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2.
Virol J ; 18(1): 121, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262511

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread to many countries around the world. In addition to lung disease, severe cases also displayed varying degrees of liver injury. This article will describe the latest developments regarding coronavirus and the pathogenesis of liver injury, the prone population and clinical characteristics of these patients, as well as providing some suggestions for clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/therapy , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/adverse effects
3.
Pharmacol Ther ; 225: 107843, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211101

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has remained an uncontained, worldwide pandemic. While battling for the disease in China, six Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) recipes have been shown to be remarkably effective for treating patients with COVID-19. The present review discusses principles of TCM in curing infectious disease, and clinical evidence and mechanisms of the 6 most effective TCM recipes used in treating COVID-19 in 92% of all of the confirmed cases in China. Applications of TCM and specific recipes in the treatment of other viral infections, such as those caused by SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, influenza A virus (including H1N1 and H7N9), influenza B, dengue virus as well as Ebola virus, are also discussed. Among the 6 TCM recipes, Jinhua Qinggan (JHQG) granules and Lianhua Qingwen (LHQW) capsules are recommended during medical observation; Lung Cleansing and Detoxifying Decoction (LCDD) is recommended for the treatment of both severe and non-severe patients; Xuanfeibaidu (XFBD) granules are recommended for treating moderate cases; while Huashibaidu (HSBD) and Xuebijing (XBJ) have been used in managing severe cases effectively. The common components and the active ingredients of the six TCM recipes have been summarized to reveal most promising drug candidates. The potential molecular mechanisms of the active ingredients in the six TCM recipes that target ACE2, 3CLpro and IL-6, revealed by molecular biological studies and/or network pharmacology prediction/molecular docking analysis/visualization analysis, are fully discussed. Therefore, further investigation of these TCM recipes may be of high translational value in enabling novel targeted therapies for COVID-19, potentially via purification and characterization of the active ingredients in the effective TCM recipes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
4.
Vet Rec ; 186(19): 653, 2020 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147445

ABSTRACT

Ben Sturgeon argues that the rise in unregulated wet markets and traditional Chinese medicine production will potentially lead to further disease outbreaks and loss of important animal populations.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/adverse effects , Veterinarians/psychology , Animals , Forecasting , Humans , United Kingdom/epidemiology
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 272: 113957, 2021 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096053

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan has imposed a huge influence in terms of public health and economy on society. However, no effective drugs or vaccines have been developed so far. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been considered as a promising supplementary treatment of this disease due to its clinically proven performance in many severe diseases, like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Meanwhile, many reports suggest that the side-effects (SE) of TCM prescriptions cannot be ignored in treating COVID-19 as it often leads to dramatic degradation of the patients' physical condition. Systematic evaluation of TCM regarding its latent SE becomes a burning issue. AIM: In this study, we used an ontology-based side-effect prediction framework (OSPF) developed from our previous work and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based deep learning, to evaluate the TCM prescriptions officially recommended by China for the treatment of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The OSPF developed from our previous work was implemented in this study, where an ontology-based model separated all ingredients in a TCM prescription into two categories: hot and cold. A database was created by converting each TCM prescription into a vector which contained ingredient dosages, corresponding hot/cold attribution and safe/unsafe labels. This allowed for training of the ANN model. A safety indicator (SI), as a complement to SE possibility, was then assigned to each TCM prescription. According to the proposed SI, from high to low, the recommended prescription list could be optimized. Furthermore, in interest of expanding the potential treatment options, SIs of other well-known TCM prescriptions, which are not included in the recommended list but are used traditionally to cure flu-like diseases, are also evaluated via this method. RESULTS: Based on SI, QFPD-T, HSBD-F, PMSP, GCT-CJ, SF-ZSY, and HSYF-F were the safest treatments in the recommended list, with SI scores over 0.8. PESP, QYLX-F, JHQG-KL, SFJD-JN, SHL-KFY, PESP1, XBJ-ZSY, HSZF-F, PSSP2, FFTS-W, and NHSQ-W were the prescriptions most likely to be unsafe, with SI scores below 0.1. In the additional lists of other TCM prescriptions, the indicators of XC-T, SQRS-S, CC-J, and XFBD-F were all above 0.8, while QF-Y, XZXS-S, BJ-S, KBD-CJ, and QWJD-T's indicators were all below 0.1. CONCLUSIONS: In total, there were 10 TCM prescriptions with indicators over 0.8, suggesting that they could be considered in treating COVID-19, if suitable. We believe this work could provide reasonable suggestions for choosing proper TCM prescriptions as a supplementary treatment for COVID-19. Furthermore, this work introduces a novel and informative method which could help create recommendation list of TCM prescriptions for the treatment of other diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/adverse effects , China , Databases, Factual , Deep Learning , Drug Labeling , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Reference Standards
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 277: 113888, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056890

