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1.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 52(2): 336-338, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787134

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Ashwagandha, an Indian Ayurvedic medicine is indicated to prevent COVID-19 infection. Because IL-6 and C-reactive protein are widely measured to determine risk of cytokine storm in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we studied potential interference of ashwagandha on these two assays. Previous studies indicated that ashwagandha may interfere with digoxin assay, so we also studied potential interference with digoxin assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained one ashwagandha product from India (liquid extract) and one product from US (Herb Pharma; liquid extract). We prepared two serum pool each for IL-6, C-reactive protein and digoxin by combining appropriate left-over specimens submitted to our hospital laboratory for such tests. Then aliquots of each pools were supplemented with 10, 25 or 50 µL of ashwagandha extract followed by re-analysis for appropriate analyte and comparing values with original pool. RESULTS: We observed negative interference of ashwagandha with IL-6 assay only (Indian product showed more negative interference) but C-reactive protein assay and digoxin assay were not affected. Negative interference of ashwagandha in IL-6 assay has not been reported before. CONCLUSION: We conclude ashwagandha caused negative interference in IL-6 assay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Withania , C-Reactive Protein , Digoxin , Humans , Immunoassay , Interleukin-6 , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
2.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 8-9, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719343

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to high levels of psychological distress in the general public, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. Such distress is associated with alterations in immune function, including an elevated risk of viral respiratory tract infections. In this light, the possible effects of Ayurveda, a traditional system of medicine promoted by the Indian government as an "immune booster", are examined from the point of view of psychoneuroimmune mechanisms as well as the "meaning response" described by Moerman. It was found that many of the measures advocated in their guidelines could positively influence immunity either by direct effects on symptoms of depression or anxiety, or through their symbolic significance. Therefore, it is possible that such traditional practices could be beneficial both in terms of psychological quality of life, and in terms of moderating the risk of infection.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/immunology , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychoneuroimmunology , Stress, Psychological/immunology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coriandrum , Cuminum , Curcuma , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Garlic , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Plant Preparations , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Spices , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Teas, Herbal , Yoga
3.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211020685, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691167

ABSTRACT

The retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of Ayurveda treatment exposure as an add-on to conventional care in early stage COVID-19 patients admitted at Samaras COVID care center, Ahmedabad, India. Conventional care included Vitamin-c, Azithromycin, and Paracetamol. Ayurveda formulations used as add-on were Dashamula and Pathyadi decoctions along with Trikatu powder, Sanshamani tablet, AYUSH-64 tablet AND Yastimadhu Ghana tablet for oral administration. Considering Add-on Ayurveda medicines as exposure of interest, patients who received Add-on Ayurveda medicines at least for 7 days were included in the exposed group while those who received only conventional care in unexposed group. Data was collected through record review and telephonic interviews. The outcomes of interest were the development of symptoms, duration of symptomatic phase in those progressing to symptomatic stage and mortality. Total 762 participants were included-[541 (71%) in the exposed group and 221 (29%) in the unexposed. Progression to symptomatic phase did not differ significantly between groups [27.6% in exposed, 24.6% in unexposed, adjusted RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.6-1.2]. The total duration of symptomatic phase among those progressing to the symptomatic stage was significantly decreased in the exposed group (x¯ = 3.66 ± 1.55 days in exposed (n = 133); x¯ = 5.34 ± 3.35 days in unexposed (n = 61), p < 0.001). No mortality was observed in either of the groups. Ayurveda Treatment as adjunctive to conventional care reduced the duration of symptomatic phase in early stage COVID-19 as compared to standalone conventional care. Add-on Ayurveda treatment has promising potential for management of early stage COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Complementary Therapies/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
4.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(4): 301-305, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478813

ABSTRACT

As the search for effective treatment for Covid-19 intensifies, traditional medicine systems are receiving increasing attention from researchers as well as the public. While scientific rigour is non-negotiable, there remain fundamental issues to be addressed when bringing evidence from traditional systems. Here we examine some of these issues pertaining to Ayurveda and the underlying philosophical underpinnings, and suggest potential ways to move forward. We find an ability to emerge from the cage of "biomedicalism" and its foundational reductionism essential for appropriate research in Ayurveda. We caution against pursuing research in Ayurveda by just mimicking modern medicine and highlight the need for appropriate use of modern science tools and methods to understand Ayurveda and explore its potential for healthcare. We emphasise the need and potential for transdisciplinary research in Ayurveda. A balance between evidence-based medicine and evidence-informed healthcare is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Medicine, Ayurvedic , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114738, 2022 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466608

