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1.
J Neurol ; 269(7): 3389-3399, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In 2020, a wide range of hygiene measures was implemented to mitigate infections caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In consequence, pulmonary infections due to other respiratory pathogens also decreased. Here, we evaluated the number of bacterial and viral meningitis and encephalitis cases during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: In a multicentre retrospective analysis of data from January 2016 until December 2020, numbers of patients diagnosed with bacterial meningitis and other types of CNS infections (such as viral meningitis and encephalitis) at 26 German hospitals were studied. Furthermore, the number of common meningitis-preceding ear-nose-throat infections (sinusitis, mastoiditis and otitis media) was evaluated. RESULTS: Compared to the previous years, the total number of patients diagnosed with pneumococcal meningitis was reduced (n = 64 patients/year in 2020 vs. n = 87 to 120 patients/year between 2016 and 2019, all p < 0.05). Additionally, the total number of patients diagnosed with otolaryngological infections was significantly lower (n = 1181 patients/year in 2020 vs. n = 1525 to 1754 patients/year between 2016 and 2019, all p < 0.001). We also observed a decline in viral meningitis and especially enterovirus meningitis (n = 25 patients/year in 2020 vs. n = 97 to 181 patients/year between 2016 and 2019, all p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: This multicentre retrospective analysis demonstrates a decline in the number of patients treated for viral and pneumococcal meningitis as well as otolaryngological infections in 2020 compared to previous years. Since the latter often precedes pneumococcal meningitis, this may point to the significance of the direct spread of pneumococci from an otolaryngological focus such as mastoiditis to the brain as one important pathophysiological route in the development of pneumococcal meningitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Mastoiditis , Meningitis, Pneumococcal , Meningitis, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/microbiology , Meningitis, Viral/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 182, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is the major cause of infections in humans since December 2019 and is top of the global health concern currently. Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading pathogens of invasive bacterial diseases, including pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Moreover, this bacteria is mostly responsible for secondary infections subsequent to post-viral respiratory disease. Co-infections with bacterial and viral pathogens are associated with severe course of the disease and are a major cause of mortality. In this report, we describe a rare case of COVID-19 patient with pneumococcal sepsis and meningitis of unsuccessful course. CASE PRESENTATION: A 89-year-old man, not vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 infection, was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. Patient required oxygen therapy due to respiratory failure. The initial treatment of viral infection with tocilizumab and dexamethasone allowed for the stabilization of the patient's condition and improvement of laboratory parameters. On the 9th day of hospitalization the patient's condition deteriorated. Consciousness disorders and acute respiratory disorders requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation were observed. Brain computed tomography excluded intracranial bleeding. The Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis with concomitant pneumoniae and meningitis was diagnosed based on microbiological culture of blood, bronchial wash, and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite targeted antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone and multidisciplinary treatment, symptoms of multiple organ failure increased. On the 13th day of hospitalization, the patient died. CONCLUSIONS: Co-infections with bacterial pathogens appear to be not common among COVID-19 patients, but may cause a sudden deterioration of the general condition. Not only vascular neurological complications, but also meningitis should be always considered in patients with sudden disturbances of consciousness. Anti-inflammatory treatment with the combination of corticosteroids and tocilizumab (or tocilizumab alone) pose a severe risk for secondary lethal bacterial or fungal infections. Thus, treating a high-risk population (i.e. elderly and old patients) with these anti-inflammatory agents, require daily clinical assessment, regular monitoring of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin, as well as standard culture of blood, urine and sputum in order to detect concomitant infections, as rapidly as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meningitis, Pneumococcal , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/complications , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/microbiology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(2): 215-224, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia and other invasive diseases, and is a leading cause of mortality in the elderly population. The present study aimed to provide current antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 252 nonduplicate S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients admitted to 16 hospitals in Taiwan between January 2017 and December 2019, and were analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics was determined using the Vitek 2 automated system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Furthermore, epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the strains analyzed, 88% were recognized as invasive pneumococcal strains. According to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria for non-meningitis, the prevalence of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae demonstrated a declining trend from 43.6% in 2017 to 17.2% in 2019. However, the rate of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 85.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Furthermore, the prevalence of ceftriaxone-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 62.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Isolates demonstrated higher susceptibility toward doripenem and ertapenem than toward meropenem and imipenem. An increased rate of non-susceptibility toward levofloxacin was observed in southern Taiwan (15.1%) and elderly patients (≥65 years; 11.4%). Most isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with ceftriaxone monotherapy for pneumococcal meningitis should be carefully monitored owing to its high non-susceptibility rate. The susceptibility rates of most isolates to penicillin (used for treating non-meningitis pneumococcal diseases), carbapenems (ertapenem and doripenem), respiratory quinolones (moxifloxacin and levofloxacin), vancomycin, and linezolid suggested the potential of these antibiotics in treating pneumococcal diseases in Taiwan.


Subject(s)
Meningitis, Pneumococcal , Pneumococcal Infections , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Doripenem/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Ertapenem/therapeutic use , Humans , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/pharmacology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Taiwan/epidemiology , Vancomycin/pharmacology
4.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(3): 162-166, 2021 Feb.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054084

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids have been found as useful adjunctive therapy in patients with various infections and hyperinflammation-associated disease. They are recommended in practice guidelines for patients with tuberculous and pneumococcal meningitis and patients with immune reconstitution syndrome associated with antiretroviral therapy. A new indication is severe COVID-19. Evidence from clinical trials is insufficient to allow the routine use of steroids among patients with septic shock, community-acquired pneumonia or tuberculous pericarditis.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , HIV Infections/complications , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/drug therapy , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/drug therapy , Brain Abscess/drug therapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Sepsis/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Spirochaetales Infections/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
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