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1.
Hum Genomics ; 16(1): 60, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The interferon-induced transmembrane-protein 3 (IFITM3) is a vital component of the immune system's defense against viral infection. Variants in the IFITM3 gene have been linked to changes in expression and the risk of severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate whether IFITM3 rs6598045, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants are associated with an increased mortality rate of COVID-19. METHODS: The genotyping of IFITM3 rs6598045 polymorphism was analyzed using the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction in 1342 recovered and 1149 deceased patients positive for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: In this study, IFITM3 rs6598045 G allele as minor allele frequency was significantly more common in the deceased patients than in the recovered ones. Furthermore, the highest mortality rates were observed in Delta variant and lowest qPCR Ct values. COVID-19 mortality was associated with IFITM3 rs6598045 GG and AG in Delta variant and IFITM3 rs6598045 AG in Alpha variant. A statistically significant difference was observed in the qPCR Ct values between individuals with GG and AG genotypes and those with an AA genotype. CONCLUSION: A possible correlation was observed between the mortality rate of COVID-19, the G allele of IFITM3 rs6598045, and SARS-CoV-2 variants. However, large-scale research is still required to validate our results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Alleles , Genotype , Membrane Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics
2.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116258

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has become a global threat to public health. Infected individuals can be asymptomatic or develop mild to severe symptoms, including pneumonia, respiratory distress, and death. This wide spectrum of clinical presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection is believed in part due to the polymorphisms of key genetic factors in the population. In this study, we report that the interferon-induced antiviral factor IFITM3 inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection by preventing SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein-mediated virus entry and cell-to-cell fusion. Analysis of a Chinese COVID-19 patient cohort demonstrates that the rs12252 CC genotype of IFITM3 is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection risk in the studied cohort. These data suggest that individuals carrying the rs12252 C allele in the IFITM3 gene may be vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and thus may benefit from early medical intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Membrane Proteins , RNA-Binding Proteins , Humans , Alleles , COVID-19/genetics , Interferons , Membrane Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Susceptibility
3.
Vet Microbiol ; 275: 109597, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086823

ABSTRACT

Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are broad-spectrum antiviral proteins that inhibit numerous virus infections by impeding viral entry into target cells. However, increasing evidence suggests diverse functions of IFITMs in virus infection, especially with the coronavirus. We analyzed the effect of chicken interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (chIFITMs) on coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection in vitro. We demonstrated that the antiviral effects of IFITMs are dependent on cell and virus types. The overexpression of chIFITM1 dramatically promoted the replication of IBV Beaudette strain in the chicken hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, LMH. Mechanistically, chIFITMs share roughly the same subcellular localization in different host cells, and overexpressed of chIFITM1 have no effect of viral attachment and entry. Further studies revealed that mutations of amino acids at key positions (60KSRD63, 68KDFV71) in the intracellular loop domain (CIL) caused loss of the promoted function. Interaction with downstream proteins in co-response to viral infection could be the primary reason behind variable functions of chIFITM1 in different cells. In all, our study explored the functions of chIFITMs in viral infection from a new perspective.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Animals , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Interferons/pharmacology , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
4.
PLoS Biol ; 20(10): e3001805, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065095

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is mediated by the entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Although attachment factors and coreceptors facilitating entry are extensively studied, cellular entry factors inhibiting viral entry are largely unknown. Using a surfaceome CRISPR activation screen, we identified human LRRC15 as an inhibitory attachment factor for SARS-CoV-2 entry. LRRC15 directly binds to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike protein with a moderate affinity and inhibits spike-mediated entry. Analysis of human lung single-cell RNA sequencing dataset reveals that expression of LRRC15 is primarily detected in fibroblasts and particularly enriched in pathological fibroblasts in COVID-19 patients. ACE2 and LRRC15 are not coexpressed in the same cell types in the lung. Strikingly, expression of LRRC15 in ACE2-negative cells blocks spike-mediated viral entry in ACE2+ cell in trans, suggesting a protective role of LRRC15 in a physiological context. Therefore, LRRC15 represents an inhibitory attachment factor for SARS-CoV-2 that regulates viral entry in trans.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Protein Binding , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism
5.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 22(9): 881-894, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062687

