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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(7): 1011-1020, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A programme of vaccination with the four-component serogroup B meningococcal (4CMenB) vaccine was introduced in South Australia for infants and children aged 0-3 years on Oct 1, 2018, and for senior school students in school years 10 and 11 (aged 15-16 years) and young adults aged 17-20 years on Feb 1, 2019. We aimed to evaluate vaccine effectiveness and impact on serogroup B meningococcal disease and gonorrhoea 2 years after implementation of the programme. METHODS: We did a cohort and case-control study among those targeted by the South Australia 4CMenB vaccination programme. We obtained disease notification data from SA Health, Government of South Australia, and vaccine coverage data from the South Australian records of the Australian Immunisation Register. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as the reduction in the odds of infection using the screening and case-control methods. Vaccine impact was estimated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs), obtained by comparing case numbers in each year following the start of the vaccination programme with cases in the equivalent age cohort during the pre-vaccination programme years. We used Poisson or negative binomial models, as appropriate, with adjustment for changes in the incidence of serogroup B meningococcal disease in age cohorts not eligible for vaccination through the state programme. FINDINGS: 4CMenB vaccine coverage 2 years after introduction of the childhood vaccination programme was 94·9% (33 357 of 35 144 eligible individuals) for one dose, 91·4% (26 443 of 28 922) for two doses, and 79·4% (15 440 of 19 436) for three doses in infants. The one-dose (77·1%, 16 422 of 21 305) and two-dose (69·0%, 14 704 of 21 305) coverage was highest in adolescents born in 2003 (approximately year 10 students). 2 years after implementation of the childhood vaccination programme, incidence of serogroup B meningococcal disease was significantly reduced compared with before programme implementation in infants aged 12 weeks to 11 months (adjusted IRR [aIRR] 0·40 [95% CI 0·23-0·69], p=0·0011), but not in those aged 1 year (0·79 [0·16-3·87], p=0·77), 2 years (0·75 [0·18-3·14], p=0·70), or 4 years (3·00 [0·47-18·79], p=0·24). aIRRs were not calculable in those aged 3 or 5 years because of no cases occurring after programme implementation. aIRR for serogroup B meningococcal disease was 0·27 (0·06-1·16, p=0·078) in adolescents aged 15-18 years 2 years after implementation of the adolescent and young adult programme, and 1·20 (0·70-2·06, p=0·51) in those aged 19-21 years in the first year. Two-dose vaccine effectiveness against serogroup B meningococcal disease was estimated to be 94·2% (95% CI 36·6-99·5) using the screening method and 94·7% (40·3-99·5) using the case-control method in children, and 100% in adolescents and young adults (no cases reported after implementation). Estimated two-dose vaccine effectiveness against gonorrhoea in adolescents and young adults was 32·7% (8·3-50·6) based on the case-control method using age-matched individuals with chlamydia infection as controls. INTERPRETATION: 4CMenB vaccine shows sustained effectiveness against serogroup B meningococcal disease 2 years after introduction in infants and adolescents, and moderate effectiveness against gonorrhoea in adolescents. The high vaccine effectiveness against serogroup B meningococcal disease is likely due to high coverage in the target age groups and close antigenic match between the 4CMenB vaccine and the disease-associated serogroup B meningococcal strains circulating in South Australia. COVID-19-related physical distancing policies might have contributed to further declines in serogroup B meningococcal disease cases during the programme's second year. FUNDING: SA Health, Government of South Australia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gonorrhea , Meningococcal Infections , Meningococcal Vaccines , Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B , Adolescent , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Humans , Infant , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Serogroup , Young Adult
4.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(3): 665-671, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Terminal complement pathway deficiencies often present with severe and recurrent infections. There is a lack of good-quality data on these rare conditions. This study investigated the clinical outcome and genetic variation in a large UK multi-center cohort with primary and secondary terminal complement deficiencies. METHODS: Clinicians from seven UK centers provided anonymised demographic, clinical, and laboratory data on patients with terminal complement deficiencies, which were collated and analysed. RESULTS: Forty patients, median age 19 (range 3-62) years, were identified with terminal complement deficiencies. Ten (62%) of 16 patients with low serum C5 concentrations had underlying pathogenic CFH or CFI gene variants. Two-thirds were from consanguineous Asian families, and 80% had an affected family member. The median age of the first infection was 9 years. Forty-three percent suffered meningococcal serotype B and 43% serotype Y infections. Nine (22%) were treated in intensive care for meningococcal septicaemia. Two patients had died, one from intercurrent COVID-19. Twenty-one (52%) were asymptomatic and diagnosed based on family history. All but one patient had received booster meningococcal vaccines and 70% were taking prophylactic antibiotics. DISCUSSION: The genetic etiology and clinical course of patients with primary and secondary terminal complement deficiency are variable. Patients with low antigenic C5 concentrations require genetic testing, as the low level may reflect consumption secondary to regulatory defects in the pathway. Screening of siblings is important. Only half of the patients develop septicaemia, but all should have a clear management plan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meningococcal Infections , Sepsis , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Complement System Proteins/genetics , Hereditary Complement Deficiency Diseases , Humans , Meningococcal Infections/genetics , Middle Aged , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Vaccine ; 40(1): 59-66, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) vaccination was introduced for 14-month-olds in the Netherlands in 2002, alongside a mass campaign for 1-18 year-olds. Due to an outbreak of serogroup W disease, MenC vaccination was replaced for MenACWY vaccination in 2018, next to introduction of a booster at 14 years of age and a catch-up campaign for 14-18 year-olds. We assessed meningococcal ACWY antibodies across the Dutch population in 2016/17 and 2020. METHODS: In a nationwide cross-sectional serosurvey in 2016/17, sera from participants aged 0-89 years (n = 6886) were tested for MenACWY-polysaccharide-specific (PS) serum IgG concentrations, and functional MenACWY antibody titers were determined in subsets. Moreover, longitudinal samples collected in 2020 (n = 1782) were measured for MenACWY-PS serum IgG concentrations. RESULTS: MenC antibody levels were low, except in recently vaccinated 14-23 month-olds and individuals who were vaccinated as teenagers in 2002, with seroprevalence of 59% and 20-46%, respectively. Meningococcal AWY antibody levels were overall low both in 2016/17 and in 2020. Naturally-acquired MenW immunity was limited in 2020 despite the recent serogroup W outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates waning of MenC immunity 15 years after a mass campaign in the Netherlands. Furthermore, it highlights the lack of meningococcal AWY immunity across the population and underlines the importance of the recently introduced MenACWY (booster) vaccination.


