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2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928559

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Recently, the Thai government has been promoting the innovation of finished forms of traditional Thai medicine (TTM) products (e.g., tablets and capsules). According to the existing literature, most consumers are unaware of the finished forms of TTMs because of conflicting knowledge, information, and communication. Therefore, the consumers have poor perceptions about TTMs and their benefits. Purpose: This qualitative study explores the current perceptions about TTMs and the modes of promotion that are being utilized to develop a strategic communication plan for the finished forms of TTMs. Design/methodology/approach: Utilising thematic analysis, focus groups were conducted with thirty experienced consumers. Findings: Using KAP and DoI theory, the following three themes emerged in this study: (i) the current KAP of Thai consumers toward the finished forms of TTM; (ii) factors influencing the use of finished forms of TTM; and (iii) integrated marketing communication as a promotion strategy to rapidly disseminate knowledge. Research limitations/implications: Given Thailand's large population, the findings of this study are substantially limited and cannot be generalized. Therefore, the findings herein may not reflect the experiences and opinions of the Thai consumers residing in other regions or the opinions of the entire country. Originality/value: This study utilises interdisciplinary methods and two-step theory application to explain the current knowledge and perceptions about the finished forms of TTM and develop proper communication and media strategies that can promote the finished forms of traditional Thai medicines, helping to widen their usage significantly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Marketing , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Qualitative Research , Thailand/epidemiology
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10305, 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895600

ABSTRACT

In 2019, coronavirus has made the third apparition in the form of SARS-CoV-2, a novel strain of coronavirus that is extremely pathogenic and it uses the same receptor as SARS-CoV, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). However, more than 182 vaccine candidates have been announced; and 12 vaccines have been approved for use, although, even vaccinated individuals are still vulnerable to infection. In this study, we investigated PHELA, recognized as an herbal combination of four exotic African medicinal plants namely; Clerodendrum glabrum E. Mey. Lamiaceae, Gladiolus dalenii van Geel, Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb, and Senna occidentalis (L.) Link; as a candidate therapy for COVID-19. In vitro testing found that PHELA inhibited > 90% of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection at concentration levels of 0.005 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml and close to 100% of MERS-CoV infection at 0.1 mg/ml to 0.6 mg/ml. The in vitro average IC50 of PHELA on SARS-COV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-COV were ~ 0.01 mg/ml. Secondly in silico docking studies of compounds identified in PHELA showed very strong binding energy interactions with the SARS-COV-2 proteins. Compound 5 showed the highest affinity for SARS-COV-2 protein compared to other compounds with the binding energy of - 6.8 kcal mol-1. Our data showed that PHELA has potential and could be developed as a COVID-19 therapeutic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lamiaceae , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 194(1): 291-301, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748423

ABSTRACT

Corona virus pandemic outbreak also known as COVID-19 has created an imbalance in this world. Scientists have adopted the use of natural or alternative medicines which are consumed mostly as dietary supplements to boost the immune system as herbal remedies. India is famous for traditional medicinal formulations which includes 'Trikadu'-a combination of three acrids, namely Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum and Piper longum which have antioxidant properties that boost our immune system hence acting as a strong preventive measure. In this study, AutoDock 4.0 was used to study interaction between the phytocompounds of Trikadu with RNA-dependent polymerase protein and enveloped protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Analysis of the results showed that coumarin, coumaperine and bisdemethoxycurcumin showed strong bonding interactions with both the proteins. We can conclude that Trikadu has the potential molecules; hence, it can be incorporated in the diet to boost the immune system as a preventive measure against the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Phytotherapy , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/drug effects , Dietary Supplements , Ginger/chemistry , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , India , Ligands , Medicine, Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Piper/chemistry , Piper nigrum/chemistry , Plant Preparations/isolation & purification , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects
5.
Phytomedicine ; 96: 153889, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lonicera Linn. belonging to the family Caprifoliaceae, the largest genus in the plant family, includes about more than 200 species, which are mainly distributed in northern Africa, North America, Europe and Asia. Some species of this genus have been usually used in traditional Chinese medicine as well as functional foods, cosmetics and other applications, such as L. japonica Thunb. Bioactive components and pharmacological activities of the genus Lonicera plants have received an increasing interest from the scientific community. Thus, a comprehensive and systematic review on their traditional usage in China, chemical components, and their pharmacological properties of their whole plants, bioactive extracts, and bioactive isolates including partial structure-activity relationships from the genus is indispensable. METHODS: Information on genus Lonicera of this systematic electronic literature search was gathered via the published articles, patents, clinical trials website (https://clinicaltrials.gov/) and several online bibliographic databases (PubMed, Sci Finder, Research Gate, Science Direct, CNKI, Web of Science and Google Scholar). The following keywords were used for the online search: Lonicera, phytochemical composition, Lonicerae japonica, Lonicera review articles, bioactivities of Lonicera, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-diabetic, and clinical trials. This review paper consists of a total of 225 papers covering the Lonicera genus from 1800 to 2021, including research articles, reviews, patents, and book chapters. RESULTS: In this review (1800s-2021), about 420 components from the genus of Lonicera Linn. including 87 flavonoids, 222 terpenoids, 51 organic acids, and other compounds, together with their pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, anti-allergic, immunomodulatory effects, and toxicity were summarized. CONCLUSION: The relationship is discussed among their traditional usage, their pharmacological properties, and their chemical components, which indicate the genus Lonicera have a large prospect in terms of new drug exploitation, especially in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lonicera , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Ethnopharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438743

