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1.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211020685, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691167

ABSTRACT

The retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of Ayurveda treatment exposure as an add-on to conventional care in early stage COVID-19 patients admitted at Samaras COVID care center, Ahmedabad, India. Conventional care included Vitamin-c, Azithromycin, and Paracetamol. Ayurveda formulations used as add-on were Dashamula and Pathyadi decoctions along with Trikatu powder, Sanshamani tablet, AYUSH-64 tablet AND Yastimadhu Ghana tablet for oral administration. Considering Add-on Ayurveda medicines as exposure of interest, patients who received Add-on Ayurveda medicines at least for 7 days were included in the exposed group while those who received only conventional care in unexposed group. Data was collected through record review and telephonic interviews. The outcomes of interest were the development of symptoms, duration of symptomatic phase in those progressing to symptomatic stage and mortality. Total 762 participants were included-[541 (71%) in the exposed group and 221 (29%) in the unexposed. Progression to symptomatic phase did not differ significantly between groups [27.6% in exposed, 24.6% in unexposed, adjusted RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.6-1.2]. The total duration of symptomatic phase among those progressing to the symptomatic stage was significantly decreased in the exposed group (x¯ = 3.66 ± 1.55 days in exposed (n = 133); x¯ = 5.34 ± 3.35 days in unexposed (n = 61), p < 0.001). No mortality was observed in either of the groups. Ayurveda Treatment as adjunctive to conventional care reduced the duration of symptomatic phase in early stage COVID-19 as compared to standalone conventional care. Add-on Ayurveda treatment has promising potential for management of early stage COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Complementary Therapies/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
2.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0248479, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266543

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic in a very short time span. Currently, there is no specific treatment or vaccine to counter this highly contagious disease. There is an urgent need to find a specific cure for the disease and global efforts are directed at developing SARS-CoV-2 specific antivirals and immunomodulators. Ayurvedic Rasayana therapy has been traditionally used in India for its immunomodulatory and adaptogenic effects, and more recently has been included as therapeutic adjuvant for several maladies. Amongst several others, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) and Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) play an important role in Rasayana therapy. The objective of this study was to explore the immunomodulatory and anti SARS-CoV2 potential of phytoconstituents from Ashwagandha, Guduchi and Shatavari using network pharmacology and docking. The plant extracts were prepared as per ayurvedic procedures and a total of 31 phytoconstituents were identified using UHPLC-PDA and mass spectrometry studies. To assess the immunomodulatory potential of these phytoconstituents an in-silico network pharmacology model was constructed. The model predicts that the phytoconstituents possess the potential to modulate several targets in immune pathways potentially providing a protective role. To explore if these phytoconstituents also possess antiviral activity, docking was performed with the Spike protein, Main Protease and RNA dependent RNA polymerase of the virus. Interestingly, several phytoconstituents are predicted to possess good affinity for the three targets, suggesting their application for the termination of viral life cycle. Further, predictive tools indicate that there would not be adverse herb-drug pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic interactions with concomitantly administered drug therapy. We thus make a compelling case to evaluate the potential of these Rasayana botanicals as therapeutic adjuvants in the management of COVID-19 following rigorous experimental validation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Asparagus Plant/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Plant Extracts/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Tinospora/chemistry , Withania/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Herb-Drug Interactions , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacokinetics , India , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacokinetics , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 95, 2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report a high-risk case of a coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)-positive patient with comorbidities including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), hypothyroidism and chronic kidney disease (CKD), treated successfully using an integrative therapy plan based on Ayurveda and Yoga, along with government-mandated compulsory modern western medicine (MWM) treatment. Recently, some evidence has been emerging on the use of Ayurveda for treatment of COVID-19. The classical texts of Ayurvedic medicine such as Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita contain descriptions of pandemics of similar proportions and describe them as Janapadoddhvansa, meaning the destruction of communities, along with their causes and treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: The case reported herein is a 55-year-old man from Delhi, India, with confirmed (tested) COVID-19, who first took MWM for 7 days before seeking integrative therapy. The patient has comorbidities including DM, HTN, hypothyroidism and CKD and had developed symptoms including fever (which was resolved by the time integrative therapy was started), sore throat, dry cough, body aches, weakness, bad taste and smell, and heaviness in the abdomen. Based on the patient's symptoms and comorbidities, a treatment plan including Ayurvedic medicines, Yoga protocol, dietary recommendations and lifestyle modifications was prescribed by a registered Ayurveda doctor and a Yoga consultant. The patient started experiencing improvement in all the symptoms within 2 days after starting the treatment; he reported approximately [Formula: see text] relief from the symptoms after 5 days, and almost complete relief within 9 days. Also, the blood sugar levels (both fasting blood sugar [FBS] and postprandial blood sugar [PPBS]) exhibited significant improvement after 5 days, and decreased to within the normal range within 12 days. Besides relief in symptoms, the patient's real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test done on the 19th day returned negative results. CONCLUSIONS: Integrative therapy was found to be effective in mitigating the symptoms of COVID-19 in this patient with multiple comorbidities. Moreover, a significant improvement in blood sugar levels (not under control with modern medicine) was also achieved. Integrative therapy based on the classical texts of Ayurveda and Yoga may offer a promising and scalable treatment option for COVID-19 patients. A case series or a suitably designed randomized controlled trial is needed to assess its efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Integrative Medicine/methods , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Yoga , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/therapy , Hypothyroidism/complications , Hypothyroidism/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Treatment Outcome
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111356, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062250

