Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 28
Filter
1.
Crit Care Nurse ; 41(6): 7-10, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562075

Subject(s)
Menopause , Female , Humans
2.
Menopause ; 29(2): 184-188, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556273

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate patient satisfaction with telephone appointments during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, determine visit type preference (in-person vs telephone), and predictors of those preferences. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patient visits during the first wave of COVID-19 (March 20 to July 15, 2020) were characterized (in-person vs telephone) in a single provider's weekly menopause clinic in Toronto, Canada. Patients attending telephone appointments were asked to complete a modified Telemedicine Satisfaction Questionnaire with 5-point Likert-scale responses. Demographic information was collected along with the patient-reported cost to attend an in-person appointment (monetary, travel time, and time away from work). Of those who experienced both visit types, preference was evaluated and bivariate analysis was performed identifying factors associated with visit type preference and included in a multivariable binary logistic regression model. RESULTS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, 214 women had 246 visits, attending mostly by telephone (221/246, 90%). Mean Telemedicine Satisfaction Questionnaire composite score was 4.23 ±â€Š0.72. Of those who attended a prepandemic in-person appointment (118/139, 85%), a minority (24/118, 20%) preferred in-person visits. Those favoring in-person were more likely to commute less than 30 minutes (OR 3.78, 95% CI 1.16-12.29, P = 0.027), require less than 2 hours away from work (OR 4.05, 95% CI 1.07-15.4, P = 0.04), and spend less than $10 to attend (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.1-12.26, P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Menopause clinic telephone appointments had high patient satisfaction, with most preferring this visit type, although in-person visits are preferred among a minority of women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Menopause , Patient Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone
3.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 398, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546777

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study knowledge regarding genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) and the treatments for it and to analyze treatment adherence during the COVID-19 confinement. METHODS: Multi-center observational study including women between 35 and 75 years. An extension study of treatment adherence was conducted during the coronavirus pandemic between March and April 2020. RESULTS: A sample of 2355 women were included. Vaginal dryness was the most frequently identified symptom (74.3%). Lubricants were the best-known treatments (69.6%), followed by local estrogens (25.7%); 66% of the women did not speak to their gynecologist about sexuality. Comparative analyses were conducted according to age, menopausal status, type of menopause, place of residence, type of health care received and level of education. During the coronavirus confinement period, adherence to treatments for vulvovaginal atrophy was poor in 72.5% asked (n = 204). Reduced sexual activity (p > 0.001) and coronavirus diagnosis (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with poorer treatment compliance. CONCLUSIONS: There is great lack of knowledge of the treatments used for GSM. Most women do not talk to their gynecologist about sexuality. Adherence to treatments during the coronavirus confinement has been worryingly low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Atrophy , Female , Humans , Menopause , SARS-CoV-2 , Vagina/pathology
4.
Maturitas ; 158: 34-36, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531644

ABSTRACT

The severity and mortality rate of COVID-19 differ between the sexes. Several biopsychosocial determinants may account for the better outcomes in women. The notion that sex steroid hormones account for the gender disparity is reasonable but not proven; the same is true of the role of menopause as a risk factor. A retrospective analysis of patients (=1764) hospitalized in Italy showed a higher mortality (HR 1.58, 95%CI 1.30-1.91, adjusted for age and multi-comorbidities) in males only after the age of 65 (the rate is twice as high in the 65-79-year age group and 1.5-fold higher in those aged over 80). The higher mortality of men is mostly evident among those aged over 65 years, long after the average age of menopause.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Female , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Humans , Male , Menopause , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2825-e2826, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501008
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 7702863, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484107

ABSTRACT

People who receive the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, particularly perimenopausal women who are on birth control or postmenopausal women who take estrogen supplements, may experience thrombosis and thrombocytopenia. Estrogen and the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine both have the potential to cause thrombus in different ways. Some postmenopausal women who are also taking estrogens may develop thrombosis and thrombocytopenia after receiving the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Therefore, women are encouraged to stop taking drugs containing estrogen before receiving this vaccine. Furthermore, consuming fish oil can help reduce the risk of developing blood clots among women who are in the luteal phase and, thus, have high estrogen levels. In addition, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19's side effects in young women could be mitigated by administering it during the follicular phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Estrogens/administration & dosage , Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Menopause , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480724