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal importance and potential activity of Siddha herbal formulations have proved over several centuries against a wide range of causative agents as Influenza, Dengue, Chikungunya, and Tuberculosis. The traditional medicine system of Siddha is a valuable therapeutic approach for treating viral respiratory infections like Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and can be effectively employed to target the host response and preventive care to boost the immune system. Kaba Sura Kudineer (KSK), an official polyherbal formulation has been used in Siddha traditional medicine for centuries. However, the role of KSK in regulating inflammation and the underlying molecular mechanisms has remained elusive. AIM OF THE STUDY: The goal of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of KSK using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Raw 264.7 murine macrophage cells were used for this study. The Inflammatory mediators and cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The NF-κB nulcear translocation and protein expression of iNOS, COX-2 was analyzed with westernblot. RESULTS: KSK supplementation decreased LPS mediated TLR-4 production and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines including IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2 and PGE-2. Moreover, it inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and thereby inhibited the expression of iNOS in the cell. The Western blot analysis further confirmed that KSK strongly prevented the LPS-induced degradation of IκB which is normally required for the activation of NF-κB and hereby suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB. The protein expression of iNOS, COX-2 was significantly decreased with the presence of KSK treatment. Results suggested that KSK manipulates its anti-inflammatory effects mainly through blocking the TLR mediated NF-κB signal transduction pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Together, this study has proven that KSK could be a potential therapeutic drug for alleviating excessive inflammation in many inflammation-associated diseases like COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Macrophages/drug effects , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , Mice , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Phytotherapy , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , RAW 264.7 Cells , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Trials ; 22(1): 623, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413238

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite several ongoing efforts in biomedicine and traditional medicine, there are no drugs or vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as of May 2020; Kabasura Kudineer (KSK), a polyherbal formulation from India's Siddha system of medicine, has been traditionally used for clinical presentations similar to that of COVID-19. We explored the efficacy of KSK in reducing viral load and preventing the disease progression in asymptomatic, COVID-19 cases. METHODS: A prospective, single-center, open-labeled, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in a COVID Care Centre in Chennai, India. We recruited reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 of 18 to 55 years of age, without clinical symptoms and co-morbidities. They were randomized (1:1 ratio) to KSK (60 mL twice daily for 7 days) or standard of care (7 days supplementation of vitamin C 60,000 IU morning daily and zinc 100 mg evening daily) groups. The primary outcomes were reduction in the SARS-CoV-2 load [as measured by cyclic threshold (CT) value of RT-PCR], prevention of progression of asymptomatic to symptomatic state, and changes in the immunity markers including interleukins (IL-6, IL-10, IL-2), interferon gamma (IFNγ), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF α). Siddha clinical assessment and the occurrence of adverse effects were documented as secondary outcomes. Paired t-test was used in statistical analysis. RESULTS: Viral load in terms of the CT value (RdRp: 95% CI = 1.89 to 5.74) declined significantly on the seventh day in the KSK group and that of the control group, more pronounced in the study group. None progressed to the symptomatic state. There was no significant difference in the biochemical parameters. We did not observe any changes in the Siddha-based clinical examination and adverse events in both groups. CONCLUSION: KSK significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral load among asymptomatic COVID-19 cases and did not record any adverse effect, indicating the use of KSK in the strategy against COVID-19. Larger, multi-centric trials can strengthen the current findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registry of India CTRI2020/05/025215 . Registered on 16 May 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Ascorbic Acid , Dietary Supplements , Humans , India , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Zinc
7.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4456-4484, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355898