ABSTRACT

All the plants and their secondary metabolites used in the present study were obtained from Ayurveda, with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent. The selected secondary metabolites have been experimentally validated and reported as potent antiviral agents against genetically-close human viruses. The plants have also been used as a folk medicine to treat cold, cough, asthma, bronchitis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome in India and across the globe since time immemorial. The present study aimed to assess the repurposing possibility of potent antiviral compounds with SARS-CoV-2 target proteins and also with host-specific receptor and activator protease that facilitates the viral entry into the host body. Molecular docking (MDc) was performed to study molecular affinities of antiviral compounds with aforesaid target proteins. The top-scoring conformations identified through docking analysis were further validated by 100 ns molecular dynamic (MD) simulation run. The stability of the conformation was studied in detail by investigating the binding free energy using MM-PBSA method. Finally, the binding affinities of all the compounds were also compared with a reference ligand, remdesivir, against the target protein RdRp. Additionally, pharmacophore features, 3D structure alignment of potent compounds and Bayesian machine learning model were also used to support the MDc and MD simulation. Overall, the study emphasized that curcumin possesses a strong binding ability with host-specific receptors, furin and ACE2. In contrast, gingerol has shown strong interactions with spike protein, and RdRp and quercetin with main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. In fact, all these target proteins play an essential role in mediating viral replication, and therefore, compounds targeting aforesaid target proteins are expected to block the viral replication and transcription. Overall, gingerol, curcumin and quercetin own multitarget binding ability that can be used alone or in combination to enhance therapeutic efficacy against COVID-19. The obtained results encourage further in vitro and in vivo investigations and also support the traditional use of antiviral plants preventively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catechols/pharmacology , Curcumin/pharmacology , Fatty Alcohols/pharmacology , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
6.
Trials ; 21(1): 892, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895025