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The availability of effective and well-tolerated antiviral drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 patients is still very limited. Traditional herbal medicines elicit antiviral activity against various viruses and might therefore represent a promising option for the complementary treatment of COVID-19 patients. The application of turmeric root in herbal medicine has a very long history. Its bioactive ingredient curcumin shows a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of aqueous turmeric root extract, the dissolved content of a curcumin-containing nutritional supplement capsule, and pure curcumin against SARS-CoV-2. Turmeric root extract, dissolved turmeric capsule content, and pure curcumin effectively neutralized SARS-CoV-2 at subtoxic concentrations in Vero E6 and human Calu-3 cells. Furthermore, curcumin treatment significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels in cell culture supernatants. Our data uncover curcumin as a promising compound for complementary COVID-19 treatment. Curcumin concentrations contained in turmeric root or capsules used as nutritional supplements completely neutralized SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Our data argue in favor of appropriate and carefully monitored clinical studies that vigorously test the effectiveness of complementary treatment of COVID-19 patients with curcumin-containing products.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Curcuma/metabolism , Curcumin/metabolism , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Medicine, Traditional/methods , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112221, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432982

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 global epidemic caused by coronavirus has affected the health and other aspects of life for more than one year. Despite the current pharmacotherapies, there is still no specific treatment, and studies are in progress to find a proper therapy with high efficacy and low side effects. In this way, Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), due to its holistic view, can provide recommendations for the prevention and treatment of new diseases such as COVID-19. The muco-obstruction of the airway, which occurs in SARS-CoV-2, has similar features in TPM textbooks that can lead us to new treatment approaches. Based on TPM and pharmacological studies, Cinnamomum verum (Darchini)'s potential effective functions can contribute to SARS-CoV-2 infection treatment and has been known to be effective in corona disease in Public beliefs. From the viewpoint of TPM theories, Cinnamon can be effective in SARS-CoV-2 improvement and treatment through its anti-obstructive, diuretic, tonic and antidote effects. In addition, there is pharmacological evidence on anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, organ-o-protective and anti-depression effects of Cinnamon that are in line with the therapeutic functions mentioned in TPM.Overall, Cinnamon and its ingredients can be recommended for SARS-CoV2 management due to multi-targeting therapies. This review provides basic information for future studies on this drug's effectiveness in preventing and treating COVID-19 and similar diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Traditional/methods , Plants, Medicinal , Treatment Outcome
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114540, 2022 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401608

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers (Menispermaceae) is a Mediterranean herb, used in Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani, and folk medicines. The herb is also used in conventional medicine to treat oxidative stress-related diseases and conditions, including inflammation, pain, diarrhea, asthma, respiratory infections, cancer, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disorders. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The taxonomy, botanical classification, geographical distribution, and ethnobotanical uses of T. cordifolia, as well as the phytochemical compounds found in the herb, the toxicology of and pharmacological and clinical studies on the effects of T. cordifolia are all covered in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To gather information on T. cordifolia, we used a variety of scientific databases, including Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct. The information discussed focuses on biologically active compounds found in T. cordifolia, and common applications and pharmacological activity of the herb, as well as toxicological and clinical studies on its properties. RESULTS: The findings of this study reveal a connection between the use of T. cordifolia in conventional medicine and its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, and other biological effects. The entire plant, stem, leaves, root, and extracts of T. cordifolia have been shown to have a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective impact. Toxicological testing demonstrated that this plant may have medicinal applications. T. cordifolia contains a variety of biologically active compounds from various chemical classes, including alkaloids, terpenoids, sitosterols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Based on the reports researched for this review, we believe that chemicals in T. cordifolia may activate Nrf2, which leads to the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes such as CAT, GPx, GST, and GR, and thereby induces the adaptive response to oxidative stress. T. cordifolia is also able to reduce NF-κB signalling by inhibiting PI3K/Akt, activating AMPK and sirtuins, and downregulating PI3K/Akt. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the pharmacological properties displayed by T. cordifolia back up its conventional uses. Antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antidiabetic, nephroprotective, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective activities were all demonstrated in T. cordifolia stem extracts. To validate pharmacodynamic targets, further research is needed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of the known compounds against gastrointestinal diseases, inflammatory processes, and microbial infections, as immunostimulants, and in chemotherapy. The T. cordifolia safety profile was confirmed in a toxicological analysis, which prompted pharmacokinetic assessment testing to confirm its bioavailability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Traditional , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plants, Medicinal , SARS-CoV-2 , Tinospora/chemistry , Humans , Phytotherapy
9.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 26(12): 961-964, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331738