ABSTRACT

This paper employs an intersectional lens to explore menopausal experiences of women working in the higher education and healthcare sectors in Australia. Open-text responses from surveys across three universities and three healthcare settings were subject to a multistage qualitative data analysis. The findings explore three aspects of menopause experience that required women to contend with a constellation of aged, gendered and ableist dynamics and normative parameters of labor market participation. Reflecting on the findings, the paper articulates the challenges of menopause as issues of workplace inequality that are rendered visible through an intersectional lens. The paper holds a range of implications for how to best support women going through menopause at work. It emphasizes the need for approaches to tackle embedded and more complex modes of inequality that impact working women's menopause, and ensure that workforce policy both protects and supports menopausal women experiencing intersectional disadvantage.


Subject(s)
Menopause , Women's Health , Aged , Employment , Female , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace
8.
Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol ; 72(2): 162-170, 2021 06 30.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456600

ABSTRACT

Objective: To make an approximation to the prevalence of sleep disorders in Colombian menopausal women during the COVID-19 pandemic Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study as part of the Quality of Life in Menopause and Colombian Ethnic Groups research project [CAVIMEC+COVID STUDY]. The population consisted of women born and residing in Colombia, 40 to 59 years of age, who signed an informed consent and agreed to participate by completing an online form, freely and anonymously, in the first five days of June 2020. Sleep disorders were identified using the third item on the Menopause Rating Scale. Sociodemographic characteristics, presence and severity of sleep disorders and menopause status were explored. Descriptive statistics are provided. Results: Overall, 984 women aged 47.0 [IQR: 42.0-53.5] years were included: 84.5% mestizo, 13.7% Afro-Colombian, 1.7% indigenous; 39.3% were postmenopausal; 70% lived in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Sleep disorders were reported by 637 women (64.7%), and 112 (11.3%) had severe sleep disorders. Among postmenopausal women, 65.1% reported sleep disorders with 10.1% reporting severe disorders, while 64.5% of premenopausal reported sleep disorders, and 12.2% severe disorders. Conclusions: Sleep disorders could be a frequent problem among premenopausal as well as postmenopausal women in the pandemic time. This issue should be explored during gynecological visits in order to offer solutions. Population studies that confirm these observations are required.


Objetivo: elaborar una aproximación a la prevalencia de los problemas de sueño (PDS) en mujeres climatéricas colombianas durante la pandemia COVID-19. Materiales y Métodos: estudio transversal que pertenece al proyecto de investigación Calidad de Vida en la Menopausia y Etnias Colombianas bajo condiciones de pandemia [CAVIMEC+COVID STUDY]. Se incluyeron mujeres naturales y residentes en Colombia entre 40 y 59 años, quienes en los primeros cinco días de junio del 2020 participaron de forma anónima y voluntaria, previo consentimiento informado en el diligenciamiento de un formulario alojado en una plataforma virtual. Los PDS fueron identificados con el tercer ítem de Menopause Rating Scale. Se exploraron características sociodemográficas, la presencia y severidad de los PDS y el estado menopáusico. Se hace estadística descriptiva. Resultados: participaron 984 mujeres, la mediana de edad fue 47,0 [RIC: 42,0-53,5] años. El 84,5% de las participantes eran mestizas, el 13,7% afrodescendientes y 1,7% indígenas. El 39,3% posmenopáusicas. El 70% residían en la región caribe colombiana. Informaron PDS 637 (64,7%) de las participantes y 112 (11,3%) tenían PDS severos. Las posmenopáusicas informaron un 65,1% de PDS, en forma severa el 10,1%, y las premenopáusicas informaron 64,5%, en forma severa el 12,2%. Conclusiones: los PDS podrían ser un problema frecuente en las mujeres en estado premenopáusico y postmenopáusico. Se debe explorar este problema en la consulta ginecológica para ofrecer soluciones. Se requieren estudios poblacionales que confirmen estas observaciones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Colombia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Menopause , Middle Aged , Prevalence
9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(18): 21903-21913, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436455