ABSTRACT

Traditional Indian medical practices (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and homeopathy) are a vast reservoir of knowledge about medicinal plants. The promising pharmacological properties of these plants have paved the way for developing therapy against novel Coronavirus (CoV) infection. The current review will summarize published works of literature on the effects of traditional Indian medicinal plants against acute respiratory infection (COVID-19, SARS, Influenza, and Respiratory syncytial virus infection) and registered clinical trials of traditional Indian herbal medicines in COVID-19. The current study aims to comprehensively evaluate the data of traditional Indian medicinal plants to warrant their use in COVID-19 management. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched along with different clinical trial databases. A total of 22 relevant traditional Indian medicinal plants (35 relevant studies) were included in the current study having potential antiviral properties against virus-induced respiratory illness along with promising immunomodulatory and thrombolytic properties. Further, 36 randomized and nonrandomized registered clinical trials were also included that were aimed at evaluating the efficacy of herbal plants or their formulations in COVID-19 management. The antiviral, immunomodulatory, and thrombolytic activities of the traditional Indian medicinal plants laid down a strong rationale for their use in developing therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study identified some important potential traditional Indian medicinal herbs such as Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tinospora cordifolia, Achyranthes bidentata, Cinnamomum cassia, Cydonia oblonga, Embelin ribes, Justicia adhatoda, Momordica charantia, Withania somnifera, Zingiber officinale, Camphor, and Kabusura kudineer, which could be used in therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , India , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
8.
Comput Biol Med ; 136: 104683, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333335

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), a viral disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was declared a global pandemic by WHO in 2020. In this scenario, SARS-CoV-2 main protease (COVID-19 Mpro), an enzyme mainly involved in viral replication and transcription is identified as a crucial target for drug discovery. Traditionally used medicinal plants contain a large amount of bioactives and pave a new path to develop drugs and medications for COVID-19. The present study was aimed to examine the potential of Emblica officinalis (amla), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (bhumi amla) and Tinospora cordifolia (giloy) bioactive compounds to inhibit the enzymatic activity of COVID-19 Mpro. In total, 96 bioactive compounds were selected and docked with COVID-19 Mpro and further validated by molecular dynamics study. From the docking and molecular dynamics study, it was revealed that the bioactives namely amritoside, apigenin-6-C-glucosyl7-O-glucoside, pectolinarin and astragalin showed better binding affinities with COVID-19 Mpro. Drug-likeness, ADEMT and bioactivity score prediction of best drug candidates were evaluated by DruLiTo, pkCSM and Molinspiration servers, respectively. Overall, the in silico results confirmed that the validated bioactives could be exploited as promising COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Phyllanthus emblica , Phyllanthus , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tinospora , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Phyllanthus/chemistry , Phyllanthus emblica/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Tinospora/chemistry
9.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4456-4484, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270486

ABSTRACT

Traditional Indian medical practices (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and homeopathy) are a vast reservoir of knowledge about medicinal plants. The promising pharmacological properties of these plants have paved the way for developing therapy against novel Coronavirus (CoV) infection. The current review will summarize published works of literature on the effects of traditional Indian medicinal plants against acute respiratory infection (COVID-19, SARS, Influenza, and Respiratory syncytial virus infection) and registered clinical trials of traditional Indian herbal medicines in COVID-19. The current study aims to comprehensively evaluate the data of traditional Indian medicinal plants to warrant their use in COVID-19 management. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched along with different clinical trial databases. A total of 22 relevant traditional Indian medicinal plants (35 relevant studies) were included in the current study having potential antiviral properties against virus-induced respiratory illness along with promising immunomodulatory and thrombolytic properties. Further, 36 randomized and nonrandomized registered clinical trials were also included that were aimed at evaluating the efficacy of herbal plants or their formulations in COVID-19 management. The antiviral, immunomodulatory, and thrombolytic activities of the traditional Indian medicinal plants laid down a strong rationale for their use in developing therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study identified some important potential traditional Indian medicinal herbs such as Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tinospora cordifolia, Achyranthes bidentata, Cinnamomum cassia, Cydonia oblonga, Embelin ribes, Justicia adhatoda, Momordica charantia, Withania somnifera, Zingiber officinale, Camphor, and Kabusura kudineer, which could be used in therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , India , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
10.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0248479, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266543

