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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 285: 114905, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611829

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tongue coating has been used as an effective signature of health in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The level of greasy coating closely relates to the strength of dampness or pathogenic qi in TCM theory. Previous empirical studies and our systematic review have shown the relation between greasy coating and various diseases, including gastroenteropathy, coronary heart disease, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the objective and intelligent greasy coating and related diseases recognition methods are still lacking. The construction of the artificial intelligent tongue recognition models may provide important syndrome diagnosis and efficacy evaluation methods, and contribute to the understanding of ethnopharmacological mechanisms based on TCM theory. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to develop an artificial intelligent model for greasy tongue coating recognition and explore its application in COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein, we developed greasy tongue coating recognition networks (GreasyCoatNet) using convolutional neural network technique and a relatively large (N = 1486) set of tongue images from standard devices. Tests were performed using both cross-validation procedures and a new dataset (N = 50) captured by common cameras. Besides, the accuracy and time efficiency comparisons between the GreasyCoatNet and doctors were also conducted. Finally, the model was transferred to recognize the greasy coating level of COVID-19. RESULTS: The overall accuracy in 3-level greasy coating classification with cross-validation was 88.8% and accuracy on new dataset was 82.0%, indicating that GreasyCoatNet can obtain robust greasy coating estimates from diverse datasets. In addition, we conducted user study to confirm that our GreasyCoatNet outperforms TCM practitioners, yet only consuming roughly 1% of doctors' examination time. Critically, we demonstrated that GreasyCoatNet, along with transfer learning, can construct more proper classifier of COVID-19, compared to directly training classifier on patient versus control datasets. We, therefore, derived a disease-specific deep learning network by finetuning the generic GreasyCoatNet. CONCLUSIONS: Our framework may provide an important research paradigm for differentiating tongue characteristics, diagnosing TCM syndrome, tracking disease progression, and evaluating intervention efficacy, exhibiting its unique potential in clinical applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Ethnopharmacology/methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Tongue , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Qi , SARS-CoV-2 , Tongue/microbiology , Tongue/pathology
2.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(8): 1965-1999, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599109

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic and irreversible interstitial lung disease that even threatens the lives of some patients infected with COVID-19. PF is a multicellular pathological process, including the initial injuries of epithelial cells, recruitment of inflammatory cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, activation and differentiation of fibroblasts, etc. TGF-[Formula: see text]1 acts as a key effect factor that participates in these cellular processes of PF. Recently, much attention was paid to inhibiting TGF-[Formula: see text]1 mediated cell processes in the treatment of PF with Chinese herbal medicines (CHM), an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. Here, this review first summarized the effects of TGF-[Formula: see text]1 in different cellular processes of PF. Then, this review summarized the recent research on CHM (compounds, multi-components, single medicines and prescriptions) to directly and/or indirectly inhibit TGF-[Formula: see text]1 signaling (TLRs, PPARs, micrRNA, etc.) in PF. Most of the research focused on CHM natural compounds, including but not limited to alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and terpenes. After review, the research perspectives of CHM on TGF-[Formula: see text]1 inhibition in PF were further discussed. This review hopes that revealing the inhibiting effects of CHM on TGF-[Formula: see text]1-mediated cellular processes of PF can promote CHM to be better understood and utilized, thus transforming the therapeutic activities of CHM into practice.


Subject(s)
Cell Physiological Phenomena/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
3.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 789-798, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498508