ABSTRACT

Acute interstitial nephritis can result due to exposure to any medication, toxins, infections or malignancy. In the midst of this Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been a race for finding remedies to prevent the spread of and control the complications due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Certain Indian medicinal herb concoctions like kabasura kudineer and nilavembu kudineer are being widely publicized to boost immunity and reduce the risk of developing COVID-19. Little knowledge exists about the adverse effects of these herbal remedies. We report two patients who presented to us with vague complaints following the ingestion of kabasura kudineer and we diagnosed them with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN). The temporal relationship of ingestion of these remedies to the development of ATIN calls for vigilance and caution with regular monitoring of renal functions especially in those with chronic kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Medicine, Traditional/adverse effects , Nephritis, Interstitial/chemically induced , Plant Preparations/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use
10.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4284-4296, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1161639

ABSTRACT

The review article serves as a mini directory of medicinal plants (662 medicinal plants have been identified) that have been investigated for antiviral property between 2015 and 2019. Data have been extracted from Scopus using specific keywords followed by manual sorting to avoid any duplication. Critical analyses of handpicked data have been presented. Mapping of medicinal plants, followed by critical analysis on the families and plant parts investigated in the said tenure, and its correlation with the participating countries and virus types have been critically analyzed. Interceptive role of phytochemicals in impeding viral replication has also been taken note of. Emphasis on India's exploration of various medicinal plants has also been given. Also presents a tutelage, which is likely to revive the interest in natural products for search of potential antivirals. This review is expected to serve as a rich data bank and as a guiding principle for researchers who are planning to explore medicinal plants in search for potential antiviral. It is time that researchers need to revisit their countries' own history of traditional medicine to predict something worthful in future.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts
11.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(9): 3455-3458, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314029

ABSTRACT

There has been high interest in the use of traditional medicines for COVID-19 from early in the course of the pandemic. Significant advances in the science of ethnopharmacology have helped to introduce chemical entities identified from natural sources into modern medicine. However, the wider integration of natural products into the modern drug discovery process will require enhanced collaboration amongst the pharmaceutical industry, academic research units, regulatory bodies, ethics review committees and local, regional, continental and international organizations. Revisiting this topic holds promise of benefit for both the current and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnopharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305727

ABSTRACT

Artemisia vulgaris L. (common mugwort) is a species with great importance in the history of medicine and was called the "mother of herbs" in the Middle Ages. It is a common herbaceous plant that exhibits high morphological and phytochemical variability depending on the location where it occurs. This species is well known almost all over the world. Its herb-Artemisiae vulgaris herba-is used as a raw material due to the presence of essential oil, flavonoids, and sesquiterpenoids lactones and their associated biological activities. The European Pharmacopoeia has listed this species as a potential homeopathic raw material. Moreover, this species has been used in traditional Chinese, Hindu, and European medicine to regulate the functioning of the gastrointestinal system and treat various gynecological diseases. The general aim of this review was to analyze the progress of phytochemical and pharmacological as well as professional scientific studies focusing on A. vulgaris. Thus far, numerous authors have confirmed the beneficial properties of A. vulgaris herb extracts, including their antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antispasmolytic, antinociceptive, estrogenic, cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antifungal effects. In addition, several works have reviewed the use of this species in the production of cosmetics and its role as a valuable spice in the food industry. Furthermore, biotechnological micropropagation of A. vulgaris has been analyzed.


