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1.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(2): 299-300, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684479
2.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 27(2): 102-106, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624495

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 global pandemic has led to the death of millions around the world and impacted the overall health of many people. In this article we aim to compare reproductive health indicators in the first 6 months of 2020 to the prior year, as well as explore stress and quality of life during this time. METHODS: This retrospective observational study examined the menstrual cycles of 1159 women who were using a fertility tracking device to record their menstrual cycle and BBT data. We utilised a supplemental mobile application to administer a supplemental survey to collect data on stress and quality of life. Descriptive analyses were conducted with t-tests for two-group comparisons. RESULTS: Study participants from 15 countries contributed to a total of 13,194 cycles. 23.1% (268/1159) responded to the survey focussed on assessing psychosocial distress. 44.4% (119/268) of the study participants reported that they had noticed a change in their menstrual cycle, temperature curve, or menstruation in the past 12 months. Cycle analysis found the average cycle length and pre-ovulation phase length was longer in the first 6 months of 2019, while the average days of menstruation was slightly longer in 2020. DISCUSSION: Our findings indicate that menstrual cycle indicators changed only slightly in the first 6 months of 2020 but were still statistically significant. We were also able to understand that these study participants had some level of awareness of changes to their menstrual health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reproductive Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Menstrual Cycle , Pandemics , Quality of Life
3.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(1): 84-90, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621519

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has introduced acute and persistent psychosocial stressors for many individuals, with emerging gender differences that suggest women may be at greater risk for poorer mental health outcomes. This may have unintended consequences for women's overall health and well-being, including disruptions to reproductive function as elevated stress is often associated with menstrual cycle irregularities. The objective of this study was to determine if and how the COVID-19 pandemic and its related stressors have impacted women's menstrual cyclicity. Materials and Methods: An online survey instrument designed to capture self-reported information on menstrual cycle changes and perceived stress levels was distributed between July and August 2020. A total of 210 women between the ages of 18-45 years met stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria and completed the survey. Results: Of the 210 respondents, more than half (54%) reported changes in their menstrual cycles. These included changes in menstrual cycle length (50%), the duration of menses (34%), and changes in premenstrual symptoms (50%). Respondents with high perceived stress scale (PSS) scores during Covid were more likely to experience a longer duration of menses (p < 0.001) and heavier bleeding during menses (p = 0.028) compared with those with moderate Covid PSS scores. Conclusions: By uncovering a trend in increased menstrual cycle irregularities during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study contributes to our understanding of the implications that the pandemic may have on women's reproductive health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Menstrual Cycle , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Periodicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 255(1): 71-77, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496650

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused an unprecedented global pandemic. Premenstrual symptoms include mood-related, behavioral, and physical symptoms that are limited to the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for premenstrual symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the association between premenstrual symptoms and stress caused by COVID-19. We analyzed data from 871 students with regular menstrual cycles who completed the Premenstrual Symptoms Questionnaire (PSQ), Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and Impact of Event Scale-Revised version (IES-R). The total PSQ score was significantly higher in women with COVID-19-induced posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) than in non-PTSS groups. Compared with pre-pandemic data (2019), the total PSQ score did not change in non-PTSS, but increased in PTSS groups. All symptoms were more severe in PTSS groups than in non-PTSS groups. Compared with 2019, PTSS groups had more severe symptoms for all symptoms except 'physical symptoms' and 'decreased social activity', and non-PTSS groups only exhibited improvements in the 'decreased social activity'. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the IES-R score was a significant exacerbation factor of the total PSQ score, along with age and menstrual pain. This study revealed the association between pandemic-associated PTSS and the severity of premenstrual symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Premenstrual Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Menstrual Cycle , Pandemics , Premenstrual Syndrome/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Fertil Steril ; 114(2): 223-232, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the susceptibility of the endometrium to infection by-and thereby potential damage from-SARS-CoV-2. DESIGN: Analysis of SARS-Cov-2 infection-related gene expression from endometrial transcriptomic data sets. SETTING: Infertility research department affiliated with a public hospital. PATIENT(S): Gene expression data from five studies in 112 patients with normal endometrium collected throughout the menstrual cycle. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Gene expression and correlation between viral infectivity genes and age throughout the menstrual cycle. RESULT(S): Gene expression was high for TMPRSS4, CTSL, CTSB, FURIN, MX1, and BSG; medium for TMPRSS2; and low for ACE2. ACE2, TMPRSS4, CTSB, CTSL, and MX1 expression increased toward the window of implantation. TMPRSS4 expression was positively correlated with ACE2, CTSB, CTSL, MX1, and FURIN during several cycle phases; TMPRSS2 was not statistically significantly altered across the cycle. ACE2, TMPRSS4, CTSB, CTSL, BSG, and MX1 expression increased with age, especially in early phases of the cycle. CONCLUSION(S): Endometrial tissue is likely safe from SARS-CoV-2 cell entry based on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression, but susceptibility increases with age. Further, TMPRSS4, along with BSG-mediated viral entry into cells, could imply a susceptible environment for SARS-CoV-2 entry via different mechanisms. Additional studies are warranted to determine the true risk of endometrial infection by SARS-CoV-2 and implications for fertility treatments.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Endometrium/metabolism , Endometrium/virology , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adult , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Female , Humans , Menstrual Cycle , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/biosynthesis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization , Young Adult
7.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(9): 3241-3249, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276736