Subject(s)
Meningococcal Infections , Meningococcal Vaccines , Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C , Adolescent , Antibodies, Bacterial , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Netherlands/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccines, Conjugate
6.
J Infect ; 84(3): 289-296, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536660

ABSTRACT

This review article incorporates information from the 4th Global Meningococcal Initiative summit meeting. Since the introduction of stringent COVID-19 infection control and lockdown measures globally in 2020, there has been an impact on IMD prevalence, surveillance, and vaccination compliance. Incidence rates and associated mortality fell across various regions during 2020. A reduction in vaccine uptake during 2020 remains a concern globally. In addition, several Neisseria meningitidis clonal complexes, particularly CC4821 and CC11, continue to exhibit resistance to antibiotics, with resistance to ciprofloxacin or beta-lactams mainly linked to modifications of gyrA or penA alleles, respectively. Beta-lactamase acquisition was also reported through horizontal gene transfer (blaROB-1) involving other bacterial species. Despite the challenges over the past year, progress has also been made on meningococcal vaccine development, with several pentavalent (serogroups ABCWY and ACWYX) vaccines currently being studied in late-stage clinical trial programmes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meningococcal Infections , Meningococcal Vaccines , Neisseria meningitidis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Meningococcal Infections/microbiology , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Meningococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Neisseria meningitidis/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Serogroup
7.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0254330, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470663