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected more than 210 million individuals globally and resulted in over 4 million deaths since the first report in December 2019. The early use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for light and ordinary patients, can rapidly improve symptoms, shorten hospitalization days and reduce severe cases transformed from light and normal. Many TCM formulas and products have a wide application in treating infectious and non-infectious diseases. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (P. cuspidatum), is an important Traditional Chinese Medicine with actions of clearing away heat and eliminating dampness, draining the gallbladder to relieve jaundice, removing blood stasis to alleviate pain, resolving phlegm and arrest cough. In the search for anti-SARS-CoV-2, P. cuspidatum was recommended as as a therapeutic drug of COVID-19 pneumonia.In this study, we aimed to identifies P. cuspidatum is the potential broad-spectrum inhibitor for the treatment of coronaviruses infections. Methods: In the present study , we infected human malignant embryonal rhabdomyoma (RD) cells with the OC43 strain of the coronavirus, which represent an alternative model for SARS-CoV-2 and then employed the cell viability assay kit for the antiviral activity. We combined computer aided virtual screening to predicte the binding site and employed Surface plasmon resonance analysis (SPR) to comfirm the interaction between drugs and coronavirus. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology to identify drug's inhibition in the proteolytic activity of 3CLpro and Plpro. Results: Based on our results, polydatin and resveratrol derived from P. cuspidatum significantly suppressed HCoV-OC43 replication. 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of polydatin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and Plpro, MERS Mpro and Plpro were 18.66, 125, 14.6 and 25.42 µm, respectively. IC50 values of resveratrol inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and Plpro, MERS Mpro and Plpro were 29.81 ,60.86, 16.35 and19.04 µM, respectively. Finally, SPR assay confirmed that polydatin and resveratrol had high affinity to SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV 3Clpro, MERS-CoV 3Clpro and PLpro protein. Conclusions: we identified the antiviral activity of flavonoids polydatin and resveratrol on RD cells. Polydatin and resveratrol were found to be specific and selective inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2, 3CLpro and PLpro, viral cysteine proteases. In summary, this study identifies P. cuspidatum as the potential broad-spectrum inhibitor for the treatment of coronaviruses infections.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Fallopia japonica/chemistry , Glucosides/pharmacology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Glucosides/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Resveratrol/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stilbenes/metabolism , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Viral Proteins/metabolism
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26677, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the first case of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 viral infection was described in Wuhan. Similar to SARS in 2003, COVID-19 also had a lasting impact. Approximately 76% of patients discharged after hospitalization for COVID-19 had neurological manifestations which could persist for 6 months, and some long-term consequences such as the gradual loss of lung function due to pulmonary interstitial fibrosis could have comprehensive effects on daily quality of life for people who were initially believed to have recovered from COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Our comprehensive search strategy developed in consultation with a research librarian. We will search these following electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, Embase, ProQuest, China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG DATA, WHO covid-19 website, and Centers for Disease Control and the Prevention COVID-19 websites of the United States and China. The bias of publication will be confirmed via the P value of Egger test. The quality of studies will be evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: There are no ethical considerations associated with this study protocol for this systematic review which mainly focuses on the examination of secondary data. On completion of this analysis, we will prepare a manuscript for publication in a peer-reviewed medical journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021258711.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Treatment Outcome
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26641, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This review aims to evaluate the supportive effects of frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Five databases were searched through July 7, 2020. Randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of TCM for use in the treatment of COVID-19 were included. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and modified Jadad score were used for the evaluation of the methodological quality of the included studies. Weighted mean difference, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated for pooling out results. Data were extracted for conducting a meta-analysis using STATA version 12.0. RESULTS: Eight studies with a total of 750 patients were included in this meta-analysis. All included trial groups involved treatment with TCM and Western medicine, while the control groups were treated only with Western medicine. The intervention therapy significantly improved the overall effective rate (n = 346, OR = 2.5, 95% CIs = 1.46-4.29), fever symptom disappearance rate (n = 436; OR = 3.6; 95% CIs = 2.13-6.08), fatigue symptom disappearance rate (n = 436; OR = 3.04; 95% CIs = 1.76-5.26), cough symptom disappearance rate (n = 436; OR = 2.91; 95% CIs = 1.36-6.19), and sputum production reduction (n = 436; OR = 5.51; 95% CIs = 1.94-15.64). Based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale assessment, 6 studies received a score of 4, and 1 study achieved a score of 5. One study was assessed using the modified Jadad score, achieving a score of 6. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of TCM with Western medicine has significantly improved the treatment for COVID-19 patients compared to Western medicine treatment alone. Combined therapy using TCM and Western medicine revealed the potential adjunctive role of TCM in treating COVID-19. However, high-quality clinical studies are still required to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of TCM in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Treatment Outcome
7.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 304(11): 2566-2578, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460147