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic in a very short time span. Currently, there is no specific treatment or vaccine to counter this highly contagious disease. There is an urgent need to find a specific cure for the disease and global efforts are directed at developing SARS-CoV-2 specific antivirals and immunomodulators. Ayurvedic Rasayana therapy has been traditionally used in India for its immunomodulatory and adaptogenic effects, and more recently has been included as therapeutic adjuvant for several maladies. Amongst several others, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) and Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) play an important role in Rasayana therapy. The objective of this study was to explore the immunomodulatory and anti SARS-CoV2 potential of phytoconstituents from Ashwagandha, Guduchi and Shatavari using network pharmacology and docking. The plant extracts were prepared as per ayurvedic procedures and a total of 31 phytoconstituents were identified using UHPLC-PDA and mass spectrometry studies. To assess the immunomodulatory potential of these phytoconstituents an in-silico network pharmacology model was constructed. The model predicts that the phytoconstituents possess the potential to modulate several targets in immune pathways potentially providing a protective role. To explore if these phytoconstituents also possess antiviral activity, docking was performed with the Spike protein, Main Protease and RNA dependent RNA polymerase of the virus. Interestingly, several phytoconstituents are predicted to possess good affinity for the three targets, suggesting their application for the termination of viral life cycle. Further, predictive tools indicate that there would not be adverse herb-drug pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic interactions with concomitantly administered drug therapy. We thus make a compelling case to evaluate the potential of these Rasayana botanicals as therapeutic adjuvants in the management of COVID-19 following rigorous experimental validation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Asparagus Plant/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Plant Extracts/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Tinospora/chemistry , Withania/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Herb-Drug Interactions , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacokinetics , India , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacokinetics , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
11.
J Sep Sci ; 44(16): 3146-3157, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260558

ABSTRACT

Divya-Swasari-Vati is a calcium containing polyherbal ayurvedic medicine prescribed for the lung-related ailments observed in the current pandemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 infections. The formulation is a unique quintessential blend of nine herbs cited in Ayurvedic texts for chronic cough and lung infection. Analytical standardization of herbal medicines is the pressing need of the hour to ascertain the quality compliance. This persuaded us to develop a simple, rapid, and selective high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for Divya-Swasari-Vati quality standardization. The developed method was validated for the quantification of marker components, gallic acid, cinnamic acid, piperine, eugenol and glycyrrhizin, against reference standards in five different batches of Divya-Swasari-Vati. The analytes were identified by visualization at 254 nm, and by matching their retention factor with authentic standards. The developed method was validated as per the guidelines recommended by the International Council for Harmonization for parameters like, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, and precision. Therefore, the developed novel high-performance thin-layer chromatographic process could be employed for rapid standardization of Divya-Swasari-Vati and other related herbal formulation, which would aid in quality manufacturing and product development.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/analysis , Benzodioxoles/analysis , Cinnamates/analysis , Eugenol/analysis , Gallic Acid/analysis , Glycyrrhizic Acid/analysis , Piperidines/analysis , Plant Extracts/analysis , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/analysis , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Benzodioxoles/therapeutic use , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Cinnamates/therapeutic use , Eugenol/therapeutic use , Gallic Acid/therapeutic use , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Molecular Structure , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/therapeutic use
12.
J Complement Integr Med ; 19(1): 71-82, 2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232485