ABSTRACT

Cluster randomized trials (cRCT) to assess vaccine effectiveness incorporate indirect effects of vaccination, helping to inform vaccination policy. To calculate the sample size for a cRCT, an estimate of the intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC) is required. For infectious diseases, shared characteristics and social mixing behaviours may increase susceptibility and exposure, promote transmission and be a source of clustering. We present ICCs from a school-based cRCT assessing the effectiveness of a meningococcal B vaccine (Bexsero, GlaxoSmithKline) on reducing oropharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) in 34,489 adolescents from 237 schools in South Australia in 2017/2018. We also explore the contribution of shared behaviours and characteristics to these ICCs. The ICC for carriage of disease-causing Nm genogroups (primary outcome) pre-vaccination was 0.004 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.007) and for all Nm was 0.007 (95%CI: 0.004, 0.011). Adjustment for social behaviours and personal characteristics reduced the ICC for carriage of disease-causing and all Nm genogroups by 25% (to 0.003) and 43% (to 0.004), respectively. ICCs are also reported for risk factors here, which may be outcomes in future research. Higher ICCs were observed for susceptibility and/or exposure variables related to Nm carriage (having a cold, spending ≥1 night out socializing or kissing ≥1 person in the previous week). In metropolitan areas, nights out socializing was a highly correlated behaviour. By contrast, smoking was a highly correlated behaviour in rural areas. A practical example to inform future cRCT sample size estimates is provided.


Subject(s)
Meningococcal Infections/immunology , Meningococcal Vaccines/immunology , Neisseria meningitidis/immunology , Adolescent , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , Schools , South Australia , Vaccination
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2495-2497, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435933

ABSTRACT

Invasive meningococcal disease incidence in England declined from 1.93/100,000 persons (1,016 cases) in 2010-11 to 0.95/100,000 (530 cases) in 2018-19 and 0.74/100,000 in 2019-20 (419 cases). During national lockdown for the coronavirus disease pandemic (April-August 2020), incidence was 75% lower than during April-August 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meningococcal Infections , Meningococcal Vaccines , Neisseria meningitidis , Communicable Disease Control , England/epidemiology , Humans , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 23(7): 53, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292177

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article presents a comprehensive narrative review of reactive arthritis (ReA) with focus on articles published between 2018 and 2020. We discuss the entire spectrum of microbial agents known to be the main causative agents of ReA, those reported to be rare infective agents, and those reported to be new candidates causing the disease. The discussion is set within the context of changing disease terminology, definition, and classification over time. Further, we include reports that present at least a hint of effective antimicrobial therapy for ReA as documented in case reports or in double-blind controlled studies. Additional information is included on microbial products detected in the joint, as well as on the positivity of HLA-B27. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports of ReA cover several rare causative microorganism such as Neisseria meningitides, Clostridium difficile, Escherichia coli, Hafnia alvei, Blastocytosis, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Strongyloides stercoralis, ß-haemolytic Streptococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin, and Rickettsia rickettsii. The most prominent new infectious agents implicated as causative in ReA are Staphylococcus lugdunensis, placenta- and umbilical cord-derived Wharton's jelly, Rothia mucilaginosa, and most importantly the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In view of the increasingly large spectrum of causative agents, diagnostic consideration for the disease must include the entire panel of post-infectious arthritides termed ReA. Diagnostic procedures cannot be restricted to the well-known HLA-B27-associated group of ReA, but must also cover the large number of rare forms of arthritis following infections and vaccinations, as well as those elicited by the newly identified members of the ReA group summarized herein. Inclusion of these newly identified etiologic agents must necessitate increased research into the pathogenic mechanisms variously involved, which will engender important insights for treatment and management of ReA.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Reactive/microbiology , COVID-19 , Clostridium Infections , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Staphylococcal Infections , Streptococcal Infections , Arthritis, Reactive/genetics , Blastocystis Infections , Cryptosporidiosis , Cyclosporiasis , Entamoebiasis , Escherichia coli Infections , Giardiasis , HLA-B27 Antigen/genetics , Humans , Meningococcal Infections , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever , SARS-CoV-2 , Strongyloidiasis , Tuberculosis
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2495-2497, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291846

ABSTRACT

Invasive meningococcal disease incidence in England declined from 1.93/100,000 persons (1,016 cases) in 2010-11 to 0.95/100,000 (530 cases) in 2018-19 and 0.74/100,000 in 2019-20 (419 cases). During national lockdown for the coronavirus disease pandemic (April-August 2020), incidence was 75% lower than during April-August 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meningococcal Infections , Meningococcal Vaccines , Neisseria meningitidis , Communicable Disease Control , England/epidemiology , Humans , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Elife ; 102021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285537