ABSTRACT

The mortality rate of young female COVID-19 patients is reported to be lower than that of young males but no significant difference in mortality was found between female and male COVID-19 patients aged over 65 years, and the underlying mechanism is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed clinical characteristics and outcomes of severely ill pre- and post-menopausal COVID-19 patients and compared with age-matched males. Of the 459 patients included, 141 aged ≤55, among whom 19 died (16 males vs. 3 females, p<0.005). While for patients >55 years (n=318), 115 died (47 females vs. 68 males, p=0.149). In patients ≤55 years old, the levels of NLR, median LDH, median c-reactive protein and procalcitonin were significantly higher while the median lymphocyte count and LCR were lower in male than in female (all p<0.0001). In patients over 55, these biochemical parameters were far away from related normal/reference values in the vast majority of these patients in both genders which were in contrast to that seen in the young group. It is concluded that the mortality of severely ill pre-menopausal but not post-menopausal COVID-19 female patients is lower than age-matched male. Our findings support the notion that estrogen plays a beneficial role in combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Estrogens/metabolism , Menopause , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Postmenopause , Premenopause , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257051, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403310

ABSTRACT

It has been widely observed that adult men of all ages are at higher risk of developing serious complications from COVID-19 when compared with women. This study aimed to investigate the association of COVID-19 positivity and severity with estrogen exposure in women, in a population based matched cohort study of female users of the COVID Symptom Study application in the UK. Analyses included 152,637 women for menopausal status, 295,689 women for exogenous estrogen intake in the form of the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), and 151,193 menopausal women for hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Data were collected using the COVID Symptom Study in May-June 2020. Analyses investigated associations between predicted or tested COVID-19 status and menopausal status, COCP use, and HRT use, adjusting for age, smoking and BMI, with follow-up age sensitivity analysis, and validation in a subset of participants from the TwinsUK cohort. Menopausal women had higher rates of predicted COVID-19 (P = 0.003). COCP-users had lower rates of predicted COVID-19 (P = 8.03E-05), with reduction in hospital attendance (P = 0.023). Menopausal women using HRT or hormonal therapies did not exhibit consistent associations, including increased rates of predicted COVID-19 (P = 2.22E-05) for HRT users alone. The findings support a protective effect of estrogen exposure on COVID-19, based on positive association between predicted COVID-19 with menopausal status, and negative association with COCP use. HRT use was positively associated with COVID-19, but the results should be considered with caution due to lack of data on HRT type, route of administration, duration of treatment, and potential unaccounted for confounders and comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Estrogens/metabolism , Menopause/metabolism , Adult , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United Kingdom
11.
Genomics ; 113(6): 3449-3460, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364519

ABSTRACT

The high rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a serious threat to public health. Previous studies have suggested that SARS-CoV-2 can infect human ovary, the core organ of the female reproductive system. However, it remains unclear which type of ovarian cells are easily infected by SARS-CoV-2 and whether ovarian infectivity differs from puberty to menopause. In this study, public datasets containing bulk and single-cell RNA-Seq data derived from ovarian tissues were analyzed to demonstrate the mRNA expression and protein distribution of the two key entry receptors for SARS-CoV-2-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2). Furthermore, an immunohistochemical study of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in human ovaries of different ages was conducted. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis of ovaries of different ages and with varying ovarian reserves was conducted to explore the potential functions of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the ovary. The analysis of the public datasets indicated that the co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was observed mostly in oocytes and partially in granulosa cells. However, no marked difference was observed in ACE2 or TMPRSS2 expression between young and old ovaries and ovaries with low and high reserves. Correspondingly, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were detected in the human ovarian cortex and medulla, especially in oocytes of different stages, with no observed variations in their expression level in ovaries of different ages, which was consistent with the results of bioinformatic analyses. Remarkably, DEG analysis showed that a series of viral infection-related pathways were more enriched in ACE2-positive ovarian cells than in ACE2-negative ovarian cells, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may potentially target specific ovarian cells and affect ovarian function. However, further fundamental and clinical research is still needed to monitor the process of SARS-CoV-2 entry into ovarian cells and the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the ovarian function in recovered females.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Ovary/cytology , Ovary/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Menopause , Middle Aged , Ovary/virology , Puberty , RNA, Messenger , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Young Adult
12.
Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol ; 72(2): 162-170, 2021 06 30.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362784