Subject(s)
Artemisia/chemistry , Plant Extracts , History of Medicine , Medicine, Traditional , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
14.
Arch Pharm Res ; 44(5): 439-474, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202014

ABSTRACT

Artemisia and its allied species have been employed for conventional medicine in the Northern temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia for the treatments of digestive problems, morning sickness, irregular menstrual cycle, typhoid, epilepsy, renal problems, bronchitis malaria, etc. The multidisciplinary use of artemisia species has various other health benefits that are related to its traditional and modern pharmaceutical perspectives. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the traditional, modern, biological as well as pharmacological use of the essential oil and herbal extracts of Artemisia nilagirica, Artemisia parviflora, and other allied species of Artemisia. It also discusses the botanical circulation and its phytochemical constituents viz disaccharides, polysaccharides, glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, and carotenoids. The plants have different biological importance like antiparasitic, antimalarial, antihyperlipidemic, antiasthmatic, antiepileptic, antitubercular, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anxiolytic, antiemetic, antidepressant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, insecticidal, antiviral activities, and also against COVID-19. Toxicological studies showed that the plants at a low dose and short duration are non or low-toxic. In contrast, a high dose at 3 g/kg and for a longer duration can cause toxicity like rapid respiration, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, etc. However, further in-depth studies are needed to determine the medicinal uses, clinical efficacy and safety are crucial next steps.


Subject(s)
Artemisia , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Artemisia/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use
15.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 26, 2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants are the fundamental unit of traditional medicine system in Nepal. Nepalese people are rich in traditional medicine especially in folk medicine (ethnomedicine), and this system is gaining much attention after 1995. The use of medicinal plants has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic as a private behavior (not under the control of government). A lot of misinterpretations of the use of medicinal plants to treat or prevent COVID-19 have been spreading throughout Nepal which need to be managed proactively. In this context, a research was needed to document medicinal plants used, their priority of use in society, their cultivation status, and the source of information people follow to use them. This study aimed to document the present status of medicinal plant use and make important suggestion to the concerned authorities. METHODS: This study used a web-based survey to collect primary data related to medicinal plants used during COVID-19. A total of 774 respondents took part in the survey. The study calculated the relative frequencies of citation (RFC) for the recorded medicinal plants. The relationship between plants recorded and different covariates (age, gender education, occupation, living place, and treatment methods) was assessed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxon test. The relationship between the information sources people follow and the respondent characteristics was assessed using chi-square test. RESULTS: The study found that the use of medicinal plants has increased during COVID-19 and most of the respondents recommended medicinal plants to prevent COVID-19. This study recorded a total of 60 plants belonging to 36 families. The leaves of the plants were the most frequently used. The Zingiber officinale was the most cited species with the frequency of citation 0.398. Most of the people (45.61%) were getting medicinal plants from their home garden. The medicinal plants recorded were significantly associated with the education level, location of home, primary treatment mode, gender, and age class. The information source of plants was significantly associated with the education, gender, method of treatment, occupation, living with family, and location of home during the lockdown caused by COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: People were using more medicinal plants during COVID-19 claiming that they can prevent or cure COVID-19. This should be taken seriously by concerned authorities. The authorities should test the validity of these medicinal plants and control the flow of false information spread through research and awareness programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , Adult , Aged , Ethnopharmacology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Medicine, Traditional , Middle Aged , Nepal , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Mar Drugs ; 18(11)2020 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940583