ABSTRACT

Background: Childhood immunisation services have been disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. WHO recommends considering outbreak risk using epidemiological criteria when deciding whether to conduct preventive vaccination campaigns during the pandemic. Methods: We used two to three models per infection to estimate the health impact of 50% reduced routine vaccination coverage in 2020 and delay of campaign vaccination from 2020 to 2021 for measles vaccination in Bangladesh, Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Sudan, for meningococcal A vaccination in Burkina Faso, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria, and for yellow fever vaccination in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, and Nigeria. Our counterfactual comparative scenario was sustaining immunisation services at coverage projections made prior to COVID-19 (i.e. without any disruption). Results: Reduced routine vaccination coverage in 2020 without catch-up vaccination may lead to an increase in measles and yellow fever disease burden in the modelled countries. Delaying planned campaigns in Ethiopia and Nigeria by a year may significantly increase the risk of measles outbreaks (both countries did complete their supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) planned for 2020). For yellow fever vaccination, delay in campaigns leads to a potential disease burden rise of >1 death per 100,000 people per year until the campaigns are implemented. For meningococcal A vaccination, short-term disruptions in 2020 are unlikely to have a significant impact due to the persistence of direct and indirect benefits from past introductory campaigns of the 1- to 29-year-old population, bolstered by inclusion of the vaccine into the routine immunisation schedule accompanied by further catch-up campaigns. Conclusions: The impact of COVID-19-related disruption to vaccination programs varies between infections and countries. Planning and implementation of campaigns should consider country and infection-specific epidemiological factors and local immunity gaps worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic when prioritising vaccines and strategies for catch-up vaccination. Funding: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Measles/prevention & control , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Africa/epidemiology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Infant , Measles/epidemiology , Measles Vaccine/therapeutic use , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Meningococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/therapeutic use , Young Adult
12.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(8): 1069-1074, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has focussed public attention on the management of communicable disease like never before. Surveillance, contact tracing, and case management are recognised as key components of outbreak prevention. Development of guidance for COVID-19 has drawn from existing management of other communicable diseases, including Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD). IMD is a rare but severe outcome of Neisseria meningitidis infection that can be prevented through vaccination. Cases still occur sporadically, requiring ongoing surveillance and consistent management. To this end, national and international public health agencies have developed and published guidance for identification and management of IMD cases. AIM: To assess national and international guidelines for the public health management of IMD, with a focus on the recommendations for identification and management of "close contacts" to IMD cases. METHODS: Guidelines from six national and international public health agencies were assessed using a modified version of the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) Instrument in four key domains: stakeholder involvement, developmental rigour, clarity, and applicability. A direct comparison of terminology and recommendations for identification and management of close contacts to IMD cases was also conducted. RESULTS: Guidelines from Europe and the United Kingdom rated most highly using the AGREE II Instrument, both presenting a clear, critical assessment of the strength of the available evidence, and the risks, costs, and benefits behind recommendations for management of close contacts. Direct comparison of guidelines identified inconsistencies in the language defining close contacts to IMD cases. CONCLUSION: Discrepancies between guidelines could be due to limited evidence concerning mechanisms behind disease transmission, along with the lack of a consistent process for development and review of guideline recommendations. COVID-19 management has demonstrated that international collaboration for development of public health guidance is possible, a practice that should be extended to management of other communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meningococcal Infections , Europe , Humans , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
13.
Vaccine ; 39(17): 2475-2478, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265888

ABSTRACT

The first safe and effective vaccine for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease was created fifty years ago. The vaccine employed a novel platform, polysaccharide capsular antigen, based on the discovery that anticapsular antibody conferred protective immunity in humans. As with most new paradigms in vaccinology, it derived from important basic research from other scientific disciplines over the preceding years. The success of the first monovalent polysaccharide vaccine in nearly eliminating invasive meningococcal disease in military settings led to accelerated advances in polysaccharide vaccine development against other serogroups of meningococcus and other encapsulated pathogens. As gaps in vaccine efficacy arose over the past half-century, new vaccine technologies and approaches were developed to address the challenges. Several of these, including conjugate vaccines and "reverse vaccinology" led to other novel, successful vaccines that have had a significant, favorable global impact on invasive meningococcal disease. The history of meningococcal vaccine discovery may provide insights into the future of vaccine efforts against other infectious threats.