ABSTRACT

Objective: To make an approximation to the prevalence of sleep disorders in Colombian menopausal women during the COVID-19 pandemic Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study as part of the Quality of Life in Menopause and Colombian Ethnic Groups research project [CAVIMEC+COVID STUDY]. The population consisted of women born and residing in Colombia, 40 to 59 years of age, who signed an informed consent and agreed to participate by completing an online form, freely and anonymously, in the first five days of June 2020. Sleep disorders were identified using the third item on the Menopause Rating Scale. Sociodemographic characteristics, presence and severity of sleep disorders and menopause status were explored. Descriptive statistics are provided. Results: Overall, 984 women aged 47.0 [IQR: 42.0-53.5] years were included: 84.5% mestizo, 13.7% Afro-Colombian, 1.7% indigenous; 39.3% were postmenopausal; 70% lived in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Sleep disorders were reported by 637 women (64.7%), and 112 (11.3%) had severe sleep disorders. Among postmenopausal women, 65.1% reported sleep disorders with 10.1% reporting severe disorders, while 64.5% of premenopausal reported sleep disorders, and 12.2% severe disorders. Conclusions: Sleep disorders could be a frequent problem among premenopausal as well as postmenopausal women in the pandemic time. This issue should be explored during gynecological visits in order to offer solutions. Population studies that confirm these observations are required.


Objetivo: elaborar una aproximación a la prevalencia de los problemas de sueño (PDS) en mujeres climatéricas colombianas durante la pandemia COVID-19. Materiales y Métodos: estudio transversal que pertenece al proyecto de investigación Calidad de Vida en la Menopausia y Etnias Colombianas bajo condiciones de pandemia [CAVIMEC+COVID STUDY]. Se incluyeron mujeres naturales y residentes en Colombia entre 40 y 59 años, quienes en los primeros cinco días de junio del 2020 participaron de forma anónima y voluntaria, previo consentimiento informado en el diligenciamiento de un formulario alojado en una plataforma virtual. Los PDS fueron identificados con el tercer ítem de Menopause Rating Scale. Se exploraron características sociodemográficas, la presencia y severidad de los PDS y el estado menopáusico. Se hace estadística descriptiva. Resultados: participaron 984 mujeres, la mediana de edad fue 47,0 [RIC: 42,0-53,5] años. El 84,5% de las participantes eran mestizas, el 13,7% afrodescendientes y 1,7% indígenas. El 39,3% posmenopáusicas. El 70% residían en la región caribe colombiana. Informaron PDS 637 (64,7%) de las participantes y 112 (11,3%) tenían PDS severos. Las posmenopáusicas informaron un 65,1% de PDS, en forma severa el 10,1%, y las premenopáusicas informaron 64,5%, en forma severa el 12,2%. Conclusiones: los PDS podrían ser un problema frecuente en las mujeres en estado premenopáusico y postmenopáusico. Se debe explorar este problema en la consulta ginecológica para ofrecer soluciones. Se requieren estudios poblacionales que confirmen estas observaciones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Colombia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Menopause , Middle Aged , Prevalence
13.
Maturitas ; 153: 19-25, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347745

ABSTRACT

Evidence suggests that being physically active may improve quality of life through the menopausal transition. This study is one of the first to investigate how meeting the UK Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG) impacted quality of life, stress, coping and menopausal symptoms in UK midlife women, aged 45-55 years, during the unfolding Covid pandemic (Phase 1 quantitative, n=164). The study also explored their motivation to undertake regular physical activity during Covid lockdown (Phase 2 qualitative, n=4). An explanatory sequential mixed-methods design was used to collate quantitative (survey) and qualitative (focus group) data. Participants who met PAG experienced fewer depressive symptoms and less perceived stress, and had better physical and mental health and quality of life than women who did not. This was supported by focus group discussions reporting lack of facilities, time constraints, reduced social support and existing health complaints as barriers to physical activity. Factors motivating women to exercise during Covid lockdown were benefits for physical and mental health, and support from friends (Qualitative). Women are postmenopausal for one-third of their lives, and health interventions need to promote positive healthy ageing around menopause. Menopausal changes could be used by clinicians as cues to action to promote female health and well-being. Clinicians should be promoting the health benefits of exercise and making women aware of the importance of aiming to meet the PAG for optimal health benefits. Women should be encouraged to increase their levels of physical activity by making plans and setting goals and gaining support by exercising with friends or family, as a way to better control menopausal symptoms.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Exercise , Menopause , Quality of Life , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise/physiology , Exercise/psychology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological , United Kingdom
14.
Singapore Med J ; 62(4): 159-166, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326002