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (coronavirus) has spread all over the world with a high infection rate. Currently, there are no targeted therapeutic drugs for COVID-19 as well as for stress induced by COVID-19. The unpredictable events of COVID-19 can trigger feelings of fear, worry, or unease in people, leading to stress-related disorders such as depression and anxiety. It has been reported that individuals, including COVID-19 patients, medical staff, and ordinary people, are under both physical and psychological pressure, and many of them have developed depression or anxiety during this pandemic. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in treating depression with relatively better safety and efficacy and may have an important role in treating stress-related disorders induced by COVID-19. In this review, we collected the common TCM treatment methods including Qigong, Acupuncture, Five Elements Musical Therapy, Five Elements Emotional Therapy, and Chinese herbal medicine from the databases of PubMed and the China National Knowledge Internet to illustrate the effect of TCM on depression. The better knowledge of TCM and implementation of TCM in COVID-19 clinics may help to effectively improve depression induced by COVID-19, may assist people to maintain a healthy physical and mental quality, and may alleviate the current shortage of medical resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Qigong/methods , Treatment Outcome
8.
mBio ; 12(5): e0222021, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440803

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused huge deaths and economic losses worldwide in the current pandemic. The main protease (Mpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is thought to be an ideal drug target for treating COVID-19. Leupeptin, a broad-spectrum covalent inhibitor of serine, cysteine, and threonine proteases, showed inhibitory activity against Mpro, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 127.2 µM in vitro in our study here. In addition, leupeptin can also inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells, with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 42.34 µM. More importantly, various strains of streptomyces that have a broad symbiotic relationship with medicinal plants can produce leupeptin and leupeptin analogs to regulate autogenous proteases. Fingerprinting and structure elucidation using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), respectively, further proved that the Qing-Fei-Pai-Du (QFPD) decoction, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula for the effective treatment of COVID-19 during the period of the Wuhan outbreak, contains leupeptin. All these results indicate that leupeptin at least contributes to the antiviral activity of the QFPD decoction against SARS-CoV-2. This also reminds us to pay attention to the microbiomes in TCM herbs as streptomyces in the soil might produce leupeptin that will later infiltrate the medicinal plant. We propose that plants, microbiome, and microbial metabolites form an ecosystem for the effective components of TCM herbs. IMPORTANCE A TCM formula has played an important role in the treatment of COVID-19 in China. However, the mechanism of TCM action is still unclear. In this study, we identified leupeptin, a metabolite produced by plant-symbiotic actinomyces (PSA), which showed antiviral activity in both cell culture and enzyme assays. Moreover, leupeptin found in the QFPD decoction was confirmed by both HPLC fingerprinting and HRMS. These results suggest that leupeptin likely contributes to the antiviral activity of the QFPD decoction against SARS-CoV-2. This result gives us important insight into further studies of the PSA metabolite and medicinal plant ecosystem for future TCM modernization research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Leupeptins/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ecosystem , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112150, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385085

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic is the greatest pandemic that human kind experienced for decades, with high morbidity and mortality. Despite recent development of vaccines there is still many severe cases of COVID-19. Unfortunately there is still no standardized therapies and treatment of severe cases is very challenging. The aim of this study is to indicate if herbs administered alone or as a complementary therapy could be used as prophylaxis or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Over 85% of patients with COVID-19 in China used Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and a most common herb is Glycyrrhiza glabra, which in vitro inhibits replication of different enveloped viruses, including coronaviruses. Glycyrrhizin in vitro connects and changes conformation of ACE2 receptors, which are vital for SARS-CoV-2 penetration into host cells. Pelargonium sidoides show immunomodulatory and antiviral properties in clinical and in vitro studies, and it inhibits replication of HCo-229E coronavirus. Glycyrrhiza glabra in combination with standard therapies significantly reduces the hospitalization rate and occurrence of COVID-19 symptoms. As complementary therapies lianhuaqingwen capsules and jinhua qinggan granules reduces hospitalization rates, time to symptoms recovery and improve patient psychological comfort. In view of SARS-CoV-2 other herbs are not effective, e.g. maxingshigan-yinqiaosan, or therapeutic concentration would be impossible to achieve, e.g. ephedra herb, or there is simply no proper data. Therefore, Liquorice and Pelargonium sidoides are effective against coronaviruses and could be possibly used as prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19, while lianhuaqingwen capsules and jinhua qinggan granules can be useful as a complementary therapy to conventional treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26676, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354335

