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1.
Science ; 378(6622): eabo2523, 2022 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088384

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has highlighted the need for vaccines that not only prevent disease but also prevent transmission. Parenteral vaccines induce robust systemic immunity but poor immunity at the respiratory mucosa. We developed a vaccine strategy that we call "prime and spike," which leverages existing immunity generated by primary vaccination (prime) to elicit mucosal immune memory within the respiratory tract by using unadjuvanted intranasal spike boosters (spike). We show that prime and spike induces robust resident memory B and T cell responses, induces immunoglobulin A at the respiratory mucosa, boosts systemic immunity, and completely protects mice with partial immunity from lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using divergent spike proteins, prime and spike enables the induction of cross-reactive immunity against sarbecoviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunologic Memory , Memory B Cells , Memory T Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Mice , Administration, Intranasal , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunoglobulin A , Memory B Cells/immunology , Memory T Cells/immunology
2.
J Immunol ; 209(11): 2104-2113, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080591

ABSTRACT

Although the immunological memory produced by BNT162b2 vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been well studied and established, further information using different racial cohorts is necessary to understand the overall immunological response to vaccination. We evaluated memory B and T cell responses to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike protein before and after the third booster using a Japanese cohort. Although the Ab titer against the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) decreased significantly 8 mo after the second vaccination, the number of memory B cells continued to increase, whereas the number of memory T cells decreased slowly. Memory B and T cells from unvaccinated infected patients showed similar kinetics. After the third vaccination, the Ab titer increased to the level of the second vaccination, and memory B cells increased at significantly higher levels before the booster, whereas memory T cells recovered close to the second vaccination levels. In memory T cells, the frequency of CXCR5+CXCR3+CCR6- circulating follicular Th1 was positively correlated with RBD-specific Ab-secreting B cells. For the response to variant RBDs, although 60-80% of memory B cells could bind to the omicron RBD, their avidity was low, whereas memory T cells show an equal response to the omicron spike. Thus, the persistent presence of memory B and T cells will quickly upregulate Ab production and T cell responses after omicron strain infection, which prevents severe illness and death due to coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Memory B Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Memory T Cells , BNT162 Vaccine , Vaccination
3.
Science ; 378(6620): 619-627, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078696

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron sublineages carry distinct spike mutations resulting in escape from antibodies induced by previous infection or vaccination. We show that hybrid immunity or vaccine boosters elicit plasma-neutralizing antibodies against Omicron BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/5, and that breakthrough infections, but not vaccination alone, induce neutralizing antibodies in the nasal mucosa. Consistent with immunological imprinting, most antibodies derived from memory B cells or plasma cells of Omicron breakthrough cases cross-react with the Wuhan-Hu-1, BA.1, BA.2, and BA.4/5 receptor-binding domains, whereas Omicron primary infections elicit B cells of narrow specificity up to 6 months after infection. Although most clinical antibodies have reduced neutralization of Omicron, we identified an ultrapotent pan-variant-neutralizing antibody that is a strong candidate for clinical development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Memory B Cells/immunology
4.
J Exp Med ; 219(12)2022 12 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051192

ABSTRACT

Individuals who receive a third mRNA vaccine dose show enhanced protection against severe COVID-19, but little is known about the impact of breakthrough infections on memory responses. Here, we examine the memory antibodies that develop after a third or fourth antigenic exposure by Delta or Omicron BA.1 infection, respectively. A third exposure to antigen by Delta breakthrough increases the number of memory B cells that produce antibodies with comparable potency and breadth to a third mRNA vaccine dose. A fourth antigenic exposure with Omicron BA.1 infection increased variant-specific plasma antibody and memory B cell responses. However, the fourth exposure did not increase the overall frequency of memory B cells or their general potency or breadth compared to a third mRNA vaccine dose. In conclusion, a third antigenic exposure by Delta infection elicits strain-specific memory responses and increases in the overall potency and breadth of the memory B cells. In contrast, the effects of a fourth antigenic exposure with Omicron BA.1 are limited to increased strain-specific memory with little effect on the potency or breadth of memory B cell antibodies. The results suggest that the effect of strain-specific boosting on memory B cell compartment may be limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Memory B Cells , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
6.
J Exp Med ; 219(9)2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984992