ABSTRACT

Human-to-human transmission of the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurs most often when people are in the incubation stage of the disease or are carriers and have no symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 transmission on different levels showed that the cold and dry climate, hot wind and relative humid wind, maximum wind speed, turbulent wind, intensified recirculating flow were causing transmission higher than factors. The role of environmental factors described in Ayurveda like air, water, soil, season, frequent earthquakes, sunlight exposure, frequent thunderstorm with lightening, and factors from arthropods were revalidated in perspective of COVID-19 transmission. The authors searched the information regarding epidemic diseases in Ayurveda textbooks. Pubmed, Science Direct, Wikipedia, Elsevier, Lancet, and Springer were approached for the latest knowledge relating to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Google Scholar search engine was thoroughly checked upon for scientific evidence regarding the Ayurveda drugs. Various environmental factors like soil, air, water, frequent earthquake disasters, wildlife animals, aquatic birds, space, inevitable disastrous factors, weather or seasonal hazards, violent thunderstorm with lightning, intermediate hosts, sunlight exposure etc. were considered for their role in the genesis of the disease. The Ayurvedic concepts behind the etiology and development of epidemics are the same as modern epidemiological theories. The mysteries of many aspects of the current pandemic might be deciphered by traditional medicine knowledge and thus adding upon to the integrative medicine concept.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Medicine, Ayurvedic , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 95, 2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report a high-risk case of a coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)-positive patient with comorbidities including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), hypothyroidism and chronic kidney disease (CKD), treated successfully using an integrative therapy plan based on Ayurveda and Yoga, along with government-mandated compulsory modern western medicine (MWM) treatment. Recently, some evidence has been emerging on the use of Ayurveda for treatment of COVID-19. The classical texts of Ayurvedic medicine such as Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita contain descriptions of pandemics of similar proportions and describe them as Janapadoddhvansa, meaning the destruction of communities, along with their causes and treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: The case reported herein is a 55-year-old man from Delhi, India, with confirmed (tested) COVID-19, who first took MWM for 7 days before seeking integrative therapy. The patient has comorbidities including DM, HTN, hypothyroidism and CKD and had developed symptoms including fever (which was resolved by the time integrative therapy was started), sore throat, dry cough, body aches, weakness, bad taste and smell, and heaviness in the abdomen. Based on the patient's symptoms and comorbidities, a treatment plan including Ayurvedic medicines, Yoga protocol, dietary recommendations and lifestyle modifications was prescribed by a registered Ayurveda doctor and a Yoga consultant. The patient started experiencing improvement in all the symptoms within 2 days after starting the treatment; he reported approximately [Formula: see text] relief from the symptoms after 5 days, and almost complete relief within 9 days. Also, the blood sugar levels (both fasting blood sugar [FBS] and postprandial blood sugar [PPBS]) exhibited significant improvement after 5 days, and decreased to within the normal range within 12 days. Besides relief in symptoms, the patient's real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test done on the 19th day returned negative results. CONCLUSIONS: Integrative therapy was found to be effective in mitigating the symptoms of COVID-19 in this patient with multiple comorbidities. Moreover, a significant improvement in blood sugar levels (not under control with modern medicine) was also achieved. Integrative therapy based on the classical texts of Ayurveda and Yoga may offer a promising and scalable treatment option for COVID-19 patients. A case series or a suitably designed randomized controlled trial is needed to assess its efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Integrative Medicine/methods , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Yoga , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/therapy , Hypothyroidism/complications , Hypothyroidism/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Treatment Outcome
14.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 27(S1): 12-17, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089429

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: The concept of Prakriti is unique to Ayurveda, which is used for deciding the preventive and curative strategy to be adopted in the treatment of patients. It is the total of anatomical, physiological, and psychological domains of an individual. The diseases often manifest by susceptibility that depends upon Prakriti of individuals. COVID 19 is a new disease, where the status of the susceptibility of its victim in terms of Prakriti is not known. This study has been undertaken to determine the Prakriti of COVID 19 positive patients. METHOD: The validated instrument CCRAS Prakriti assessment scale has been applied to the COVID 19 positive patients admitted between 16 May 2020 to 10 June 2020 at COVID hospital. RESULT: Data of 117 patients aged 10 to 80 years have been analyzed. The ratio of male-female patients was 1.8:1. Most patients belonged to Vata-KaphaPrakriti (27%).Individuals with their Prakriti found in order of frequency were Pitta-Kapha (21%), Kapha (20%), Vata (13%), Vata-Pitta (11%), Sama (4%) and Pitta (3%). CONCLUSION: Patients with Vata-Kapha, Pitta-Kapha, and Kapha dominant Prakriti have been found more in COVID19. The treatment strategies can be accordingly decided in respect of each patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
Trials ; 22(1): 130, 2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084076