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives of this study are to determine efficacy of Siddha medicine, Kabasura kudineer in reduction of SARS-CoV-2 viral load and reducing the onset of symptoms in asymptomatic COVID-19 when compared to Vitamin C and Zinc (CZ) supplementation. In addition, the trial will examine the changes in the immunological markers of the Siddha medicine against control. The secondary objectives of the trial are to evaluate the safety of the Siddha medicine and to document clinical profile of asymptomatic COVID-19 as per principles of Siddha system of Medicine. TRIAL DESIGN: A single centre, open-label, parallel group (1:1 allocation ratio), exploratory randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Cases admitted at non-hospital settings designated as COVID Care Centre and managed by the State Government Stanley Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India will be recruited. Eligible participants will be those tested positive for COVID-19 by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain reaction (RT-PCR) aged 18 to 55 years without any symptoms and co-morbidities like diabetes mellitus, hypertension and bronchial asthma. Those pregnant or lactating, with severe respiratory disease, already participating in COVID trials and with severe illness like malignancy will be excluded. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Adopting traditional methods, decoction of Kabasura kudineer will be prepared by boiling 5g of KSK powder in 240 ml water and reduced to one-fourth (60ml) and filtered. The KSK group will receive a dose of 60ml decoction, orally in the morning and evening after food for 14 days. The control group will receive Vitamin C (60000 IU) and Zinc tablets (100mg) orally in the morning and evening respectively for 14 days. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcomes are the reduction in the SARS-CoV-2 load [as measured by cyclic threshold (CT) value of RT-PCR] from the baseline to that of seventh day of the treatment, prevention of progression of asymptomatic to symptomatic state (clinical symptoms like fever, cough and breathlessness) and changes in the immunity markers [Interleukins (IL) 6, IL10, IL2, Interferon gamma (IFNγ) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) alpha]. Clinical assessment of COVID-19 as per standard Siddha system of medicine principles and the occurrence of adverse effects will be documented as secondary outcomes. RANDOMISATION: The assignment to the study or control group will be allocated in equal numbers through randomization using random number generation in Microsoft Excel by a statistician who is not involved in the trial. The allocation scheme will be made by an independent statistician using a sealed envelope. The participants will be allocated immediately after the eligibility assessment and informed consent procedures. BLINDING (MASKING): This study is unblinded. The investigators will be blinded to data analysis, which will be carried out by a statistician who is not involved in the trial. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): Sample size could not be calculated, as there is no prior trial on KSK. This trial will be a pilot trial. Hence, we intend to recruit 60 participants in total using a 1:1 allocation ratio, with 30 participants randomised into each arm. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 2.0 dated 16th May 2020. Recruitment is completed. The trial started recruitment on the 25th May 2020. We anticipate study including data analysis will finish on November 2020. We also stated that protocol was submitted before the end of data collection TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol was registered with clinical trial registry of India (CTRI) with CTRI/2020/05/025215 on 16 May 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Zinc , Adult , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Asymptomatic Infections/therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , India , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load/methods , Zinc/administration & dosage , Zinc/adverse effects
7.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 22(7): 906-919, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704197

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV 2 is a novel virus strain of Coronavirus, reported in China in late December 2019. Its highly contagious nature in humans has prompted WHO to designate the ongoing pandemic as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. At this moment, there is no specific treatment and the therapeutic strategies to deal with the infection are only supportive, with prevention aimed at reducing community transmission. A permanent solution for the pandemic, which has brought the world economy to the edge of collapse, is the need of the hour. This situation has brought intense research in traditional systems of medicine. Indian Traditional System, Ayurveda, has a clear concept of the cause and treatment of pandemics. Through this review, information on the potential antiviral traditional medicines along with their immunomodulatory pathways are discussed. We have covered the seven most important Indian traditional plants with antiviral properties: Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (family: Solanaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers (family: Menispermaceae), Phyllanthus emblica L. (family: Euphorbiaceae), Asparagus racemosus L. (family: Liliaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (family: Fabaceae), Ocimum sanctum L. (family: Lamiaceae) and Azadirachta indica A. Juss (family: Meliaceae) in this review. An attempt is also made to bring into limelight the importance of dietary polyphenol, Quercetin, which is a potential drug candidate in the making against the SARS-CoV2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tinospora , Withania
8.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S105-S107, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-555434

ABSTRACT

There is a lot of discussion on COVID-19 control strategies from the mainstream approaches, but it is also necessary to examine the contributions of the Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sowa Riga and Homeopathy (AYUSH) sector, which is now being brought into public health interventions nationally. Although the AYUSH sector had previously joined the management of dengue and chikungunya outbreaks in some Indian states, its participation has remained contentious and there is reluctance in mainstream public health discourses to seriously examine their interventions. This is a commentary on the efforts made by the Ministry of AYUSH, state AYUSH directorates, AYUSH research institutions, and public hospitals, based on official documents as well as official statements reported in the media, with the aim of bringing out concerns in the process of adapting traditional textual knowledge and practices to public health requirements of the current age.


Subject(s)
Complementary Therapies/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Homeopathy/methods , Humans , India/epidemiology , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Naturopathy/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Yoga
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