); and haloperidol (antipsychotic) discontinuation increased 1.49% (95% CI: 1.41% to 1.57%, p<0.001). In contrast, the likelihood of discontinuing tacrolimus (immunosuppressant) decreased 0.15% (95% CI: 0.12% to 0.19%, p<0.001). The likelihood of discontinuing buprenorphine/naloxone (opioid addiction therapy) decreased 0.59% (95% CI: 0.55% to 0.62% decrease, p<0.001). We also observe a notable decline in new patients accessing these latter two therapies. Most US patients were able to access chronic medications during the early months of Covid-19, but still were more likely to discontinue their therapies than in previous months. Further, fewer than normal new patients started taking medications that may be vital to their care. Providers would do well to inquire about adherence and provide prompt, nonjudgmental, re-initiation of medications. From a policy perspective, opioid management programs seem to demonstrate a robust ability to manage existing patients in spite of disruption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services/statistics & numerical data , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Analgesics, Opioid/supply & distribution , Antidepressive Agents/supply & distribution , Antipsychotic Agents/supply & distribution , Central Nervous System Stimulants/supply & distribution , Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal/supply & distribution , Datasets as Topic , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/supply & distribution , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
18.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(2): 1513-1528, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150821

ABSTRACT

The internet of things (IoT) and deep learning are emerging technologies in diverse research fields, including the provision of IT services in medical domains. In the COVID-19 era, intelligent medication behavior monitoring systems for stable patient monitoring are further required, because many patients cannot easily visit hospitals. Several previous studies made use of wearable devices to detect medication behaviors of patients. However, the wearable devices cause inconvenience while equipping the devices. In addition, they suffer from inconsistency problems due to errors of measured values. We devise a medication behavior monitoring system that uses the IoT and deep learning to avoid sensing errors and improve user experiences by effectively detecting various activities of patients. Based on the real-time operation of our proposed IoT device, the proposed solution processes captured images of patents via OpenPose to check medication situations. The proposed system identifies medication status on time by using a human activity recognition scheme and provides various notifications to patients' mobile devices. To support reliable communication between our system and doctors, we employ MQTT protocol with periodic data transmissions. Thus, the measured information of patient's medication status is transmitted to the doctors so that they can periodically perform remote treatments. Experimental results show that all medication behaviors are accurately detected and notified to the doctor efficiently, improving the accuracy of monitoring the patient's medication behavior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Deep Learning , Medication Adherence , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomedical Engineering , Computer Systems , Directly Observed Therapy , Equipment Design , Humans , Internet of Things , Medication Adherence/psychology , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Monitoring, Physiologic/statistics & numerical data , Neural Networks, Computer , Pandemics , Software , Wearable Electronic Devices
20.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(4): 1615-1623, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090270

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: To evaluate treatment adherence and predictors of drug discontinuation among patients with inflammatory arthritis receiving bDMARDs within the first 100 days after the announcement of the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods: A total of 1871 patients recorded in TReasure registry for whom advanced therapy was prescribed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondyloarthritis (SpA) within the 3 months (6­9 months for rituximab) before the declaration of COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated, and 1394 (74.5%) responded to the phone survey. Patients' data regarding demographic, clinical characteristics and disease activity before the pandemic were recorded. The patients were inquired about the diagnosis of COVID-19, the rate of continuation on bDMARDs, the reasons for treatment discontinuation, if any, and the current general disease activity (visual analog scale, [VAS]). Results: A total of 1394 patients (493 RA [47.3% on anti-TNF] patients and 901 SpA [90.0% on anti-TNF] patients) were included in the study. Overall, 2.8% of the patients had symptoms suggesting COVID-19, and 2 (0.15%) patients had PCR-confirmed COVID-19. Overall, 18.1% of all patients (13.8% of the RA and 20.5% of the SpA; p = 0.003) discontinued their bDMARDs. In the SpA group, the patients who discontinued bDMARDs were younger (40 [21­73] vs. 44 years [20­79]; p = 0.005) and had higher general disease activity; however, no difference was relevant for RA patients. Conclusion: Although the COVID-19 was quite uncommon in the first 100 days of the pandemic, nearly one-fifth of the patients discontinued bDMARDs within this period. The long-term effects of the pandemic should be monitored.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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