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives of the study are to determine the effectiveness of the Kaba Sura Kudineer (KSK) & Nilavembu Kudineer (NVK) along with standard Allopathy Treatment to compared with Placebo (Decaffeinated Tea) with standard Allopathy Treatment in the management of Symptomatic COVID 19 patients and also in reduction of Hospital Stay Time & Changes in Immunological (IL6) and Bio Chemical Markers (Ferritin, CRP, D-Dimer and LDH). The secondary objectives are to evaluate the safety of the trial medicines and their effects in the reduce the risks of the disease. In addition, to document the profile of Symptomatic COVID 19 patients as per Siddha Principles. TRIAL DESIGN: A Double Blinded, Three arm, Single Centre, Placebo Controlled, Exploratory and comparative Randomized Controlled Trial PARTICIPANTS: Patients who were admitted to the COVID Care Centre at Govt. Institute of Medical Sciences. Noida in India will be recruited. These will be patients with Mild and Moderate symptoms with laboratory confirmed COVID 19 (RT - PCR Tested Positive) aged 18-65, willing and consenting to participate. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Arm I: Decaffeinated Tea (Placebo - similar in taste and appearance to the other Two Decoctions), 60 Ml Morning and Night after Food, along with standard Allopathy Treatment for 10 days. Arm II: Nilavembu Kudineer (The Siddha Medicines which is used as a standard Anti-Viral drug for the past Pandemics by Siddha Physicians) 60 Ml Morning and Night after Food, along with standard Allopathy Treatment for 10 days. Arm III: Kaba Sura Kudineer (The Siddha Medicine which is proposed to be used as a Treatment for COVID 19 based on Siddha Literature) 60 Ml Morning and Night after Food, along with standard Allopathy Treatment for 10 days. The investigational drugs are registered products under the Govt.of India and bought from GMP Certified Manufacturing Units. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes: 1. Reduction in Viral load of SARS-CoV-2 at the end of treatment (10 days). 2. Time taken to convert Patient from symptomatic to Asymptomatic based on Reduction in clinical symptoms (10 days). 3. Effect of drugs inflammatory markers (IL6,) at the end of treatment (10 days). 4. Reduction in hospital stay time (20 days follow up). (Based on RT PCR CT Value 3rd, 6th if needed 10th day). (Based on IL 6 Value needed 10th day or IL6 value on turning negative. (entry level/exit level). Secondary outcomes (10 days): 1. Reduction in use of Intensive Supportive Care. 2. Reduction in incidence of complications (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, other systemic complications). 3. MuLBSTA score for viral pneumonia (multinodular infiltration, hypo-lymphocytosis, bacterial co infection, Total Leucocyte Count (TLC ≤ 0.8 x 109/L), smoking history, hyper-tension and age) score. 4. Laboratory markers (Haematological & Biochemical Markers). 5. Adverse events/effects Siddha-based measurements. 6. Siddha Udaliyal assessment by using Yakkai Ilakkanam (YI) Tool to diagnose body condition for covid-19 patients. RANDOMISATION: The assignment of the participants into 3 Groups will be allocated in 1:1:1 Ratio through randomization Blocks in Microsoft Excel by a Statistician who is not involved in the study. The allocation scheme will be made by another statistician by using a closed envelope after the assessment of eligibility and Informed consent procedures. The groups will be balanced for age and sex with 3:1 Ratio in each group for mild: severe COVID-19 symptoms. BLINDING: The Study is Double Blinded. Participants and Investigators were blinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): Sample size could not be calculated, Since there are no prior trials on KSK and NVK as a comparative trial. In addition, there are no prior trials on KSK and NVK in this region. A total Number of 120 Patients, 40 each in 3 groups will be recruited in 1:1:1 Ratio. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Number : SCRUND GIMS Noida Study 1,Version: 2.0 Protocol Date : 20.08.2020 The recruitment period is completed for the trial. The Trial started its recruitment on 22.8.2020. We anticipate study including data analysis will finish in January 2021. This is to state that it was a late submission from authors for publication of the protocol to the BMC, after enrolment in the study was over. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial protocol was registered with CTRI (Clinical Trial Registry of India) and number is CTRI/2020/08/027286 on 21.08.2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full Protocol is attached as an additional file, Accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated. This letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The Study protocol has been reported in accordance with the SPIRIT guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Double-Blind Method , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 890: 173741, 2021 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071295

