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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(25): e20660, 2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness that can spread from person to person. The virus that causes COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus that was first identified during an investigation into an outbreak in Wuhan, China. The clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection appears to be wide, encompassing asymptomatic infection, mild upper respiratory tract illness, and severe viral pneumonia with respiratory failure and even death, with many patients being hospitalised with pneumonia. In China and East Asia, Chinese medicine has been widely used to treat diverse diseases for thousands of years. As an important means of treatment now, Chinese medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of respiratory diseases in China. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine for COVID-19. METHODS: We will search the following sources for the identification of trials: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (VIP), and the Wanfang Database. All the above databases will be searched from the available date of inception until the latest issue. No language or publication restriction will be used. Randomized controlled trials will be included if they recruited participants with COVID-19 for assessing the effect of Chinese medicine vs control (placebo, no treatment, and other therapeutic agents). Primary outcomes will include chest CT and nucleic acid detection of respiratory samples. Two authors will independently scan the articles searched, extract the data from articles included, and assess the risk of bias by Cochrane tool of risk of bias. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus or the involvement of a third party. All analysis will be performed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Dichotomous variables will be reported as risk ratio or odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and continuous variables will be summarized as mean difference or standard mean difference with 95% CIs. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The available evidence of the treatment of COVID-19 with traditional Chinese medicine will be summarized, and evaluation of the efficacy and the adverse effects of these treatments will be made. This review will be disseminated in print by peer-review.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/adverse effects , Pandemics
3.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 70(5): 342-348, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-4187

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronavirus, 2019_nCoV (now named SARS-CoV-2), illustrated difficulties in identifying a novel coronavirus and its natural host, as the coding sequences of various Betacoronavirus species can be highly diverse. By means of whole-genome sequence comparisons, we demonstrate that the noncoding flanks of the viral genome can be used to correctly separate the recognized four betacoronavirus subspecies. The conservation would be sufficient to define target sequences that could, in theory, classify novel virus species into their subspecies. Only 253 upstream noncoding sequences of Sarbecovirus are sufficient to identify genetic similarities between species of this subgenus. Furthermore, it was investigated which bat species have commercial value in China, and would thus likely be handled for trading purposes. A number of coronavirus genomes have been published that were obtained from such bat species. These bats are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, and their handling poses a potential risk to cause zoonotic coronavirus epidemics. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The noncoding upstream and downstream flanks of coronavirus genomes allow for rapid classification of novel Betacoronavirus species and correct identification of genetic relationships. Although bats are the likely natural host of 2019_nCoV, the exact bat species that serves as the natural host of the virus remains as yet unknown. Chinese bat species with commercial value were identified as natural reservoirs of coronaviruses and are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Since their trading provides a potential risk for spreading zoonoses, a change in these practices is highly recommended.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/classification , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/adverse effects , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Chiroptera/classification , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology
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