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of different Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of COVID-19 is worthy of attention, but the efficacy and safety of different Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of COVID-19 have not yet been compared, based on network meta-analysis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The 2 members independently searched 7 databases according to the retrieval strategy, and the retrieval time was from the beginning of the establishment of the database to June 19, 2021. Then the title was imported into the EndNote Software AQ8 (V.X9), and the duplicate literature was deleted successively, the nonconforming articles were deleted in the title reading, and finally the full text was read to determine the articles included in the study. The Cochrane Collaboration's Tool will be used to evaluate the article quality, and Stata Statistical Software (Version 14.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX) will be used for data analysis. Levels of evidence are evaluated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) instrument. RESULTS: The efficacy and safety of different Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of COVID-19 were evaluated, and the order was determined according to the value of sucre. CONCLUSION: This study will provide evidence for the treatment of COVID-19 with TCM therapy, and provide ideas for the clinical treatment of COVID-19. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: No. INPLASY202160092.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/standards , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
11.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(5): 1035-1049, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352580

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) broke out in Wuhan and other places. Seven versions of the Diagnosis and Treatment Program for Coronavirus Disease-2019 successively issued by the Chinese government have designated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a necessary medical strategy. Based on the changes in TCM diagnosis and treatment strategies in these seven versions of Diagnosis and Treatment Program for Coronavirus Disease-2019, this paper collected data reported by the Chinese government media; analyzed the understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis, syndrome differentiation, treatment methods, and prescriptions of COVID-19 by TCM and evaluated the clinical efficacy of TCM strategies. COVID-19 is associated with TCM disease of pestilence, and its pathogenesis can be summarized as an "epidemic pathogen invading the body, followed by entering the internal organs and transforming into heat, resulting in pathogen trapping in the interior and healthy qi collapsing, and deficiency of qi and yin". Pathological processes should be emphasized in syndrome differentiation. The manifestations of qi deficiency and yin deficiency are exhibited during the recovery period. TCM strategies represented by Qing Fei Pai Du Tang have shown apparent advantages in improving symptoms, promoting virus clearance, and shortening hospitalization, as well as surprising efficacy of zero patient progressing from mild to severe cases in a TCM cabin hospital. Clinical data illustrate the effectiveness of TCM strategies proposed by the Chinese government. This major epidemic may bring new opportunities for TCM development.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 111998, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347501

ABSTRACT

Lianhua-Qingwen capsule (LQC) is a commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in China and has 11 herb components. The main active ingredient can target specific molecules and perform many clinic treatment roles. LQC has been authorized by National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) of China to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003, type A influenza virus HIN1 pandemic in 2009, H7N9, H3N2 and coronavirus disease-19 (COVID19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) in 2020. It is also widely used to treat common cold with wind-heat syndrome, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), amygdalitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This article summarizes the advanced research progress of LQC in clinical application, mechanisms and provides new clues in the clinical application of LQC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Capsules , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pharmaceutical Research
13.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(7)2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327426

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease and ravages the world.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. We proposed that R. crenulata might have potential value in the treatment of COVID-19 patients by regulating the immune response and inhibiting cytokine storm.Aim. We aimed to explore the potential molecular mechanism for Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata), against the immune regulation of COVID-19, and to provide a referenced candidate Tibetan herb (R. crenulata) to overcome COVID-19.Methodology. Components and targets of R. crenulata were retrieved from the TCMSP database. GO analysis and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment were built by R bioconductor package to explore the potential biological effects for targets of R. crenulata. The R. crenulata-compound-target network, target pathway network and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were constructed using Cytoscape 3.3.0. Autodock 4.2 and Discovery Studio software were applied for molecular docking.Result. Four bioactive components (quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-α-l-rhamnoside and tamarixetin) and 159 potential targets of R. crenulata were identified from the TCMSP database. The result of GO annotation and KEGG-pathway-enrichment analyses showed that target genes of R. crenulata were associated with inflammatory response and immune-related signalling pathways, especially IL-17 signalling pathway, and TNF signalling pathway. Targets-pathway network and PPI network showed that IL-6, IL-1B and TNF-α were considered to be hub genes. Molecular docking showed that core compound (quercetin) had a certain affinity with IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α.Conclusion. R. crenulata might play an anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory role in the cytokine storm of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Rhodiola/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukins/metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tibet
14.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104896, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318933

