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1.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438743

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The availability of effective and well-tolerated antiviral drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 patients is still very limited. Traditional herbal medicines elicit antiviral activity against various viruses and might therefore represent a promising option for the complementary treatment of COVID-19 patients. The application of turmeric root in herbal medicine has a very long history. Its bioactive ingredient curcumin shows a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of aqueous turmeric root extract, the dissolved content of a curcumin-containing nutritional supplement capsule, and pure curcumin against SARS-CoV-2. Turmeric root extract, dissolved turmeric capsule content, and pure curcumin effectively neutralized SARS-CoV-2 at subtoxic concentrations in Vero E6 and human Calu-3 cells. Furthermore, curcumin treatment significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels in cell culture supernatants. Our data uncover curcumin as a promising compound for complementary COVID-19 treatment. Curcumin concentrations contained in turmeric root or capsules used as nutritional supplements completely neutralized SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Our data argue in favor of appropriate and carefully monitored clinical studies that vigorously test the effectiveness of complementary treatment of COVID-19 patients with curcumin-containing products.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Curcuma/metabolism , Curcumin/metabolism , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Medicine, Traditional/methods , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112221, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432982

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 global epidemic caused by coronavirus has affected the health and other aspects of life for more than one year. Despite the current pharmacotherapies, there is still no specific treatment, and studies are in progress to find a proper therapy with high efficacy and low side effects. In this way, Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), due to its holistic view, can provide recommendations for the prevention and treatment of new diseases such as COVID-19. The muco-obstruction of the airway, which occurs in SARS-CoV-2, has similar features in TPM textbooks that can lead us to new treatment approaches. Based on TPM and pharmacological studies, Cinnamomum verum (Darchini)'s potential effective functions can contribute to SARS-CoV-2 infection treatment and has been known to be effective in corona disease in Public beliefs. From the viewpoint of TPM theories, Cinnamon can be effective in SARS-CoV-2 improvement and treatment through its anti-obstructive, diuretic, tonic and antidote effects. In addition, there is pharmacological evidence on anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, organ-o-protective and anti-depression effects of Cinnamon that are in line with the therapeutic functions mentioned in TPM.Overall, Cinnamon and its ingredients can be recommended for SARS-CoV2 management due to multi-targeting therapies. This review provides basic information for future studies on this drug's effectiveness in preventing and treating COVID-19 and similar diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Traditional/methods , Plants, Medicinal , Treatment Outcome
3.
Rev Environ Health ; 36(3): 391-396, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914288

ABSTRACT

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), viral diseases continue to rise, and pose a significant public health problem. Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. The pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of COVID-19 is close to Amraz-e-Wabai (epidemic diseases) which was described by Hippocrates, Galen, Aristotle, Razes, Haly Abbas, Avicenna, Jurjani etc. Presently, there is no specific or challenging treatment available for COVID-19. Renowned Unani Scholars recommended during epidemic situation to stay at home, and fumigate the shelters with aromatics herbs like Ood kham (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.), Kundur (Boswellia serrata Roxb), Kafoor (Cinnamomum camphora L.), Sandal (Santalum album L), Hing (Ferula foetida L.) etc. Use of specific Unani formulations are claimed effective for the management of such epidemic or pandemic situation like antidotes (Tiryaqe Wabai, Tiryaqe Arba, Tiryaqe Azam, Gile Armani), Herbal Decoction (Joshandah), along with Sharbate Khaksi, Habbe Bukhar, Sharbate Zanjabeel, Khamira Marwareed, Jawarish Jalinus, and Sirka (vinegar). Such drugs are claimed for use as antioxidant, immunomodulatory, cardiotonic, and general tonic actions. The study enumerates the literature regarding management of epidemics in Unani medicine and attempts to look the same in the perspective of COVID-19 prevention and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Medicine, Traditional/methods , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , India/epidemiology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Pandemics , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilation
4.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 183: 114278, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-845710

ABSTRACT

Baking soda and vinegar have been used as home remedies for generations and today we are only a mouse-click away from claims that baking soda, lemon juice, and apple cider vinegar are miracles cures for everything from cancer to COVID-19. Despite these specious claims, the therapeutic value of controlling acid-base balance is indisputable and is the basis of Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for constipation, epilepsy, metabolic acidosis, and peptic ulcers. In this narrative review, we present evidence in support of the current and potential therapeutic value of countering local and systemic acid-base imbalances, several of which do in fact involve the administration of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate). Furthermore, we discuss the side effects of pharmaceuticals on acid-base balance as well as the influence of acid-base status on the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. Our review considers all major organ systems as well as information relevant to several clinical specialties such as anesthesiology, infectious disease, oncology, dentistry, and surgery.


Subject(s)
Acid-Base Equilibrium/physiology , Acid-Base Imbalance/metabolism , Acid-Base Imbalance/therapy , Acid-Base Equilibrium/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Homeostasis/drug effects , Homeostasis/physiology , Humans , Medicine, Traditional/methods , Medicine, Traditional/trends , Sodium Bicarbonate/administration & dosage , Sodium Bicarbonate/metabolism
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113319, 2021 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-735232

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Due to the outbreaks such as SARS, bird flu and swine flu, which we frequently encounter in our century, we need fast solutions with no side effects today more than ever. Due to having vast ethnomedical experience and the richest flora (34% endemic) of Europe and the Middle East, Turkey has a high potential for research on this topic. Plants that locals have been using for centuries for the prevention and treatment of influenza can offer effective alternatives to combat this problem. In this context, 224 herbal taxa belonging to 45 families were identified among the selected 81 studies conducted in the seven regions of Turkey. However, only 35 (15.6%) of them were found to be subjected to worldwide in vitro and in vivo research conducted on anti-influenza activity. Quercetin and chlorogenic acid, the effectiveness of which has been proven many times in this context, have been recorded as the most common (7.1%) active ingredients among the other 56 active substances identified. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study has been carried out to reveal the inventory of plant species that have been used in flu treatment for centuries in Turkish folk medicine, which could be used in the treatment of flu or flu-like pandemics, such as COVID 19, that humanity has been suffering with, and also compare them with experimental studies in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigation was conducted in two stages on the subject above by using electronic databases, such as Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, Medline, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, HighWire Press, PubMed and Google Scholar. The results of both scans are presented in separate tables, together with their regional comparative analysis. RESULTS: Data obtained on taxa are presented in a table, including anti-influenza mechanism of actions and the active substances. Rosa canina (58.7%) and Mentha x piperita (22.2%) were identified as the most common plants used in Turkey. Also, Sambucus nigra (11.6%), Olea europaea (9.3%), Eucalyptus spp., Melissa officinalis, and Origanum vulgare (7.0%) emerged as the most investigated taxa. CONCLUSION: This is the first nationwide ethnomedical screening work conducted on flu treatment with plants in Turkey. Thirty-nine plants have been confirmed in the recent experimental anti-influenza research, which strongly shows that these plants are a rich pharmacological source. Also, with 189 (84.4%) taxa, detections that have not been investigated yet, they are an essential resource for both national and international pharmacological researchers in terms of new natural medicine searches. Considering that the production of antimalarial drugs and their successful use against COVID-19 has begun, this correlation was actually a positive and remarkable piece of data, since there are 15 plants, including Centaurea drabifolia subsp. Phlocosa (an endemic taxon), that were found to be used in the treatment of both flu and malaria.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections , Ethnopharmacology/methods , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Pandemics , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Medicine, Traditional/methods , Phytotherapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey
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