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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235659

ABSTRACT

The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment analyzes the health and quality of life of the elderly. Basic and instrumental daily activities may be compromised due to neuroimmunoendocrine changes, and studies suggest that possible immunological changes occur during infections in the elderly. Thus, this study aimed to analyze cytokine and melatonin levels in serum and correlate the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in elderly patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The sample consisted of 73 elderly individuals, 43 of whom were without infection and 30 of whom had positive diagnoses of COVID-19. Blood samples were collected to quantify cytokines by flow cytometry and melatonin by ELISA. In addition, structured and validated questionnaires were applied to assess basic (Katz) and instrumental (Lawton and Brody) activities. There was an increase in IL-6, IL-17, and melatonin in the group of elderly individuals with infection. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between melatonin and IL-6 and IL-17 in elderly patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, there was a reduction in the score of the Lawton and Brody Scale in the infected elderly. These data suggest that the melatonin hormone and inflammatory cytokines are altered in the serum of the elderly with SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, there is a degree of dependence, mainly regarding the performance of daily instrumental activities, in the elderly. The considerable impact on the elderly person's ability to perform everyday tasks necessary for independent living is an extremely important result, and changes in cytokines and melatonin probably are associated with alterations in these daily activities of the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Humans , Aged , Interleukin-17 , Quality of Life , Interleukin-6 , Activities of Daily Living , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Mol Biol Rep ; 50(7): 5827-5836, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is thought to play a significant role in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19. Additionally, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression may predict the severity and clinical course of COVID-19. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of oxidative stress and ACE2 expression with the clinical severity in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study comprised 40 patients with COVID-19 and 40 matched healthy controls, recruited between September 2021 and March 2022. ACE 2 expression levels were measured using Hera plus SYBR Green qPCR kits with GAPDH used as an internal control. Serum melatonin (MLT) levels, serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were estimated using ELISA. The correlations between the levels of the studied markers and clinical indicators of disease severity were evaluated. Significantly, lower expression of ACE2 was observed in COVID-19 patients compared to controls. Patients with COVID-19 had lower serum levels of TAC and MLT but higher serum levels of MDA compared to normal controls. Serum MDA levels were correlated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores, and serum potassium levels. Serum MLT levels were positively correlated with DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory rate, and serum potassium levels. TAC was correlated with GCS, mean platelet volume, and serum creatinine levels. Serum MLT levels were significantly lower in patients treated with remdesivir and inotropes. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrates that all markers had utility in discriminating COVID-19 patients from healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Increased oxidative stress and increased ACE2 expression were correlated with disease severity and poor outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the present study. Melatonin supplementation may provide a utility as an adjuvant therapy in decreasing disease severity and death in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Patient Acuity , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism
3.
Cells ; 12(9)2023 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Here, we assess the effect of adjuvant antioxidant therapies in septic shock patients with organ dysfunction and their effect on the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems. METHODS: Randomized clinical trial run between 2018 and 2022. One hundred and thirty-one patients with septic shock were included in five groups with 25, 27, 24, 26 and 29 patients each. Group 1 received vitamin C (Vit C), Group 2 vitamin E (Vit E), Group 3 n-acetylcysteine (NAC), Group 4 melatonin (MT) and group 5 no treatment. All antioxidants were administered orally or through a nasogastric tube for 5 days as an adjuvant to standard therapy. RESULTS: All patients had multiple organ failure (MOF) and low Vit C levels. Vit C therapy decreased CRP, PCT and NO3-/NO2- but increased Vit C levels. The SOFA score decreased with MT in 75%, Vit C 63% and NAC 50% vs. controls 33% (p = 0.0001, p = 0.03 and p = 0.001 respectively). MT diminished lipid peroxidation (LPO) (p = 0.01) and improved total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (p = 0.04). Vit E increased thiol levels (p = 0.02) and tended to decrease LPO (p = 0.06). Selenium levels were decreased in the control group (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Antioxidants used as an adjuvant therapy in the standard treatment of septic shock decrease MOF and oxidative stress markers. They increase the TAC and thiols, and maintain selenium levels.