ABSTRACT

Respiratory diseases place an immense burden on global health and there is a compelling need for the discovery of new compounds for therapeutic development. Here, we identify research priorities by critically reviewing pre-clinical and clinical studies using extracts and compounds derived from molluscs, as well as traditional molluscan medicines, used in the treatment of respiratory diseases. We reviewed 97 biomedical articles demonstrating the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties of >320 molluscan extracts/compounds with direct relevance to respiratory disease, in addition to others with promising bioactivities yet to be tested in the respiratory context. Of pertinent interest are compounds demonstrating biofilm inhibition/disruption and antiviral activity, as well as synergism with approved antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic agents. At least 100 traditional medicines, incorporating over 300 different mollusc species, have been used to treat respiratory-related illness in cultures worldwide for thousands of years. These medicines provide useful clues for the discovery of bioactive components that likely underpin their continued use. There is particular incentive for investigations into anti-inflammatory compounds, given the extensive application of molluscan traditional medicines for symptoms of inflammation, and shells, which are the principal molluscan product used in these preparations. Overall, there is a need to target research toward specific respiratory disease-related hypotheses, purify bioactive compounds and elucidate their chemical structures, and develop an evidence base for the integration of quality-controlled traditional medicines.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Mollusca/chemistry , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Drug Discovery , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Medicine, Traditional , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications
17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 28, 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses (CoVs) are distributed worldwide and have various susceptible hosts; CoVs infecting humans are called human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Although HCoV-specific drugs are still lacking, many potent targets for drug discovery are being explored, and many vigorously designed clinical trials are being carried out in an orderly manner. The aim of this review was to gain a comprehensive understanding of the current status of drug development against HCoVs, particularly severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). MAIN TEXT: A scoping review was conducted by electronically searching research studies, reviews, and clinical trials in PubMed and the CNKI. Studies on HCoVs and therapeutic drug discovery published between January 2000 and October 2020 and in English or Chinese were included, and the information was summarized. Of the 3248 studies identified, 159 publication were finally included. Advances in drug development against HCoV, especially SARS-CoV-2, are summarized under three categories: antiviral drugs aimed at inhibiting the HCoV proliferation process, drugs acting on the host's immune system, and drugs derived from plants with potent activity. Furthermore, clinical trials of drugs targeting SARS-CoV-2 are summarized. CONCLUSIONS: During the spread of COVID-19 outbreak, great efforts have been made in therapeutic drug discovery against the virus, although the pharmacological effects and adverse reactions of some drugs under study are still unclear. However, well-designed high-quality studies are needed to further study the effectiveness and safety of these potential drugs so as to provide valid recommendations for better control of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/physiology , Drug Discovery , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Drug Development , Drug Discovery/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
18.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 23(2): 201-220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088851

ABSTRACT

Months after WHO declared COVID-19 as a Global Public Health Emergency of International Concern, it does not seem to be flattening the curve as we are still devoid of an effective treatment modality and vaccination is in the first phase in many countries. Amid such uncertainty, being immune is the best strategy to defend against corona attacks. As the whole world is referring back to immune-boosting traditional remedies, interest is rekindled in the Indian system of Medicine, which is gifted with an abundance of herbal medicines as well as remedies. Among them, spices (root, rhizome, seed, fruit, leaf, bud, and flower of various plants used to add taste and flavors to food) are bestowed with immense medicinal potential. A plethora of clinical as well as preclinical studies reported the effectiveness of various spices for various ailments. The potential immune-boosting properties together with their excellent safety profiles are making spices the current choice of phytoresearch as well as the immune-boosting home remedies during these sceptical times. The present review critically evaluates the immune impact of various Indian spices and their potential to tackle the novel coronavirus, with comments on the safety and toxicity aspects of spices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , SARS-CoV-2 , Spices
19.
Pharmacol Res ; 166: 105472, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084633

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has now rapidly spread around the world, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. To develop effective and safe therapies for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 has become the major global public health concern. Traditional medicine (TM)/herbal medicines (HMs) have been used to treat multiple epidemics in human history, which brings hope for the fight against COVID-19 in some areas. For example, in China, India, and South Korea with traditional medication history and theory, the governments issued a series of guidelines to support TM/HMs in the medication of COVID-19. In contrast, other countries e.g. North American and European governments are typically silent on these practices, unless to warn of possible harm and overselling. Such difference is due to the discrepancy in culture, history and philosophical views of health care and medication, as well as unharmonized policies and standards in the regulation and legalization of TM/HMs among different areas. Herein, we reviewed the responses and scientific researches from seven selected countries on the policies and legalization of TM/HMs to treat COVID-19, and also analyzed the major challenges and concerns to utilize the traditional knowledge and resource.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Complementary Therapies/legislation & jurisprudence , Drug Approval/legislation & jurisprudence , Global Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Medicine, Traditional , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Healthcare Disparities/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Policy Making
20.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(1): 23-33, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066152

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the development of various branches of sciences, we will be able to resolve different clinical aspects of various diseases better. The convergence of these sciences can potentially tackle the new corona crisis. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we attempted to explore and describe various scientific branches studying COVID-19. We have reviewed the literature focusing on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19. The primary databases targeted were Science Direct, Scopus and PubMed. The most relevant reports from the recent two decades were collected utilizing keywords including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, COVID-19, epidemiology, therapeutics and diagnosis. EXPERT OPINION: Based on this literature review, both traditional and emerging approaches are vital for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. The traditional sciences play an essential role in the preventive and supportive care of corona infection, and modern technologies appear to be useful in the development of precise diagnosis and powerful treatment approaches for this disease. Indeed, the integration of these sciences will help us to fight COVID-19 disease more efficiently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Computational Biology , Humans , Life Style , Medicine, Traditional , Nutritional Support
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