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease (COVID-19) has now spread to all parts of the world and almost all countries are battling against it. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine (Hereinafter referred to as "Integrated Medicine") to COVID-19. We searched six major Chinese and English databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and case-control studies (CCSs) of Integrated Medicine on COVID-19. Two reviewers independently screened, identified studies, and extracted data. Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were used to assess the quality of included RCTs and CCSs, respectively. Stata (version 13.0; StataCorp) was used to perform meta-analyses with the random-effects model. Risk ratio (RR) was used for dichotomous data while the weighted mean difference (WMD) was adopted for continuous variables as effect size, both of which were demonstrated in effect size and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 11 studies were included. Four were RCTs and seven were CCSs. The sample size of including studies ranged from 42 to 200 (total 982). The traditional Chinese medicine included Chinese medicine compound drugs (QingFei TouXie FuZhengFang) and Chinese patent medicine (e.g. Shufeng Jiedu Capsule, Lianhua Qingwen granules). Compared with the control group, the overall response rate [RR = 1.230, 95%CI (1.113, 1.359), P = 0.000], cure rate [RR = 1.604, 95%CI (1.181, 2.177), P = 0.002], severity illness rate [RR = 0.350, 95%CI (0.154, 0.792), P = 0.012], and hospital stay [WMD = -1.991, 95%CI (-3.278, -0.703), P = 0.002] of the intervention group were better. In addition, Integrated Medicine can improve the disappearance rate of fever, cough, expectoration, fatigue, chest tightness and anorexia and reduce patients' fever, and fatigue time (P < 0.05). This review found that Integrated Medicine had better effects and did not increase adverse drug reactions for COVID-19. More high-quality RCTs are needed in the future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Medicine/methods , Combined Modality Therapy/adverse effects , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 304(11): 2559-2565, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274670

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of serving the Chinese people's health since its birth, including playing an important role in treating and preventing COVID-19 in 2020. The fact that TCM has been used in China for thousands of years shows the value and reason why it must exist. Although TCM has been or is being questioned, there is no doubt about its importance in terms of efficacy. This article focuses on how TCM understands the human body in comparison with anatomy knowledge in western medicine and discusses the development and advances of TCM in terms of the body view and the theory innovation. The purpose is to let foreign scholars get better understanding of TCM from this perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Human Body , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/history , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Qi/history , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions/physiology , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/trends , Reference Books, Medical
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(20): e25609, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236276

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study is the protocol for a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of herbal medicine on COVID-19 survivors with psychological sequelae. Currently, there are many COVID-19 survivors with psychological sequelae as COVID-19 has widely spread all over the world. However, there is no critically appraised evidence of the benefit of herbal medicine for COVID-19 survivors with psychological sequelae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We will search 11 electronic databases from inception to December, 2022: 4 English databases, MEDLINE, PubMed, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); 3 Chinese databases, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal database, and the Wan Fang database; and 4 Korean databases, the Oriental Medical Advanced Searching Integrated System, the Korean Studies Information Service System, the National Digital Science Links, and the Research Information Sharing Service. We will include randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs for all formations of TRADITIONAL herbal medicine versus conventional drug, placebo, and no treatment for COVID-19 survivors. We will only include the COVID-19 survivors with psychiatric symptoms lasting at least 1 month, regardless of their race, sex, and age. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. The findings will provide evidence and treatment directions for clinicians. This protocol does not need ethical approval because it will be based on published research. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42020210592.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Mental Disorders/virology , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
17.
Pharmacol Ther ; 225: 107843, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211101

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has remained an uncontained, worldwide pandemic. While battling for the disease in China, six Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) recipes have been shown to be remarkably effective for treating patients with COVID-19. The present review discusses principles of TCM in curing infectious disease, and clinical evidence and mechanisms of the 6 most effective TCM recipes used in treating COVID-19 in 92% of all of the confirmed cases in China. Applications of TCM and specific recipes in the treatment of other viral infections, such as those caused by SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, influenza A virus (including H1N1 and H7N9), influenza B, dengue virus as well as Ebola virus, are also discussed. Among the 6 TCM recipes, Jinhua Qinggan (JHQG) granules and Lianhua Qingwen (LHQW) capsules are recommended during medical observation; Lung Cleansing and Detoxifying Decoction (LCDD) is recommended for the treatment of both severe and non-severe patients; Xuanfeibaidu (XFBD) granules are recommended for treating moderate cases; while Huashibaidu (HSBD) and Xuebijing (XBJ) have been used in managing severe cases effectively. The common components and the active ingredients of the six TCM recipes have been summarized to reveal most promising drug candidates. The potential molecular mechanisms of the active ingredients in the six TCM recipes that target ACE2, 3CLpro and IL-6, revealed by molecular biological studies and/or network pharmacology prediction/molecular docking analysis/visualization analysis, are fully discussed. Therefore, further investigation of these TCM recipes may be of high translational value in enabling novel targeted therapies for COVID-19, potentially via purification and characterization of the active ingredients in the effective TCM recipes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111586, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188337