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has formed a global pandemic since late 2019. Benefitting from the application experience of Chinese Medicine (CM) for influenza and SARS, CM has been used to save patients at the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak in China. AIM OF THE STUDY: In order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CM, and compare with Western Medicine (WM) for COVID-19, we conducted a retrospective case series study based on the patients in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China. METHODS: The inclusion and exclusion criteria of data extraction were set for this retrospective study. All patients who were admitted by the Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital between January 17th and February 25th 2020 were considered. In addition, patients enrolled met the severe defined by the guidelines released by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. In these cases included in the study, CM or WM treatment was selected according to the wishes of the patients at the beginning of hospitalization. The patients in CM group were treated with Huashi Baidu granule (137 g po, bid) combined with the injections of Xiyanping (100 mg iv, bid), Xuebijing (100 ml iv, bid) and Shenmai (60 ml iv, qd) according to the syndrome of epidemic toxin blocking the lung in the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The WM group received antiviral therapy (including abidor capsule 0.2 g po, tid; Lopinavir-Ritonavir tablets, 500 mg po, bid), antibiotics (such as cefoperazone 2 g iv, bid; moxifloxacin hydrochloride tablets, 0.4 g po, qd) or corticosteroid therapy (such as methylprednisolone succinate sodium 40 mg iv, qd; prednisone, 30 mg po, qd). In addition, patients in both groups received routine supportive treatment, including oxygen inhalation, symptomatic therapy, and/or human intravenous immunoglobulin, and/or serum albumin, and treatment for underlying diseases. The clinical outcomes were evaluated based on changes related with clinical manifestations, computer tomography (CT) scan images, and laboratory examinations before and after the treatment. RESULTS: 55 severe COVID-19 patients, with 23 in CM group and 32 in WM group, were included for analyzed. There was no case of death, being transferred to ICU, or receiving invasive mechanical ventilation in two groups during hospitalization. The median time of SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance in CM and WM group were 12 days and 15.5 days respectively, the ratio of nucleic acid negative conversion of CM group at different follow-up time points was significantly higher than that of WM group (HR: 2.281, P = 0.018). Further, the chest CT imaging showed more widely lung lesion opacity absorbed in the CM group. The high sensitivity C-reactive protein and serum ferritin decreased significantly in the CM group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in adverse events in terms of liver function and renal function between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Based on this retrospective analysis from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, CM has better effects in SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance, promoting lung lesion opacity absorbed and reducing inflammation in severe COVID-19 patients, which is effective and safe therapy for treating severe COVID-19 and reducing mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/adverse effects , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , China , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(25): e20660, 2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness that can spread from person to person. The virus that causes COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus that was first identified during an investigation into an outbreak in Wuhan, China. The clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection appears to be wide, encompassing asymptomatic infection, mild upper respiratory tract illness, and severe viral pneumonia with respiratory failure and even death, with many patients being hospitalised with pneumonia. In China and East Asia, Chinese medicine has been widely used to treat diverse diseases for thousands of years. As an important means of treatment now, Chinese medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of respiratory diseases in China. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine for COVID-19. METHODS: We will search the following sources for the identification of trials: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (VIP), and the Wanfang Database. All the above databases will be searched from the available date of inception until the latest issue. No language or publication restriction will be used. Randomized controlled trials will be included if they recruited participants with COVID-19 for assessing the effect of Chinese medicine vs control (placebo, no treatment, and other therapeutic agents). Primary outcomes will include chest CT and nucleic acid detection of respiratory samples. Two authors will independently scan the articles searched, extract the data from articles included, and assess the risk of bias by Cochrane tool of risk of bias. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus or the involvement of a third party. All analysis will be performed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Dichotomous variables will be reported as risk ratio or odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and continuous variables will be summarized as mean difference or standard mean difference with 95% CIs. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The available evidence of the treatment of COVID-19 with traditional Chinese medicine will be summarized, and evaluation of the efficacy and the adverse effects of these treatments will be made. This review will be disseminated in print by peer-review.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 70(5): 342-348, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-4187

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronavirus, 2019_nCoV (now named SARS-CoV-2), illustrated difficulties in identifying a novel coronavirus and its natural host, as the coding sequences of various Betacoronavirus species can be highly diverse. By means of whole-genome sequence comparisons, we demonstrate that the noncoding flanks of the viral genome can be used to correctly separate the recognized four betacoronavirus subspecies. The conservation would be sufficient to define target sequences that could, in theory, classify novel virus species into their subspecies. Only 253 upstream noncoding sequences of Sarbecovirus are sufficient to identify genetic similarities between species of this subgenus. Furthermore, it was investigated which bat species have commercial value in China, and would thus likely be handled for trading purposes. A number of coronavirus genomes have been published that were obtained from such bat species. These bats are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, and their handling poses a potential risk to cause zoonotic coronavirus epidemics. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The noncoding upstream and downstream flanks of coronavirus genomes allow for rapid classification of novel Betacoronavirus species and correct identification of genetic relationships. Although bats are the likely natural host of 2019_nCoV, the exact bat species that serves as the natural host of the virus remains as yet unknown. Chinese bat species with commercial value were identified as natural reservoirs of coronaviruses and are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Since their trading provides a potential risk for spreading zoonoses, a change in these practices is highly recommended.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/classification , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/adverse effects , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Chiroptera/classification , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
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