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a new beta coronavirus that emerged in Wuhan, China. Being primarily a respiratory disease, it is highly transmissible through both direct and indirect contacts. It displays a range of symptoms in different individuals and thus has been grouped into mild, moderate, and severe diseases. The virus utilizes spike proteins present on its surface to recognize ACE-2 receptors present on the host cells to enter the cell cytoplasm and replicate. The viral invasion of cells induces damage response, pyroptosis, infiltration of immune cells, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (cytokine storm), and activation of the adaptive immune system. Depending on viral load and host factors like age and underlying medical conditions, the immune responses mounted against SARS-CoV-2 may cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ failure, and death. In this review, we specify and justify both viral and host therapeutic targets that can be modulated to relieve the symptoms and treat the disease. Furthermore, we discuss vaccine development in the time of pandemic and the most promising vaccine candidates by far, according to WHO database. Finally, we discuss the conventional re-purposed drugs and potential alternative treatments as adjuvants.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Repositioning , Epidemics , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Vaccines
18.
Phytomedicine ; 84: 153494, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Specific treatment for COVID-19 is still an unmet need. Outcomes of clinical trials on repurposed drugs have not been yielding success. Therefore, it is necessary to include complementary approaches of medicine against COVID-19. PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the impact of traditional Indian Ayurvedic treatment regime on asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 infection. STUDY DESIGN: It is a placebo controlled randomized double-blind pilot clinical trial. METHODS: The study was registered with Clinical Trial Registry-India (vide Registration No. CTRI/2020/05/025273) and conducted at the Department of Medicine in National Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jaipur, India. 1 g of Giloy Ghanvati (Tinospora cordifolia) and 2 g of Swasari Ras (traditional herbo-mineral formulation) and 0.5 g each of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) and Tulsi Ghanvati (Ocimum sanctum) were given orally to the patients in treatment group twice per day for 7 days. Medicines were given in the form of tablets and each tablet weighed 500 mg. While, Swasari Ras was administered in powdered form, 30 min before breakfasts and dinners, rest were scheduled for 30 min post-meals. Patients in the treatment group also received 4 drops of Anu taila (traditional nasal drop) in each nostril every day 1 h before breakfast. Patients in the placebo group received identical-looking tablets and drops, post randomization and double blinded assortments. RT-qPCR test was used for the detection of viral load in the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab samples of study participants during the study. Chemiluminescent immunometric assay was used to quantify serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) on day 1 and day 7 of the study. RESULTS: By day 3, 71.1 % and 50.0 % patients recovered in the treatment and placebo groups, respectively. Treatment group witnessed 100 % recovery by day 7, while it was 60.0 % in the placebo group. Average fold changes in serum levels of hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in treatment group were respectively, 12.4, 2.5 and 20 times lesser than those in the placebo group at day 7. There was 40 % absolute reduction in the risk of delayed recovery from infection in the treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: Ayurvedic treatment can expedite virological clearance, help in faster recovery and concomitantly reduce the risk of viral dissemination. Reduced inflammation markers suggested less severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the treatment group. Moreover, there was no adverse effect observed to be associated with this treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Double-Blind Method , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111356, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062250

ABSTRACT

All the plants and their secondary metabolites used in the present study were obtained from Ayurveda, with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent. The selected secondary metabolites have been experimentally validated and reported as potent antiviral agents against genetically-close human viruses. The plants have also been used as a folk medicine to treat cold, cough, asthma, bronchitis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome in India and across the globe since time immemorial. The present study aimed to assess the repurposing possibility of potent antiviral compounds with SARS-CoV-2 target proteins and also with host-specific receptor and activator protease that facilitates the viral entry into the host body. Molecular docking (MDc) was performed to study molecular affinities of antiviral compounds with aforesaid target proteins. The top-scoring conformations identified through docking analysis were further validated by 100 ns molecular dynamic (MD) simulation run. The stability of the conformation was studied in detail by investigating the binding free energy using MM-PBSA method. Finally, the binding affinities of all the compounds were also compared with a reference ligand, remdesivir, against the target protein RdRp. Additionally, pharmacophore features, 3D structure alignment of potent compounds and Bayesian machine learning model were also used to support the MDc and MD simulation. Overall, the study emphasized that curcumin possesses a strong binding ability with host-specific receptors, furin and ACE2. In contrast, gingerol has shown strong interactions with spike protein, and RdRp and quercetin with main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. In fact, all these target proteins play an essential role in mediating viral replication, and therefore, compounds targeting aforesaid target proteins are expected to block the viral replication and transcription. Overall, gingerol, curcumin and quercetin own multitarget binding ability that can be used alone or in combination to enhance therapeutic efficacy against COVID-19. The obtained results encourage further in vitro and in vivo investigations and also support the traditional use of antiviral plants preventively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catechols/pharmacology , Curcumin/pharmacology , Fatty Alcohols/pharmacology , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(2)2021 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049043

ABSTRACT

In our increasingly stressed world, especially with the COVID-19 pandemic, the activation of the threat network in everyday situations can adversely affect our mental and physical health. Neurophysiological response to these threats/challenges depends on the type of challenge and the individual's neuroadaptability. Neuroadaptability is defined as the ability of the nervous system to alter responsiveness over time to reoccurring stimuli. Neuroadaptability differs from neuroplasticity, which is more inclusive and refers to the ability of the nervous system to change and learn from any experience. We examine neuroadaptability and how it affects health from the perspective of modern medicine and Ayurveda.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Habits , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Humans , Medicine, Ayurvedic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Stress, Psychological/psychology
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