Subject(s)
Meningococcal Infections , Meningococcal Vaccines , Neisseria meningitidis , Humans , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Vaccines, Conjugate
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 499, 2021 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection is associated with various complications. PMA (primary meningococcal arthritis) is a rare meningococcus-associated disease causing arthritis of the knee usually, without any signs of invasive meningococcal disease. No case of PMA in a COVID-19 (coronavirus disease, 2019) patient has yet been described. PMA mainly strikes young adults. PMA is not associated with any immunocompromising condition. It has a better outcome than usual septic arthritis CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report an 18-year-old man diagnosed with COVID-19, later admitted with persistent fever, right knee arthralgia and maculopapular rash. Due to family history, psoriasis and Henoch-Schönlein purpura were hypothesized and ruled out. Finally, synovial fluid culture confirmed Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B arthritis without any other symptoms of invasive meningococcal disease. Healing was achieved quickly with surgery and antibiotics. We concluded in a PMA. CONCLUSION: We describe here the first primary meningococcal arthritis in a COVID-19 patient and we hope to shine a light on this rare but serious complication.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Infectious/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Meningococcal Infections/diagnosis , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Arthritis, Infectious/microbiology , Exanthema/microbiology , Humans , Knee Joint/microbiology , Male , Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B/isolation & purification , Synovial Fluid/microbiology
15.
J Fam Pract ; 70(2): 86;89;92, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229472

ABSTRACT

Prioritized immunization is advised with the 2 COVID-19 vaccines. A third meningococcal ACWY vaccine is now the only one approved for those > 55 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Meningococcal Vaccines/pharmacology , Adolescent , Adult , Advisory Committees , Age Factors , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Young Adult
16.
N Z Med J ; 133(1525): 114-118, 2020 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938034

ABSTRACT

It is now over a decade since the meningococcal B vaccine, MeNZB, was in routine use in New Zealand. From July 2004 until June 2008 it was administered in a three-dose schedule to over a million individuals, aged six weeks to 20 years, to provide protection against the epidemic strain of group B Meningococci. The cost of the campaign, including the development of the vaccine was substantial, in excess of $200M, but it contributed to a reduced incidence of meningococcal infections along with a reduction in morbidity and mortality. The campaign led to the development of a national immunisation register (NIR), which is still in existence today. As well as considering the legacies of the MeNZB vaccination programme, this paper examines whether there are any lessons to be learned, specifically concerning active vaccine safety monitoring, which may be important if, and when, a COVID-19 vaccine is developed and a national immunisation campaign instituted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Meningococcal Infections , Meningococcal Vaccines , Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drug Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiological Monitoring , Health Planning/methods , Humans , Immunization Programs/economics , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Knowledge Management , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Meningococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Meningococcal Vaccines/adverse effects , Needs Assessment , New Zealand/epidemiology , Registries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety Management/organization & administration
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 399, 2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733024

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Few data are available on the association between SARS-CoV-2 and secondary bacterial infections. Such an association was described for flu and invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). We aimed exploring such a correlation between COVID-19 and IMD as well as the impact of the lockdown on IMD. RESULTS: We compared IMD cases received at the French National Reference Centre for meningococci and Haemophilus influenzae that are sent as part of the mandatory reporting of IMD. We compared these data during the period 01 January-15 May 2020 to those from the same period in 2018 and 2019. IMD cases that were associated with respiratory presentations significantly increased in 2020 compared to 2018 (P = 0.029) and 2019 (P = 0.002), involved elderly and were due to unusual isolates. However, IMD cases due to hyperinvasive isolates decreased during the lockdown. Enhancing IMD surveillance and anti-meningococcal vaccination in elderly should be addressed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Meningococcal Infections/complications , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Young Adult
18.
J Fam Pract ; 70(2): 86;89;92, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148373

ABSTRACT

Prioritized immunization is advised with the 2 COVID-19 vaccines. A third meningococcal ACWY vaccine is now the only one approved for those > 55 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Meningococcal Vaccines/pharmacology , Adolescent , Adult , Advisory Committees , Age Factors , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Young Adult
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