Subject(s)
Melatonin , Selenium , Shock, Septic , Humans , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/drug therapy , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Vitamin E/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Vitamins , Intensive Care Units
4.
Cells ; 12(6)2023 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299608

ABSTRACT

Melatonin is a neurohormone that is mainly secreted by the pineal gland. It coordinates the work of the superior biological clock and consequently affects many processes in the human body. Disorders of the waking and sleeping period result in nervous system imbalance and generate metabolic and endocrine derangements. The purpose of this review is to provide information regarding the potential benefits of melatonin use, particularly in kidney diseases. The impact on the cardiovascular system, diabetes, and homeostasis causes melatonin to be indirectly connected to kidney function and quality of life in people with chronic kidney disease. Moreover, there are numerous reports showing that melatonin plays a role as an antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and cytoprotective agent. This means that the supplementation of melatonin can be helpful in almost every type of kidney injury because inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress occur, regardless of the mechanism. The administration of melatonin has a renoprotective effect and inhibits the progression of complications connected to renal failure. It is very important that exogenous melatonin supplementation is well tolerated and that the number of side effects caused by this type of treatment is low.


Subject(s)
Melatonin , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Melatonin/metabolism , Quality of Life , Antioxidants/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305444

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis as a highly prevalent chronic infection/inflammatory disease can eventually lead to tooth loss and masticatory dysfunction. It also has a negative impact on general health and largely impairs quality of life. The tissue destruction during periodontitis is mainly caused by the excessive immune-inflammatory response; hence, how to modulate the host's reaction is of profound importance for effective periodontal treatment and tissue protection. Melatonin, as an endogenous hormone exhibiting multiple biological functions such as circadian rhythm regulation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammation, has been widely used in general healthcare. Notably, the past few years have witnessed increasing evidence for the application of melatonin as an adjunctive approach in the treatment of periodontitis and periodontitis-related systemic comorbidities. The detailed underlying mechanisms and more verification from clinical practice are still lacking, however, and further investigations are highly required. Importantly, it is essential to establish standard guidelines in the near future for the clinical administration of melatonin for periodontal health and general wellbeing.


Subject(s)
Melatonin , Periodontitis , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology
7.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 83(2): 86-94, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237317

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to measure the melatonin levels in COVID-19 positive patients and to investigate the relationship of these levels with depression, death anxiety and insomnia. COVID-19 positive pneumonia group, COVID-19 negative pneumonia group and healthy control groups were included in the study. Melatonin ELISA kit was used. Blood samples were taken at 23:00 h (h), 02:00 h and 06:00 h. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Templer Death Anxiety Scale (TDAS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were employed to collect data from the participants. The melatonin levels of COVID-19 positive patients at 23:00 h were lower than the control group. In addition, and the melatonin levels of COVID-19 positive patients at 02:00 h and at 06:00 h were lower than both the COVID-19 negative patient group and the control group. It was observed that the peak melatonin concentration of COVID-19 positive patients occurred at 06:00 h. BDI, TDAS and ISI scores of COVID-19 positive patients were higher than other groups. There was a negative correlation between BDI, TDAS, ISI scores of COVID-19 positive patients and their melatonin levels. The correlation between all scale scores and melatonin levels was higher at 02:00 h. Adding melatonin to the treatment of COVID-19 positive patients may be beneficial for these patients experiencing high levels of depression, anxiety and insomnia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Depression/complications , Anxiety
8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 29(5): 623-628, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234885

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of melatonin versus placebo on the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients treated with polymyxin B. METHODS: We performed a single-centre, double-blind, randomized clinical trial (NCT03725267) of 30-mg oral melatonin versus placebo for patients treated with intravenous polymyxin B. Patients aged ≥18 years receiving polymyxin B for ≤48 hours were eligible. Melatonin or placebo pills were administered until the end of polymyxin B treatment or for a maximum of 14 days. The main outcome was any level of AKI. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were randomized: 44 in the melatonin group and 44 in the placebo group. The study ended prematurely because of polymyxin B shortage during the COVID-19 pandemic. The patients' mean age was 63.6 ± 17.3 years, and 60.2% of the patients were men. Forty-six (52.3%, 23 in each group) patients developed AKI during the follow-up period. The incidence rate of AKI was 81.9/1000 and 77.4/1000 patients per day in melatonin and placebo groups, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.61-1.94; p 0.78). Renal failure and 30-day mortality were similar between the groups. Moreover, the incidence of AKI was not different in pre-specified sub-groups. DISCUSSION: Melatonin initiated in the first 48 hours of therapy did not reduce the incidence of AKI in patients treated with polymyxin B.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Melatonin , Male , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Polymyxin B/adverse effects , Melatonin/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 164: 114291, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2176765