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Nanoparticle-based biosensors (NPBs) are point-of-care diagnostic platforms that can be used for detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with high accuracy. AREAS COVERED: EBSCOhost Web, Embase, ProQuest, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and WHO Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) were searched for relevant records published from 1 November 2019 to 30 April 2022. Records reporting original data on the accuracy of clinically applied nanoparticle-based biosensors at detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA and surface proteins from pharyngeal swab specimens were considered. Findings were reported based on the PRISMA 2020 statement. The QUADAS-2 tool was used for assessment of quality and risk of bias among the included studies. EXPERT OPINION: A total of 50 relevant records were identified, of which 13 were included. The included studies explored the diagnostic performance of 13 clinically applied distinct nanoparticle-based biosensors in a total of 789 pharyngeal swabs collected from 376 COVID-19 patients and 413 otherwise healthy individuals. The mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 97.07%, 94.43%, and 96.91%, respectively, in comparison to RT-qPCR as the reference test. Considering their ease-of-operation, portability, low-cost manufacturing, NPBs could be considered suitable candidate diagnostic platforms for substituting RT-qPCR.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
J Mol Biol ; 434(6): 167277, 2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061566

ABSTRACT

Establishment of the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral state provides a crucial initial line of defense against viral infection. Numerous genes that contribute to this antiviral state remain to be identified. Using a loss-of-function strategy, we screened an original library of 1156 siRNAs targeting 386 individual curated human genes in stimulated microglial cells infected with Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging RNA virus that belongs to the flavivirus genus. The screen recovered twenty-one potential host proteins that modulate ZIKV replication in an IFN-dependent manner, including the previously known IFITM3 and LY6E. Further characterization contributed to delineate the spectrum of action of these genes towards other pathogenic RNA viruses, including Hepatitis C virus and SARS-CoV-2. Our data revealed that APOL3 acts as a proviral factor for ZIKV and several other related and unrelated RNA viruses. In addition, we showed that MTA2, a chromatin remodeling factor, possesses potent flavivirus-specific antiviral functions induced by IFN. Our work identified previously unrecognized genes that modulate the replication of RNA viruses in an IFN-dependent manner, opening new perspectives to target weakness points in the life cycle of these viruses.


Subject(s)
Flavivirus , Interferons , Virus Replication , Apolipoproteins L/genetics , Apolipoproteins L/metabolism , Flavivirus/physiology , Histone Deacetylases/genetics , Histone Deacetylases/metabolism , Humans , Interferons/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Zika Virus/physiology
7.
mBio ; 13(5): e0254322, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053129

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has had a devastating impact on global public health, emphasizing the importance of understanding innate immune mechanisms and cellular restriction factors that cells can harness to fight viral infections. The multimembrane-spanning zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24 is one such restriction factor. ZMPSTE24 has a well-characterized proteolytic role in the maturation of prelamin A, precursor of the nuclear scaffold protein lamin A. An apparently unrelated role for ZMPSTE24 in viral defense involves its interaction with the interferon-inducible membrane proteins (IFITMs), which block virus-host cell fusion by rigidifying cellular membranes and thereby prevent viral infection. ZMPSTE24, like the IFITMs, defends cells against a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses. However, its ability to protect against coronaviruses has never been examined. Here, we show that overexpression of ZMPSTE24 reduces the efficiency of cellular infection by SARS-CoV-2 Spike-pseudotyped lentivirus and that genetic knockout or small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous ZMPSTE24 enhances infectivity. We further demonstrate a protective role for ZMPSTE24 in a Spike-ACE2-dependent cell-cell fusion assay. In both assays, a catalytic dead version of ZMPSTE24 is equally as protective as the wild-type protein, indicating that ZMPSTE24's proteolytic activity is not required for defense against SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we demonstrate by plaque assays that Zmpste24-/- mouse cells show enhanced infection by a genuine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). This study extends the range of viral protection afforded by ZMPSTE24 to include coronaviruses and suggests that targeting ZMPSTE24's mechanism of viral defense could have therapeutic benefit. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has underscored the importance of understanding intrinsic cellular components that can be harnessed as the cell's first line of defense to fight against viral infection. Our paper focuses on one such protein, the integral membrane protease ZMPSTE24, which interacts with interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs). IFITMs interfere with virus entry by inhibiting fusion between viral and host cell membranes, and ZMPSTE24 appears to contribute to this inhibitory activity. ZMPSTE24 has been shown to defend cells against several, but not all, enveloped viruses. In this study, we extend ZMPSTE24's reach to include coronaviruses, by showing that ZMPSTE24 protects cells from SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection, Spike protein-mediated cell-cell fusion, and infection by the mouse coronavirus MHV. This work lays the groundwork for further studies to decipher the mechanistic role of ZMPSTE24 in blocking the entry of SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses into cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Murine hepatitis virus , Humans , Mice , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Pandemics , Lamin Type A , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Virus Internalization , Murine hepatitis virus/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Giant Cells , Metalloproteases , Interferons , Zinc
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 982839, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039678