ABSTRACT

It has become evident that the actions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or the development of a cytokine storm are responsible for the occurrence of severe COVID-19 during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although immunomodulatory mechanisms vary among viruses, the activation of multiple TLRs that occurs primarily through the recruitment of adapter proteins such as MyD88 and TRIF contributes to the induction of a cytokine storm. Based on this, controlling the robust production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages may be applicable as a cellular approach to investigate potential cytokine-targeted therapies against COVID-19. In the current study, we utilized TLR2/MyD88 and TLR3/TRIF co-activated macrophages and evaluated the anti-cytokine storm effect of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Babaodan (BBD). An RNA-seq-based transcriptomic approach was used to determine the molecular mode of action. Additionally, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of BBD in vivo using a mouse model of post-viral bacterial infection-induced pneumonia and seven severely ill COVID-19 patients. Our study reveals the protective role of BBD against excessive immune responses in macrophages, where the underlying mechanisms involve the inhibition of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In vivo, BBD significantly inhibited the release of IL-6, thus resulting in increased survival rates in mice. Based on limited data, we demonstrated that severely ill COVID-19 patients benefited from BBD treatment due to a reduction in the overproduction of IL-6. In conclusion, our study indicated that BBD controls excessive immune responses and may thus represent a cytokine-targeted agent that could be considered to treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Lung Injury/etiology , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Signal Transduction
19.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(4): 785-803, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186370

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads and rages around the world and threatens human life. It is disappointing that there are no specific drugs until now. The combination of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medication seems to be the current more effective treatment strategy for COVID-19 patients in China. In this review, we mainly discussed the relationship between COVID-19 and gut microbiota (GM), as well as the possible impact of TCM combined with western medication on GM in the treatment of COVID-19 patients, aiming to provide references for the possible role of GM in TCM against COVID-19. The available data suggest that GM dysbiosis did occur in COVID-19 patients, and the intervention of GM could ameliorate the clinical condition of COVID-19 patients. In addition, TCMs (e.g., Jinhua Qinggan granule, Lianhua Qingwen capsule, Qingfei Paidu decoction, Shufeng Jiedu capsule, Qingjin Jianghuo decoction, Toujie Quwen granules, and MaxingShigan) have been proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of COVID-19 in Chinese clinic. Among them, Ephedra sinica, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Bupleurum chinense, Lonicera japonica,Scutellaria baicalensi, and Astragalus membranaceus are common herbs and have a certain regulation on GM, immunity, and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Notably, Qingfei Paidu decoction and MaxingShigan have been demonstrated to modulate GM. Finally, the hypothesis of GM-mediated TCM treatment of COVID-19 is proposed, and more clinical trials and basic experiments need to be initiated to confirm this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Rev Environ Health ; 36(3): 443-450, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Despite the high prevalence of coronavirus and various treatment approaches, including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), there is still no definitive treatment for coronavirus. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of CAM interventions on COVID-19 patients. CONTENT: Four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and EMBASE) were searched from the inception of databases until July 16, 2020. Keywords included complementary and alternative medicine therapies and Coronavirus. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK: Of the 1,137 studies searched, 14 studies performed on 972 COVID-19 patients entered the systematic review final stage. The results showed that different CAM interventions (acupuncture, Traditional Chinese medicine [TCM], relaxation, Qigong) significantly improved various psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety, stress, sleep quality, negative emotions, quality of life) and physical symptoms (inflammatory factors, physical activity, chest pain, and respiratory function) in COVID-19 patients. The results showed that various CAM interventions have a positive effect on improving the various dimensions of coronavirus disease but since there are few studies in this regard, further studies using different CAM approaches are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Complementary Therapies/methods , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/psychology , Mental Health , Mind-Body Therapies/methods , Mind-Body Therapies/psychology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
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