ABSTRACT

Humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 can be supplemented with polyclonal sera from convalescent donors or an engineered monoclonal antibody (mAb) product. While pentameric IgM antibodies are responsible for much of convalescent sera's neutralizing capacity, all available mAbs are based on the monomeric IgG antibody subtype. We now show that IgM mAbs derived from immune memory B cell receptors are potent neutralizers of SARS-CoV-2. IgM mAbs outperformed clonally identical IgG antibodies across a range of affinities and SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain epitopes. Strikingly, efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 viral variants was retained for IgM but not for clonally identical IgG. To investigate the biological role for IgM memory in SARS-CoV-2, we also generated IgM mAbs from antigen-experienced IgM+ memory B cells in convalescent donors, identifying a potent neutralizing antibody. Our results highlight the therapeutic potential of IgM mAbs and inform our understanding of the role for IgM memory against a rapidly mutating pathogen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Memory B Cells , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 809264, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979036

ABSTRACT

Memory B cells (MBCs) and plasma antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) merozoite antigens are important components of the protective immune response against malaria. To gain understanding of how responses against Pf develop in these two arms of the humoral immune system, we evaluated MBC and antibody responses against the most abundant merozoite antigen, full-length Pf merozoite surface protein 1 (PfMSP1FL), in individuals from a region in Uganda with high Pf transmission. Our results showed that PfMSP1FL-specific B cells in adults with immunological protection against malaria were predominantly IgG+ classical MBCs, while children with incomplete protection mainly harbored IgM+ PfMSP1FL-specific classical MBCs. In contrast, anti-PfMSP1FL plasma IgM reactivity was minimal in both children and adults. Instead, both groups showed high plasma IgG reactivity against PfMSP1FL, with broadening of the response against non-3D7 strains in adults. The B cell receptors encoded by PfMSP1FL-specific IgG+ MBCs carried high levels of amino acid substitutions and recognized relatively conserved epitopes on the highly variable PfMSP1 protein. Proteomics analysis of PfMSP119-specific IgG in plasma of an adult revealed a limited repertoire of anti-MSP1 antibodies, most of which were IgG1 or IgG3. Similar to B cell receptors of PfMSP1FL-specific MBCs, anti-PfMSP119 IgGs had high levels of amino acid substitutions and their sequences were predominantly found in classical MBCs, not atypical MBCs. Collectively, these results showed evolution of the PfMSP1-specific humoral immune response with cumulative Pf exposure, with a shift from IgM+ to IgG+ B cell memory, diversification of B cells from germline, and stronger recognition of PfMSP1 variants by the plasma IgG repertoire.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Merozoite Surface Protein 1 , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan , Antibody Formation , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M/metabolism , Memory B Cells , Merozoites , Plasmodium falciparum , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/metabolism , Uganda
8.
Trends Immunol ; 43(8): 595-597, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972142

ABSTRACT

Lung-resident memory B cells (Bmems) rapidly differentiate into localized effectors to generate neutralizing antibodies and protect against reinfection of the tissue. Using lineage tracing, Gregoire et al. now show that lung-resident Bmems may also include bystanders generated by an alternative permissive differentiation pathway.


Subject(s)
Immunologic Memory , Memory B Cells , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Humans , Lung
9.
Cells ; 11(13)2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963753

ABSTRACT

Both SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination have previously been demonstrated to elicit robust, yet somewhat limited immunity against the evolving variants of SARS-CoV-2. Nevertheless, reports performing side-by-side comparison of immune responses following infection vs. vaccination have been relatively scarce. The aim of this study was to compare B-cell response to adenovirus-vectored vaccination in SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals with that observed in the COVID-19 convalescent patients six months after the first encounter with the viral antigens. We set out to use a single analytical platform and performed comprehensive analysis of serum levels of receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific and virus-neutralizing antibodies, frequencies of RBD-binding circulating memory B cells (MBCs), MBC-derived antibody-secreting cells, as well as RBD-specific and virus-neutralizing activity of MBC-derived antibodies after Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik V) vaccination and/or natural SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, natural immunity was superior to Gam-COVID-Vac vaccination. The levels of neutralizing MBC-derived antibodies in the convalescent patients turned out to be significantly higher than those found following vaccination. Our results suggest that after six months, SARS-CoV-2-specific MBC immunity is more robust in COVID-19 convalescent patients than in Gam-COVID-Vac recipients. Collectively, our data unambiguously indicate that natural immunity outperforms Gam-COVID-Vac-induced immunity six months following recovery/vaccination, which should inform healthcare and vaccination decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Memory B Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
10.
J Virol ; 96(15): e0076022, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949996

ABSTRACT

Robust population-wide immunity will help to curb the SARS-CoV-2 pandemics. To maintain the immunity at protective levels, the quality and persistence of the immune response elicited by infection or vaccination must be determined. We analyzed the dynamics of B cell response during 12 months following SARS-CoV-2 infection on an individual level. In contrast to antibodies, memory B cells specific for the spike (S) protein persisted at high levels throughout the period. These cells efficiently secreted neutralizing antibodies and correlated with IFN-γ-secreting CD4+ T cells. Interestingly, the CD27-CD21+ intermediate memory B cell phenotype was associated with high B cell receptor avidity and the production of neutralizing antibodies. Vaccination of previously infected individuals triggered a recall response enhancing neutralizing antibody and memory B cell levels. Collectively, our findings provide a detailed insight into the longevity of SARS-CoV-2-infection-induced B cell immunity and highlight the importance of vaccination among previously infected. IMPORTANCE To efficiently maintain immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection, we must first determine the durability of the immune response following infection or vaccination. Here, we demonstrated that, unlike antibodies, virus-specific memory B cells persist at high levels for at least 12 months postinfection and successfully respond to a secondary antigen challenge. Furthermore, we demonstrated that vaccination of previously infected individuals significantly boosters B cell immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunologic Memory , Memory B Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Memory B Cells/cytology , Memory B Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors
11.
Viral Immunol ; 35(6): 425-436, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937640

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in major worldwide disruption and loss of life over the last 2 years. Many research studies have shown waning serological SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibody titers over time, yet, it is unclear whether these changes are reflected in the potential functional reactivation of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific memory B cells (MBC) populations. This is especially true in the contexts of differing COVID-19 disease severity and after vaccination regimens. This study aimed to investigate these by polyclonal in vitro reactivation of MBC populations followed by analysis using SAR-CoV-2 antigen-specific B cell ELISpots and IgG antibody ELISAs. Natural disease-associated differences were investigated in 52 donors who have recovered from COVID-19 with varying disease severity, from asymptomatic to severe COVID-19 disease, accompanied by a longitudinal evaluation in a subset of donors. Overall, these data showed limited disease severity-associated differences between donor groups but did show that COVID-19 serologically positive donors had strong antigen-specific MBC-associated responses. MBC responses were better maintained 6 months after recovery from infection when compared to serological antigen-specific IgG antibody titers. A similar investigation after vaccination using 14 donors showed robust serological antigen-specific antibody responses against spike protein that waned over time. MBC-associated responses against spike protein were also observed but showed less waning over time, indicating maintenance of a protective response 6 months after vaccination. Further research is required to evaluate these putatively functional SARS-CoV-2-specific responses in the context of long-term protection mediated by vaccination against this pathogen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Memory B Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
Immunity ; 55(7): 1216-1233.e9, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907207

ABSTRACT

Lung-resident memory B cells (MBCs) provide localized protection against reinfection in respiratory airways. Currently, the biology of these cells remains largely unexplored. Here, we combined influenza and SARS-CoV-2 infection with fluorescent-reporter mice to identify MBCs regardless of antigen specificity. We found that two main transcriptionally distinct subsets of MBCs colonized the lung peribronchial niche after infection. These subsets arose from different progenitors and were both class switched, somatically mutated, and intrinsically biased in their differentiation fate toward plasma cells. Combined analysis of antigen specificity and B cell receptor repertoire segregated these subsets into "bona fide" virus-specific MBCs and "bystander" MBCs with no apparent specificity for eliciting viruses generated through an alternative permissive process. Thus, diverse transcriptional programs in MBCs are not linked to specific effector fates but rather to divergent strategies of the immune system to simultaneously provide rapid protection from reinfection while diversifying the initial B cell repertoire.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunologic Memory , Animals , B-Lymphocytes , Lung , Memory B Cells , Mice , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2
13.
JCI Insight ; 7(12)2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902171

ABSTRACT

Immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) generate lower amounts of SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies after mRNA vaccination than healthy controls. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 receptor binding domain-specific (S1-RBD-specific) B lymphocytes to identify the underlying cellular defects. Patients with IBD produced fewer anti-S1-RBD antibody-secreting B cells than controls after the first mRNA vaccination and lower amounts of total and neutralizing antibodies after the second. S1-RBD-specific memory B cells were generated to the same degree in IBD and control groups and were numerically stable for 5 months. However, the memory B cells in patients with IBD had a lower S1-RBD-binding capacity than those in controls, which is indicative of a defect in antibody affinity maturation. Administration of a third shot to patients with IBD elevated serum antibodies and generated memory B cells with a normal antigen-binding capacity. These results show that patients with IBD have defects in the formation of antibody-secreting B cells and affinity-matured memory B cells that are corrected by a third vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Memory B Cells , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
14.
Sci Immunol ; 7(75): eabq2427, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874491

ABSTRACT

Omicron is the evolutionarily most distinct severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant of concern (VOC) to date. We report that Omicron BA.1 breakthrough infection in BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals resulted in strong neutralizing activity against Omicron BA.1, BA.2, and previous SARS-CoV-2 VOCs but not against the Omicron sublineages BA.4 and BA.5. BA.1 breakthrough infection induced a robust recall response, primarily expanding memory B (BMEM) cells against epitopes shared broadly among variants, rather than inducing BA.1-specific B cells. The vaccination-imprinted BMEM cell pool had sufficient plasticity to be remodeled by heterologous SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein exposure. Whereas selective amplification of BMEM cells recognizing shared epitopes allows for effective neutralization of most variants that evade previously established immunity, susceptibility to escape by variants that acquire alterations at hitherto conserved sites may be heightened.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Envelope Proteins , BNT162 Vaccine , Epitopes , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Memory B Cells , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Med (N Y) ; 3(7): 468-480.e5, 2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Much remains unknown regarding the response of the immune system to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. METHODS: We employed circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) to assess the turnover of specific immune cell types following administration of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. FINDINGS: The levels of B cell cfDNA after the primary dose correlated with development of neutralizing antibodies and memory B cells after the booster, revealing a link between early B cell turnover-potentially reflecting affinity maturation-and later development of effective humoral response. We also observed co-elevation of B cell, T cell, and monocyte cfDNA after the booster, underscoring the involvement of innate immune cell turnover in the development of humoral and cellular adaptive immunity. Actual cell counts remained largely stable following vaccination, other than a previously demonstrated temporary reduction in neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. CONCLUSIONS: Immune cfDNA dynamics reveal the crucial role of the primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in shaping responses of the immune system following the booster vaccine. FUNDING: This work was supported by a generous gift from Shlomo Kramer. Supported by grants from Human Islet Research Network (HIRN UC4DK116274 and UC4DK104216 to R.S. and Y.D.), Ernest and Bonnie Beutler Research Program of Excellence in Genomic Medicine, The Alex U Soyka Pancreatic Cancer Fund, The Israel Science Foundation, the Waldholtz/Pakula family, the Robert M. and Marilyn Sternberg Family Charitable Foundation, the Helmsley Charitable Trust, Grail, and the DON Foundation (to Y.D.). Y.D. holds the Walter and Greta Stiel Chair and Research Grant in Heart Studies. I.F.-F. received a fellowship from the Glassman Hebrew University Diabetes Center.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , Memory B Cells/immunology , Memory B Cells/metabolism , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
16.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2460, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825071

ABSTRACT

Infection or vaccination leads to the development of germinal centers (GC) where B cells evolve high affinity antigen receptors, eventually producing antibody-forming plasma cells or memory B cells. Here we follow the migratory pathways of B cells emerging from germinal centers (BEM) and find that many BEM cells migrate into the lymph node subcapsular sinus (SCS) guided by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). From the SCS, BEM cells may exit the lymph node to enter distant tissues, while some BEM cells interact with and take up antigen from SCS macrophages, followed by CCL21-guided return towards the GC. Disruption of local CCL21 gradients inhibits the recycling of BEM cells and results in less efficient adaption to antigenic variation. Our findings thus suggest that the recycling of antigen variant-specific BEM cells and transport of antigen back to GC may support affinity maturation to antigenic drift.


Subject(s)
Antigenic Drift and Shift , Memory B Cells , B-Lymphocytes , Germinal Center , Lymph Nodes
17.
Nature ; 607(7917): 128-134, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805634

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 infected many vaccinated and convalescent individuals1-3. Despite the reduced protection from infection, individuals who received three doses of an mRNA vaccine were highly protected from more serious consequences of infection4. Here we examine the memory B cell repertoire in a longitudinal cohort of individuals receiving three mRNA vaccine doses5,6. We find that the third dose is accompanied by an increase in, and evolution of, receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific memory B cells. The increase is due to expansion of memory B cell clones that were present after the second dose as well as the emergence of new clones. The antibodies encoded by these cells showed significantly increased potency and breadth when compared with antibodies obtained after the second dose. Notably, the increase in potency was especially evident among newly developing clones of memory cells, which differed from persisting clones in targeting more conserved regions of the RBD. Overall, more than 50% of the analysed neutralizing antibodies in the memory compartment after the third mRNA vaccine dose neutralized the Omicron variant. Thus, individuals receiving three doses of an mRNA vaccine have a diverse memory B cell repertoire that can respond rapidly and produce antibodies capable of clearing even diversified variants such as Omicron. These data help to explain why a third dose of a vaccine that was not specifically designed to protect against variants is effective against variant-induced serious disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Memory B Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , mRNA Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Memory B Cells/immunology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/administration & dosage , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
18.
J Virol ; 96(9): e0002622, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784768

ABSTRACT

Humoral immunity is a major component of the adaptive immune response against viruses and other pathogens with pathogen-specific antibody acting as the first line of defense against infection. Virus-specific antibody levels are maintained by continual secretion of antibody by plasma cells residing in the bone marrow. This raises the important question of how the virus-specific plasma cell population is stably maintained and whether memory B cells are required to replenish plasma cells, balancing their loss arising from their intrinsic death rate. In this study, we examined the longevity of virus-specific antibody responses in the serum of mice following acute viral infection with three different viruses: lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), influenza virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). To investigate the contribution of memory B cells to the maintenance of virus-specific antibody levels, we employed human CD20 transgenic mice, which allow for the efficient depletion of B cells with rituximab, a human CD20-specific monoclonal antibody. Mice that had resolved an acute infection with LCMV, influenza virus, or VSV were treated with rituximab starting at 2 months after infection, and the treatment was continued for up to a year postinfection. This treatment regimen with rituximab resulted in efficient depletion of B cells (>95%), with virus-specific memory B cells being undetectable. There was an early transient drop in the antibody levels after rituximab treatment followed by a plateauing of the curve with virus-specific antibody levels remaining relatively stable (half-life of 372 days) for up to a year after infection in the absence of memory B cells. The number of virus-specific plasma cells in the bone marrow were consistent with the changes seen in serum antibody levels. Overall, our data show that virus-specific plasma cells in the bone marrow are intrinsically long-lived and can maintain serum antibody titers for extended periods of time without requiring significant replenishment from memory B cells. These results provide insight into plasma cell longevity and have implications for B cell depletion regimens in cancer and autoimmune patients in the context of vaccination in general and especially for COVID-19 vaccines. IMPORTANCE Following vaccination or primary virus infection, virus-specific antibodies provide the first line of defense against reinfection. Plasma cells residing in the bone marrow constitutively secrete antibodies, are long-lived, and can thus maintain serum antibody levels over extended periods of time in the absence of antigen. Our data, in the murine model system, show that virus-specific plasma cells are intrinsically long-lived but that some reseeding by memory B cells might occur. Our findings demonstrate that, due to the longevity of plasma cells, virus-specific antibody levels remain relatively stable in the absence of memory B cells and have implications for vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis , Memory B Cells , Rituximab , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunologic Memory , Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis/immunology , Memory B Cells/cytology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Plasma Cells/cytology , Rhabdoviridae Infections/immunology , Rituximab/pharmacology
19.
Immunity ; 55(6): 998-1012.e8, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778212

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination produces neutralizing antibody responses that contribute to better clinical outcomes. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike trimer (S) constitute the two major neutralizing targets for antibodies. Here, we use NTD-specific probes to capture anti-NTD memory B cells in a longitudinal cohort of infected individuals, some of whom were vaccinated. We found 6 complementation groups of neutralizing antibodies. 58% targeted epitopes outside the NTD supersite, 58% neutralized either Gamma or Omicron, and 14% were broad neutralizers that also neutralized Omicron. Structural characterization revealed that broadly active antibodies targeted three epitopes outside the NTD supersite including a class that recognized both the NTD and SD2 domain. Rapid recruitment of memory B cells producing these antibodies into the plasma cell compartment upon re-infection likely contributes to the relatively benign course of subsequent infections with SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Memory B Cells , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Immunity ; 55(6): 1096-1104.e4, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778211

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant can escape neutralization by vaccine-elicited and convalescent antibodies. Memory B cells (MBCs) represent another layer of protection against SARS-CoV-2, as they persist after infection and vaccination and improve their affinity. Whether MBCs elicited by mRNA vaccines can recognize the Omicron variant remains unclear. We assessed the affinity and neutralization potency against the Omicron variant of several hundred naturally expressed MBC-derived monoclonal IgG antibodies from vaccinated COVID-19-recovered and -naive individuals. Compared with other variants of concern, Omicron evaded recognition by a larger proportion of MBC-derived antibodies, with only 30% retaining high affinity against the Omicron RBD, and the reduction in neutralization potency was even more pronounced. Nonetheless, neutralizing MBC clones could be found in all the analyzed individuals. Therefore, despite the strong immune escape potential of the Omicron variant, these results suggest that the MBC repertoire generated by mRNA vaccines still provides some protection against the Omicron variant in vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Memory B Cells , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination
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