ABSTRACT

The secreted enzyme interleukin four-induced gene 1 (IL4I1) is involved in the negative control of the adaptive immune response. IL4I1 expression in human cancer is frequent and correlates with poor survival and resistance to immunotherapy. Nevertheless, its mechanism of action remains partially unknown. Here, we identified transmembrane serine protease 13 (TMPRSS13) as an immune cell-expressed surface protein that binds IL4I1. TMPRSS13 is a paralog of TMPRSS2, of which the protease activity participates in the cleavage of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and facilitates virus induced-membrane fusion. We show that TMPRSS13 is expressed by human lymphocytes, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages, can cleave the spike protein and allow SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped virus entry into cells. We identify regions of homology between IL4I1 and spike and demonstrate competition between the two proteins for TMPRSS13 binding. These findings may be relevant for both interfering with SARS-CoV-2 infection and limiting IL4I1-dependent immunosuppressive activity in cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Interleukins , L-Amino Acid Oxidase , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5294, 2022 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016700

ABSTRACT

Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is a restriction factor that limits viral pathogenesis and exerts poorly understood immunoregulatory functions. Here, using human and mouse models, we demonstrate that IFITM3 promotes MyD88-dependent, TLR-mediated IL-6 production following exposure to cytomegalovirus (CMV). IFITM3 also restricts IL-6 production in response to influenza and SARS-CoV-2. In dendritic cells, IFITM3 binds to the reticulon 4 isoform Nogo-B and promotes its proteasomal degradation. We reveal that Nogo-B mediates TLR-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine production and promotes viral pathogenesis in vivo, and in the case of TLR2 responses, this process involves alteration of TLR2 cellular localization. Nogo-B deletion abrogates inflammatory cytokine responses and associated disease in virus-infected IFITM3-deficient mice. Thus, we uncover Nogo-B as a driver of viral pathogenesis and highlight an immunoregulatory pathway in which IFITM3 fine-tunes the responsiveness of myeloid cells to viral stimulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6 , Nogo Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 515, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dysferlinopathy refers to a heterogenous group of autosomal recessive disorders that affect a skeletal muscle protein called dysferlin. These mutations are associated with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B, Miyoshi myopathy, asymptomatic hyperCKemia, and distal myopathy with anterior tibial onset. CASE PRESENTATION: A 16 year old female presented with myalgia, weakness and dark urine one week after her second BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer) vaccine. Initial serum creatine kinase (CK) was measured at 153,000 IU/L, eventually up-trending to over 200,000 IU/L. However, stable renal function precluded hemodialysis allowing discharge after 10 days of intravenous (IV) hydration and alkaline diuresis. Just two years prior to the current presentation, the patient was hospitalized following Group A Streptococcal pharyngitis infection complicated by rhabdomyolysis. She presented with fatigue, lower extremity weakness, and dark oliguria with CK measuring 984,800 IU/L. IV hydration was attempted however hemodialysis was ultimately required throughout her 24-day hospital stay. Her episode was presumed to be idiopathic and no further work-up was performed at that time. During the patient's current hospitalization, she reported similar symptomology (myalgias and weakness) following her first quadrivalent Gardasil vaccine at age 11. No hospitalization was required at that time. A comprehensive workup was now initiated while the patient was being treated for her suspected second or third non-exertional, non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis. Rheumatologic, metabolic, infectious, and endocrinologic workup were all unremarkable. Patient eventually had whole exome sequencing performed which revealed a heterozygous pathogenic variant in the DYSF gene (DYSF c.2643 + 1G > A) encoding dysferlin. No clinically significant sequelae occurred thus far. CONCLUSIONS: While there have been reports of symptomatic heterozygote carriers of dysferlinopathies, to our knowledge none have been associated with recurrent rhabdomyolysis after immunogenic stimuli. This unique case presentation highlights the importance of a multi-disciplinary care team, the utility of modern whole-exome gene sequencing, and the future challenges of balancing vaccine risk vs benefit.


Subject(s)
Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle , Rhabdomyolysis , Adolescent , BNT162 Vaccine , Child , Dysferlin/genetics , Female , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle/genetics , Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle/pathology , Mutation , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology
11.
Autoimmun Rev ; 21(9): 103155, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003879

ABSTRACT

The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) signaling pathway, as vital component of innate immune system, acts a vital role in distinguishing invasive pathogens and cytosolic DNA. Cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS first binds to cytosolic DNA and catalyzes synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP), which is known as the second messenger. Next, cGAMP activates the adaptor protein STING, triggering a molecular chain reaction to stimulate cytokines including interferons (IFNs). Recently, many researches have revealed that the regulatory role of cGAS-STING signaling pathway in autoimmune diseases (AIDs) such as Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Aicardi Goutières syndrome (AGS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Moreover, accumulated evidence have showed inhibition of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway could remarkably suppress the joint swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration in RA mice. Therefore, in this review, we describe the molecular properties, biologic function and mechanisms of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway in AIDs. In addition, potential clinical applications especially selective small molecule inhibitors targeting the cGAS-STING signaling pathway are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Autoimmune Diseases , Biological Products , Animals , DNA , Humans , Interferons , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mice , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Signal Transduction
12.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 42(8): 430-443, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992069

ABSTRACT

Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins mediate protection against enveloped viruses by blocking membrane fusion at endosomes. IFITM1 and IFITM3 are crucial for protection against influenza, and various single nucleotide polymorphisms altering their function have been linked to disease susceptibility. However, bulk IFITM1 and IFITM3 mRNA expression dynamics and their correlation with clinical outcomes have not been extensively addressed in patients with respiratory infections. In this study, we evaluated the expression of IFITM1 and IFITM3 in peripheral leukocytes from healthy controls and individuals with severe pandemic influenza A(H1N1) or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Comparisons between participants grouped according to their clinical characteristics, underlying disease, and outcomes showed that the downregulation of IFITM1 was a distinctive characteristic of severe pandemic influenza A(H1N1) that correlated with outcomes, including mortality. Conversely, increased IFITM3 expression was a common feature of severe pandemic influenza A(H1N1) and COVID-19. Using a high-dose murine model of infection, we confirmed not only the downregulation of IFITM1 but also of IFITM3 in the lungs of mice with severe influenza, as opposed to humans. Analyses in the comparative cohort also indicate the possible participation of IFITM3 in COVID-19. Our results add to the evidence supporting a protective function of IFITM proteins against viral respiratory infections in humans.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Differentiation , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Membrane Proteins , RNA-Binding Proteins , Animals , Antigens, Differentiation/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/genetics , Leukocytes/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11763, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991656

ABSTRACT

Besides typical respiratory symptoms, COVID-19 patients also have gastrointestinal symptoms. Studies focusing on the gastrointestinal tumors derived from gastrointestinal tissues have raised a question whether these tumors might express higher levels of SARS-CoV-2 associated genes and therefore patients diagnosed with GI cancers may be more susceptible to the infection. In this study, we have analyzed the expression of SARS-CoV-2 associated genes and their co-expressions in gastrointestinal solid tumors, cancer cell lines and patient-derived organoids relative to their normal counterparts. Moreover, we have found increased co-expression of TMPRSS2-TMPRSS4 in gastrointestinal cancers suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 viral infection known to be mediated by this protease pair might facilitate the effects of viral infection in GI cancer patients. Further, our findings also demonstrate that TRIM31 expression is upregulated in gastrointestinal tumors, while the inhibition of TRIM31 significantly altered viral replication and viral processes associated with cellular pathways in gastrointestinal cancer samples. Taken together, these findings indicate that in addition to the co-expression of TMPRSS2-TMPRSS4 protease pair in GI cancers, TRIM31 expression is positively correlated with this pair and TRIM31 may play a role in providing an increased susceptibility in GI cancer patients to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Membrane Proteins , Serine Endopeptidases , Tripartite Motif Proteins , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , COVID-19/genetics , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Tripartite Motif Proteins/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
14.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(8): e1010763, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987166

ABSTRACT

Transmembrane Protein 41B (TMEM41B) and Vacuole Membrane Protein 1 (VMP1) are two ER-associated lipid scramblases that play a role in autophagosome formation and cellular lipid metabolism. TMEM41B is also a recently validated host factor required by flaviviruses and coronaviruses. However, the exact underlying mechanism of TMEM41B in promoting viral infections remains an open question. Here, we validated that both TMEM41B and VMP1 are essential host dependency factors for all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), but not chikungunya virus (CHIKV). While HCoV-OC43 failed to replicate entirely in both TMEM41B- and VMP1-deficient cells, we detected diminished levels of DENV infections in these cell lines, which were accompanied by upregulation of the innate immune dsRNA sensors, RIG-I and MDA5. Nonetheless, this upregulation did not correspondingly induce the downstream effector TBK1 activation and Interferon-beta expression. Despite low levels of DENV replication, classical DENV replication organelles were undetectable in the infected TMEM41B-deficient cells, suggesting that the upregulation of the dsRNA sensors is likely a consequence of aberrant viral replication rather than a causal factor for reduced DENV infection. Intriguingly, we uncovered that the inhibitory effect of TMEM41B deficiency on DENV replication, but not HCoV-OC43, can be partially reversed using exogenous fatty acid supplements. In contrast, VMP1 deficiency cannot be rescued using the metabolite treatment. In line with the observed phenotypes, we found that both TMEM41B- and VMP1-deficient cells harbor higher levels of compromised mitochondria, especially in VMP1 deficiency which results in severe dysregulations of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Using a metabolomic profiling approach, we revealed distinctive global dysregulations of the cellular metabolome, particularly lipidome, in TMEM41B- and VMP1-deficient cells. Our findings highlight a central role for TMEM41B and VMP1 in modulating multiple cellular pathways, including lipid mobilization, mitochondrial beta-oxidation, and global metabolic regulations, to facilitate the replication of flaviviruses and coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Dengue , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Lipids , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication
15.
Gene ; 844: 146790, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983093

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spawned global health crisis of unprecedented magnitude, claiming millions of lives and pushing healthcare systems in many countries to the brink. Among several factors that contribute to an increased risk of COVID-19 and progression to exacerbated manifestations, host genetic landscape is increasingly being recognized as a critical determinant of susceptibility/resistance to infection and a prognosticator of clinical outcomes in infected individuals. Recently, several case-control association studies investigated the influence of human gene variants on COVID-19 susceptibility and severity to identify the culpable mutations. However, a comprehensive synthesis of the recent advances in COVID-19 host genetics research was lacking, and the inconsistent findings of the association studies required reliable evaluation of the strength of association with greater statistical power. In this study, we embarked on a systematic search of all possible reports of genetic association with COVID-19 till April 07, 2022, and performed meta-analyses of all the genetic polymorphisms that were examined in at least three studies. After identifying a total of 84 studies that investigated the association of 130 polymorphisms in 61 genes, we performed meta-analyses of all the eligible studies. Seven genetic polymorphisms involving 15,550 cases and 444,007 controls were explored for association with COVID-19 susceptibility, of which, ACE1 I/D rs4646994/rs1799752, APOE rs429358, CCR5 rs333, and IFITM3 rs12252 showed increased risk of infection. Meta-analyses of 11 gene variants involving 6702 patients with severe COVID-19 and 8640 infected individuals with non-severe manifestations revealed statistically significant association of ACE2 rs2285666, ACE2 rs2106809, ACE2 rs2074192, AGTR1 rs5186, and TNFA rs1800629 with COVID-19 severity. Overall, our study presents a synthesis of evidence on all the genetic determinants implicated in COVID-19 to date, and provides evidence of correlation between the above polymorphisms with COVID-19 susceptibility and severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Human Genetics , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
mBio ; 13(4): e0137622, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973797

ABSTRACT

The continuous emergence of new variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) urges better understanding of the functional motifs in the spike (S) protein and their tolerance to mutations. Here, we focused on the S2' motif, which, during virus entry, requires cleavage by a host cell protease to release the fusion peptide. Though belonging to an immunogenic region, the SARS-CoV-2 S2' motif (811-KPSKR-815) has shown hardly any variation, with its three basic (K/R) residues being >99.99% conserved thus far. By creating a series of mutant pseudoviruses bearing the spikes of Wuhan-Hu-1, its G614 mutant or the Delta and Omicron variants, we show that residue K814 (preceding the scissile R815) is dispensable for TMPRSS2 yet favored by the alternative TMPRSS13 protease. Activation by TMPRSS13 was drastically reduced when the SARS-CoV-2 S2' motif was swapped with that of the low pathogenic 229E coronavirus (685-RVAGR-689), and also, the reverse effect was seen. This swap had no impact on recognition by TMPRSS2. In the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spike, introducing a dibasic scissile motif was easily accepted by TMPRSS13 but less so by TMPRSS2, confirming that TMPRSS13 favors a sequence rich in K/R residues. Pseudovirus entry experiments in Calu-3 cells confirmed that the S2' mutations have minor impact on TMPRSS2. Our findings are the first to demonstrate which S2' residues are important for SARS-CoV-2 spike activation by these two airway proteases, with TMPRSS2 being more tolerant to variation than TMPRSS13. This preemptive insight will help to estimate the impact of S2' motif changes as they appear in new SARS-CoV-2 variants. IMPORTANCE Since its introduction in humans, SARS-CoV-2 is evolving with frequent appearance of new variants. The surveillance would benefit from proactive characterization of the functional motifs in the spike (S) protein, the most variable viral factor. This is linked to immune evasion but also influences spike functioning. Remarkably, though located in a strongly immunogenic region, the S2' cleavage motif has, thus far, remained highly conserved. This suggests that its sequence is critical for spike activation by airway proteases. To investigate this, we assessed how pseudovirus entry is affected by changes in the S2' motif. We demonstrate that TMPRSS2 readily accepts variations in this motif, whereas the alternative TMPRSS13 protease is more fastidious. The Wuhan-Hu-1, G614, Delta and Omicron spikes showed no difference in this regard. Being the first in its kind, our study will help to assess the impact of S2' variations as soon as they are detected during variant surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Peptide Hydrolases/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
17.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969509

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a viral disease associated with an intense inflammatory response. Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS), the complication present in secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH), shares many clinical aspects observed in COVID-19 patients, and investigating the cytolytic function of the responsible cells for the first line of the immune response is important. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissue samples obtained by post mortem necropsy were accessed for three groups (COVID-19, H1N1, and CONTROL). Polymorphisms in MAS cytolytic pathway (PRF1; STX11; STXBP2; UNC13D and GZMB) were selected and genotyping by TaqMan® assays (Thermo Fisher Scientific, MA, USA) using Real-Time PCR (Applied Biosystems, MA USA). Moreover, immunohistochemistry staining was performed with a monoclonal antibody against perforin, CD8+ and CD57+ proteins. Histopathological analysis showed high perforin tissue expression in the COVID-19 group; CD8+ was high in the H1N1 group and CD57+ in the CONTROL group. An association could be observed in two genes related to the cytolytic pathway (PRF1 rs885822 G/A and STXBP2 rs2303115 G/A). Furthermore, PRF1 rs350947132 was associated with increased immune tissue expression for perforin in the COVID-19 group. The genotype approach could help identify patients that are more susceptible, and for this reason, our results showed that perforin and SNPs in the PRF1 gene can be involved in this critical pathway in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Biopsy , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Perforin/genetics , Perforin/metabolism , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
18.
J Cell Biol ; 221(6)2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960887

ABSTRACT

ß-coronaviruses reshape host cell endomembranes to form double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) for genome replication and transcription. Ectopically expressed viral nonstructural proteins nsp3 and nsp4 interact to zipper and bend the ER for DMV biogenesis. Genome-wide screens revealed the autophagy proteins VMP1 and TMEM41B as important host factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we demonstrated that DMV biogenesis, induced by virus infection or expression of nsp3/4, is impaired in the VMP1 KO or TMEM41B KO cells. In VMP1 KO cells, the nsp3/4 complex forms normally, but the zippered ER fails to close into DMVs. In TMEM41B KO cells, the nsp3-nsp4 interaction is reduced and DMV formation is suppressed. Thus, VMP1 and TMEM41B function at different steps during DMV formation. VMP1 was shown to regulate cross-membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) distribution. Inhibiting PS synthesis partially rescues the DMV defects in VMP1 KO cells, suggesting that PS participates in DMV formation. We provide molecular insights into the collaboration of host factors with viral proteins to remodel host organelles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Membrane Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Replication Compartments , Autophagy/genetics , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Organelles/metabolism , Phosphatidylserines , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication
20.
Cytokine ; 157: 155957, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) plays a critical role in the adaptive and innate immune response by preventing membrane hemifusion between the host and viral cell cytoplasm. This study aimed to evaluate whether IFITM3 rs12252 polymorphism is related to an increased mortality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The IFITM3 rs12252 polymorphism was genotyped using the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) in 548 dead and 630 improved patients positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). RESULTS: In the present study, the minor allele frequency of IFITM3 rs12252 (C) was significantly more frequent in dead patients than in improved cases. The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the lower lipid profiles, PCR Ct value, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and uric acid and higher levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), liver enzymes, and creatinine, and IFITM3 rs12252 CC genotypes were related to the COVID-19 infection mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our findings suggested a possible link between the mortality of COVID-19 infection, the CC genotypes of IFITM3 rs12252, and clinical parameters. Further investigations are required worldwide to prove the link relationship of COVID-19 mortality with host genetic factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Interferons/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
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