ABSTRACT

Screening for osteoporosis in women can be based on age and weight, using the Osteoporosis Screening Tool for Asians and assessment for other risk factors such as early menopause, Chinese ethnicity and other secondary factors. Based on the resulting risk profile, women can be triaged to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning for definite diagnosis of osteoporosis. Treatment should be considered in women with previous fragility fractures, DEXA-diagnosed osteoporosis and high risk of fracture. Exercise improves muscle function, can help prevent falls and has moderate effects on improvements in bone mass. Women should ensure adequate calcium intake and vitamin D. Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) effectively prevents osteoporosis and fractures, and should be encouraged in those aged < 50 years. For women aged < 60 years, MHT or tibolone can be considered, especially if they have vasomotor or genitourinary symptoms. Risedronate or bisphosphonates may then be reserved for those aged over 60 years.


Subject(s)
Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Osteoporosis , Bone Density , Diphosphonates , Female , Humans , Menopause , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/diagnosis , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/prevention & control
15.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 42(3): 301-303, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291550

ABSTRACT

Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) resulting from estrogen deprivation at menopause often results in distressing vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. Fewer than 25% of affected women seek help for this condition citing embarrassment, cultural values, an aging or unavailable partner and concerns about use of estrogens following the Women's Health Initiative. Available non-hormonal treatments, such as moisturizers, while affording some relief can be messy to apply and do not prevent disease progression. A new oral selective estrogen receptor modulator, ospemifene, has been found to have strong estrogenic activity in vaginal tissues without adverse estrogenic effects at other sites.


Subject(s)
Atrophy/drug therapy , Menopause , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/administration & dosage , Tamoxifen/analogs & derivatives , Vagina/drug effects , Vulva/drug effects , Aged , Atrophy/pathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dyspareunia/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Menopause/physiology , Middle Aged , Postmenopause , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use , Tamoxifen/administration & dosage , Tamoxifen/therapeutic use , Vagina/pathology , Vulva/pathology
16.
Maturitas ; 150: 14-21, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253363

ABSTRACT

Governments, employers, and trade unions are increasingly developing "menopause at work" policies for female staff. Many of the world's most marginalised women work, however, in more informal or insecure jobs, beyond the scope of such employment protections. This narrative review focuses upon the health impact of such casual work upon menopausal women, and specifically upon the menopausal symptoms they experience. Casual work, even in less-then-ideal conditions, is not inherently detrimental to the wellbeing of menopausal women; for many, work helps manage the social and emotional challenges of the menopause transition. Whereas women in higher status work tend to regard vasomotor symptoms as their main physical symptom, women in casual work report musculoskeletal pain as more problematic. Menopausal women in casual work describe high levels of anxiety, though tend to attribute this not to their work as much as their broader life stresses of lifelong poverty and ill-health, increasing caring responsibilities, and the intersectionally gendered ageism of the social gaze. Health and wellbeing at menopause is determined less by current working conditions than by the early life experiences (adverse childhood experiences, poor educational opportunities) predisposing women to poverty and casual work in adulthood. Approaches to supporting menopausal women in casual work must therefore also address the lifelong structural and systemic inequalities such women will have faced. In the era of COVID-19, with its devastating economic, social and health effects upon women and vulnerable groups, menopausal women in casual work are likely to face increased marginalisation and stress. Further research is need.


Subject(s)
Employment/psychology , Menopause/physiology , Menopause/psychology , Occupational Health/standards , Workplace/standards , Female , Humans , Workplace/organization & administration , Workplace/psychology
18.
Climacteric ; 24(3): 211-213, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221419
20.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(3): 423-429, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066430

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), uses two primary receptors, type II transmembrane serine protease and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, for priming and cellular invasion, respectively. Both proteins have been demonstrated to be present in different concentrations in females and males, which may explain a mechanism for the reported higher case-fatality rate in males. Despite the known sex difference in COVID-19 disease mortality, preliminary data suggest there are certain female populations, including pregnant and menopausal women and possibly polycystic ovarian syndrome patients who are more susceptible to COVID-19-related morbidity. This commentary analyzes the interplay between sex differences, hormones, and the immune function in each of these populations with respect to the risk and severity of COVID-19 and proposes biological rationales to explain these differences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, X , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Male , Menopause/physiology , Morbidity , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/epidemiology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Sex Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL