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1.
Nature ; 607(7917): 128-134, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805634

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 infected many vaccinated and convalescent individuals1-3. Despite the reduced protection from infection, individuals who received three doses of an mRNA vaccine were highly protected from more serious consequences of infection4. Here we examine the memory B cell repertoire in a longitudinal cohort of individuals receiving three mRNA vaccine doses5,6. We find that the third dose is accompanied by an increase in, and evolution of, receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific memory B cells. The increase is due to expansion of memory B cell clones that were present after the second dose as well as the emergence of new clones. The antibodies encoded by these cells showed significantly increased potency and breadth when compared with antibodies obtained after the second dose. Notably, the increase in potency was especially evident among newly developing clones of memory cells, which differed from persisting clones in targeting more conserved regions of the RBD. Overall, more than 50% of the analysed neutralizing antibodies in the memory compartment after the third mRNA vaccine dose neutralized the Omicron variant. Thus, individuals receiving three doses of an mRNA vaccine have a diverse memory B cell repertoire that can respond rapidly and produce antibodies capable of clearing even diversified variants such as Omicron. These data help to explain why a third dose of a vaccine that was not specifically designed to protect against variants is effective against variant-induced serious disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Memory B Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , mRNA Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Memory B Cells/immunology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/administration & dosage , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
3.
Cell ; 185(5): 847-859.e11, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650711

ABSTRACT

We address whether T cell responses induced by different vaccine platforms (mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, Ad26.COV2.S, and NVX-CoV2373) cross-recognize early SARS-CoV-2 variants. T cell responses to early variants were preserved across vaccine platforms. By contrast, significant overall decreases were observed for memory B cells and neutralizing antibodies. In subjects ∼6 months post-vaccination, 90% (CD4+) and 87% (CD8+) of memory T cell responses were preserved against variants on average by AIM assay, and 84% (CD4+) and 85% (CD8+) preserved against Omicron. Omicron RBD memory B cell recognition was substantially reduced to 42% compared with other variants. T cell epitope repertoire analysis revealed a median of 11 and 10 spike epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, with average preservation > 80% for Omicron. Functional preservation of the majority of T cell responses may play an important role as a second-level defense against diverse variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Memory B Cells/immunology , Memory T Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Ad26COVS1/administration & dosage , Ad26COVS1/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Epitopes/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Memory B Cells/metabolism , Memory T Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
4.
J Clin Invest ; 132(2)2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633624

ABSTRACT

Memory B cells (MBCs) can provide a recall response able to supplement waning antibodies (Abs) with an affinity-matured response better able to neutralize variant viruses. We studied a cohort of elderly care home residents and younger staff (median age of 87 years and 56 years, respectively), who had survived COVID-19 outbreaks with only mild or asymptomatic infection. The cohort was selected because of its high proportion of individuals who had lost neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), thus allowing us to specifically investigate the reserve immunity from SARS-CoV-2-specific MBCs in this setting. Class-switched spike and receptor-binding domain (RBD) tetramer-binding MBCs persisted 5 months after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, irrespective of age. The majority of spike- and RBD-specific MBCs had a classical phenotype, but we found that activated MBCs, indicating possible ongoing antigenic stimulation or inflammation, were expanded in the elderly group. Spike- and RBD-specific MBCs remained detectable in the majority of individuals who had lost nAbs, although at lower frequencies and with a reduced IgG/IgA isotype ratio. Functional spike-, S1 subunit of the spike protein- (S1-), and RBD-specific recall was also detectable by enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay in some individuals who had lost nAbs, but was significantly impaired in the elderly. Our findings demonstrate that a reserve of SARS-CoV-2-specific MBCs persists beyond the loss of nAbs but highlight the need for careful monitoring of functional defects in spike- and RBD-specific B cell immunity in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Memory B Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
5.
J Clin Invest ; 132(2)2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541976

ABSTRACT

Memory B cells (MBCs) can provide a recall response able to supplement waning antibodies (Abs) with an affinity-matured response better able to neutralize variant viruses. We studied a cohort of elderly care home residents and younger staff (median age of 87 years and 56 years, respectively), who had survived COVID-19 outbreaks with only mild or asymptomatic infection. The cohort was selected because of its high proportion of individuals who had lost neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), thus allowing us to specifically investigate the reserve immunity from SARS-CoV-2-specific MBCs in this setting. Class-switched spike and receptor-binding domain (RBD) tetramer-binding MBCs persisted 5 months after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, irrespective of age. The majority of spike- and RBD-specific MBCs had a classical phenotype, but we found that activated MBCs, indicating possible ongoing antigenic stimulation or inflammation, were expanded in the elderly group. Spike- and RBD-specific MBCs remained detectable in the majority of individuals who had lost nAbs, although at lower frequencies and with a reduced IgG/IgA isotype ratio. Functional spike-, S1 subunit of the spike protein- (S1-), and RBD-specific recall was also detectable by enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay in some individuals who had lost nAbs, but was significantly impaired in the elderly. Our findings demonstrate that a reserve of SARS-CoV-2-specific MBCs persists beyond the loss of nAbs but highlight the need for careful monitoring of functional defects in spike- and RBD-specific B cell immunity in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Memory B Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Cell Rep ; 37(6): 109961, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507742

ABSTRACT

Following infection or immunization, memory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived plasma cells provide humoral immunity that can last for decades. Most principles of MBC biology have been determined with hapten-protein carrier models or fluorescent protein immunizations. Here, we examine the temporal dynamics of the germinal center (GC) B cell and MBC response following mouse influenza A virus infection. We find that antiviral B cell responses within the lung-draining mediastinal lymph node (mLN) and the spleen are distinct in regard to duration, enrichment for antigen-binding cells, and class switching dynamics. While splenic GCs dissolve after 6 weeks post-infection, mLN hemagglutinin-specific (HA+) GCs can persist for 22 weeks. Persistent GCs continuously differentiate MBCs, with "peak" and "late" GCs contributing equal numbers of HA+ MBCs to the long-lived compartment. Our findings highlight critical aspects of persistent GC responses and MBC differentiation following respiratory virus infection with direct implications for developing effective vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Influenza A virus/physiology , Memory B Cells/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , T-Box Domain Proteins/physiology , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Female , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology
7.
Immunity ; 54(12): 2893-2907.e5, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433403

ABSTRACT

In addition to serum immunoglobulins, memory B cell (MBC) generation against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is another layer of immune protection, but the quality of MBC responses in naive and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-recovered individuals after vaccination remains ill defined. We studied longitudinal cohorts of naive and disease-recovered individuals for up to 2 months after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. We assessed the quality of the memory response by analysis of antibody repertoires, affinity, and neutralization against variants of concern (VOCs) using unbiased cultures of 2,452 MBCs. Upon boosting, the MBC pool of recovered individuals expanded selectively, matured further, and harbored potent neutralizers against VOCs. Although naive individuals had weaker neutralizing serum responses, half of their RBD-specific MBCs displayed high affinity toward multiple VOCs, including delta (B.1.617.2), and one-third retained neutralizing potency against beta (B.1.351). Our data suggest that an additional challenge in naive vaccinees could recall such affinity-matured MBCs and allow them to respond efficiently to VOCs.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Memory B Cells/immunology , Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid/immunology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Cells, Cultured , Convalescence , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunologic Memory , Mass Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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