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is known as one of the most known challenge worldwide. Numerous studies have tried to introduce different mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and efforts in this field are also ongoing. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in feces of COVID-19 patients along with a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms may show a significant association between gut microbiota and SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the exact mechanism indicating how SARS-CoV-2 and gut flora influence each other remains unknown. This paper aims to introduce a possible molecular mechanism based on recent findings on the association between circadian rhythm and gut flora in COVID-19 patients to express a new insight into the probable mechanism of melatonin in protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Humans , Gastrointestinal Tract , Lung , Melatonin/metabolism , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166968

ABSTRACT

Aging processes, including immunosenescence, inflammation, inflammasome formation, genomic instability, telomeric attrition, and altered autophagy, are involved in viral infections and they may contribute to increased pathophysiological responses to the SARS-CoV-2 infection in the elderly; this poses additional risks of accelerated aging, which could be found even after recovery. Aging is associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infections may increase the production of reactive oxygen species and such infections will disturb the Ca++ balance via an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated unfolded protein response. Although vaccine development and anti-inflammation therapy lower the severity of COVID-19, the prevalence and mortality rates are still alarming in some countries worldwide. In this review, we describe the involvement of viral proteins in activating ER stress transducers and their downstream signals and in inducing inflammation and inflammasome formation. Furthermore, we propose the potential of melatonin as an ER stress modulator, owing to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunoregulatory effects in viral infections. Considering its strong safety profile, we suggest that additive melatonin supplementation in the elderly could be beneficial in treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Humans , Aged , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Melatonin/pharmacology , Inflammasomes , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(39): e30874, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the common signs of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath, and dyspnea, with multiple organ injuries in severe cases. Therefore, finding drugs to prevent and treat COVID-19 is urgently needed and expected by the public. Several studies suggested beneficial effects of melatonin for the relevant prevention and treatment. To explore the effect and safety of melatonin in the treatment and provide theoretical support and reference for seeking the most suitable drug for COVID-19, the meta-analysis was carried out accordingly. METHODS: It included randomized clinical trials of patients with COVID-19 treated with melatonin. Total effective rate was the primary outcome, while C-reactive protein (CRP), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), white blood cell count (WBC) were the secondary measures. Random-effect and fixed-effect models were used to evaluate the effect size of some indicators in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: Six eligible studies with 338 participants were included. One hundred seventy subjects were treated with melatonin adjuvant therapy and 168 subjects were assigned to the control group, with total excellent effective rate in subjects treated with melatonin [odds ratio = 3.05, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.47, 6.31, P = .003]. Homogeneity was analyzed by fixed effect model (I2 = 0%). There was no significant difference in CRP between the melatonin group and the control group (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -0.36, 95% CI = -3.65, 2.92, P = .83). Significant difference was not existed in SaO2 between the melatonin treatment group and the control group (WMD = 1, 95% CI = -1.21, 3.22, P = .37). In terms of WBC, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (WMD = -1.07, 95% CI = -2.44, 0.30, P = .13). CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis showed that melatonin had the beneficial effects for COVID-19 prevention and treatment as an adjunctive agent in combination with basic treatment for the treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Melatonin , C-Reactive Protein , Cough/drug therapy , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Humans , Melatonin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099677

ABSTRACT

Melatonin has become a popular dietary supplement, most known as a chronobiotic, and for establishing healthy sleep. Research over the last decade into cancer, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, fertility, PCOS, and many other conditions, combined with the COVID-19 pandemic, has led to greater awareness of melatonin because of its ability to act as a potent antioxidant, immune-active agent, and mitochondrial regulator. There are distinct similarities between melatonin and vitamin D in the depth and breadth of their impact on health. Both act as hormones, affect multiple systems through their immune-modulating, anti-inflammatory functions, are found in the skin, and are responsive to sunlight and darkness. In fact, there may be similarities between the widespread concern about vitamin D deficiency as a "sunlight deficiency" and reduced melatonin secretion as a result of "darkness deficiency" from overexposure to artificial blue light. The trend toward greater use of melatonin supplements has resulted in concern about its safety, especially higher doses, long-term use, and application in certain populations (e.g., children). This review aims to evaluate the recent data on melatonin's mechanisms, its clinical uses beyond sleep, safety concerns, and a thorough summary of therapeutic considerations concerning dietary supplementation, including the different formats available (animal, synthetic, and phytomelatonin), dosing, timing, contraindications, and nutrient combinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Animals , Antioxidants , Circadian Rhythm , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Humans , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Vitamins
13.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099332

ABSTRACT

Clinical sequelae and symptoms for a considerable number of COVID-19 patients can linger for months beyond the acute stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection, "long COVID". Among the long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection, cognitive issues (especially memory loss or "brain fog"), chronic fatigue, myalgia, and muscular weakness resembling myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are of importance. Melatonin may be particularly effective at reducing the signs and symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection due to its functions as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immuno-modulatory agent. Melatonin is also a chronobiotic medication effective in treating delirium and restoring the circadian imbalance seen in COVID patients in the intensive care unit. Additionally, as a cytoprotector, melatonin aids in the prevention of several COVID-19 comorbidities, including diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and ischemic and non-ischemic cardiovascular diseases. This narrative review discusses the application of melatonin as a neuroprotective agent to control cognitive deterioration ("brain fog") and pain in the ME/CFS syndrome-like documented in long COVID. Further studies on the therapeutic use of melatonin in the neurological sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Melatonin , Humans , Melatonin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/drug therapy , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/diagnosis , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
14.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071652

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant (B.529) of COVID-19 caused disease outbreaks worldwide because of its contagious and diverse mutations. To reduce these outbreaks, therapeutic drugs and adjuvant vaccines have been applied for the treatment of the disease. However, these drugs have not shown high efficacy in reducing COVID-19 severity, and even antiviral drugs have not shown to be effective. Researchers thus continue to search for an effective adjuvant therapy with a combination of drugs or vaccines to treat COVID-19 disease. We were motivated to consider melatonin as a defensive agent against SARS-CoV-2 because of its various unique properties. Over 200 scientific publications have shown the significant effects of melatonin in treating diseases, with strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. Melatonin has a high safety profile, but it needs further clinical trials and experiments for use as a therapeutic agent against the Omicron variant of COVID-19. It might immediately be able to prevent the development of severe symptoms caused by the coronavirus and can reduce the severity of the infection by improving immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Melatonin , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Antioxidants , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
15.
Life Sci ; 307: 120866, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049614

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is associated with the dynamic changes in coagulation parameters. Coagulopathy is considered as a major extra-pulmonary risk factor for severity and mortality of COVID-19; patients with elevated levels of coagulation biomarkers have poorer in-hospital outcomes. Oxidative stress, alterations in the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, development of the cytokine storm and inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) enzyme malfunction and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance are among other mechanisms suggested to be involved in the coagulopathy induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The activity and function of coagulation factors are reported to have a circadian component. Melatonin, a multipotential neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland exclusively at night, regulates the cytokine system and the coagulation cascade in infections such as those caused by coronaviruses. Herein, we review the mechanisms and beneficial effects of melatonin against coagulopathy induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/pharmacology , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2550: 29-32, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047963

ABSTRACT

Melatonin synthesis by extrapineal sources adjusts physiological and pathophysiological processes in several types of cells and tissues. As measuring locally produced melatonin in fresh tissues might be a challenge due to limited material availability, we created a simple predictive model, the MEL-Index, which infers the content of tissue melatonin using gene expression data. The MEL-Index can be a powerful tool to study the role of melatonin in different contexts. Applying the MEL-Index method to RNA-seq datasets, we have shed light into the clinical relevance of melatonin as a modulator tumor progression and lung infection due to COVID-19. The MEL-Index combines the z-normalized expressions of ASMT (Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase), last enzyme of the biosynthetic pathway, and CYP1B1 (cytochrome P450 family enzyme), which encodes the enzyme that metabolizes melatonin in extrahepatic tissues. In this chapter, we describe the steps for calculating the MEL-Index.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase/genetics , Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Gene Expression , Humans , Melatonin/metabolism
17.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994115

ABSTRACT

Carotenoid succinates were synthesized from hydroxy carotenoids and were coupled to a commercially available derivative of melatonin via amide bond for producing more powerful anti-oxidants and yet new hybrid lipophilic bifunctional molecules with additional therapeutic effects. The coupling reactions produced conjugates in acceptable to good yields. Succinylation increased the water solubility of the carotenoids, while the conjugation with melatonin resulted in more lipophilic derivatives. The conjugates showed self-assembly in aqueous medium and yielded relatively stable colloidal solutions in phosphate-buffered saline. Antioxidant behavior was measured with ABTS and the FRAP methods for the carotenoids, the carotenoid succinates, and the conjugates with melatonin. A strong dependence on the quality of the solvent was observed. TEAC values of the new derivatives in phosphate-buffered saline were found to be comparable to or higher than those of parent carotenoids, however, synergism was observed only in FRAP assays.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Melatonin , Antioxidants/chemistry , Carotenoids/chemistry , Phosphates , Succinates
18.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 35(4): 695-707, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963338

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to help determine the effect of dietary supplements on symptom course and quality of life in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 infection. DESIGN: We modified the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS) to conduct a 3 arm, parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, enrolling patients with mild-to-moderate symptoms of COVID-19 infection. Patients took placebo (n = 34), vitamin C 1000 mg (n = 32), or melatonin 10 mg (n = 32) orally for 14 days. OUTCOMES: Ninety Eight (98 out of 104 recruited; mean age = 52 years) patients completed the study. Outcomes were calculated as differences from baseline scores on each of 2 WURSS-derived surveys and analyzed using a spline regression analysis. Regarding symptom progression, those patients taking placebo and vitamin C progressed at the same rate. When compared with those taking placebo (coefficient = -1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.39 to -0.8) the group taking melatonin had a faster resolution of symptoms (coefficient = -0.63 [95% CI -1.02 to -0.21] P = .003). By day 14 all 3 groups had reached plateau.Quality-of-life impact analysis demonstrated that the group taking vitamin C improved at the same rate as the group taking placebo (coefficient = -0.71 (95% CI = -1.11 to -0.3)). The group taking melatonin (coefficient = -1.16 (95% CI = -1.75 to - 0.57) P < .005) had a faster improvement in quality-of-life. By day 14 all 3 groups had reached plateau. CONCLUSION: Vitamin C 1000 mg once daily has no effect on disease progression. Melatonin 10 mg daily may have a statistically significant effect but it is unclear if this represents a clinically significant benefit to those with mild-to-moderate symptoms of COVID-19 infection. Further study is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Melatonin , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Melatonin/adverse effects , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Vitamins/therapeutic use
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957346

ABSTRACT

The relentless, protracted evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus imposes tremendous pressure on herd immunity and demands versatile adaptations by the human host genome to counter transcriptomic and epitranscriptomic alterations associated with a wide range of short- and long-term manifestations during acute infection and post-acute recovery, respectively. To promote viral replication during active infection and viral persistence, the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein regulates host cell microenvironment including pH and ion concentrations to maintain a high oxidative environment that supports template switching, causing extensive mitochondrial damage and activation of pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling cascades. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial distress induce dynamic changes to both the host and viral RNA m6A methylome, and can trigger the derepression of long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE1), resulting in global hypomethylation, epigenetic changes, and genomic instability. The timely application of melatonin during early infection enhances host innate antiviral immune responses by preventing the formation of "viral factories" by nucleocapsid liquid-liquid phase separation that effectively blockades viral genome transcription and packaging, the disassembly of stress granules, and the sequestration of DEAD-box RNA helicases, including DDX3X, vital to immune signaling. Melatonin prevents membrane depolarization and protects cristae morphology to suppress glycolysis via antioxidant-dependent and -independent mechanisms. By restraining the derepression of LINE1 via multifaceted strategies, and maintaining the balance in m6A RNA modifications, melatonin could be the quintessential ancient molecule that significantly influences the outcome of the constant struggle between virus and host to gain transcriptomic and epitranscriptomic dominance over the host genome during acute infection and PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
20.
J Bras Pneumol ; 48(3): e20220191, 2022 07 08.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935014
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