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the association between menstrual cycle regularity in healthcare providers and COVID-19 pandemic-related anxiety, depression, stress. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by administrating online questionnaires to female healthcare workers in Turkey. Women aged 18-40 years with regular menstrual cycles for more than 1 year before the beginning of the pandemic were included in the study and they were divided into two groups according to menstrual cycle regularity during the pandemic. The questionnaires included sociodemographic characteristics, medical and reproductive history, lifestyle information of participants, COVID-19 Stress Scales (CSS), and a short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). RESULTS: A total of 952 women were included in the study, 679 had regular menstrual cycles, and 273 had irregular menstrual cycles. The prevalence of irregular menses among Turkish women healthcare workers aged 18-40 years was 28.7%. The CSS subdimensions and total scores were significantly higher in the irregular menstruation group than in women with regular menstruation (p < 0.001). The DASS-21 depression, anxiety, and stress subdimensions were likewise significantly higher in women with irregular menstruation (p < 0.001). Besides, both the univariable and the multivariable logistic regression results showed the relationship between irregular menstruation and CSS total score. CONCLUSION: The current study showed the association between the COVID-19 pandemic-induced anxiety, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and increased prevalence of menstrual cycle irregularity among healthcare providers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Menstrual Cycle , Menstruation Disturbances/epidemiology , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 41(8): 1257-1261, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217734

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine whether the menstrual cycles of women with regular cycles have been affected by the COVID 19 pandemic. This cross-sectional online survey study evaluated the menstrual cycle characteristics of women in the reproductive phase of their lives during the COVID-19 pandemic in May 2020. Changes before and after COVID-19 were evaluated with a paired sample t-test and chi-square test. A Pearson correlation test was used to show the relationships between variables. The study was completed with 263 participants in total. The average age of the participants was 26.3 ± 6.9 (18-45). Participants' duration of period (p = .003) and pads used per day (p = .002) decreased compared to their experience before the COVID-19 outbreak. The mean total MSQ score was 3.1 ± 0.8 (0-4), mean STAI-1 score was 45.1 ± 9 (20-78) and mean STAI-II score was 43.3 ± 5.9 (30-69). It was found that STAI-I and STAI-II scores showed a positive correlation with MSQ-Somatic subgroup scores(r = 0.153, p = .013; 0.190, p = .002) and MSQ-Total scores (0.144, p = .020; 0.175, p = .004). With the COVID-19 pandemic, increased anxiety scores increased women's menstrual symptoms while the length of periods and the number of pads used decreased.Impact statementWhat is already known on this subject? The COVID 19 pandemic, has caused enormous psychological distress potentially resulting in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. The menstrual cycle is a process that can be affected by psychological stress.What do the results of this study add? This is the first study to examine the relationship between stress caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the menstrual cycle. The increases in the degree of anxiety and stress as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak was found to be high enough to affect the characteristics of the menstrual cycle in the women surveyed.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? In a prospective study intended to be carried out after the outbreak ends in the future, it will be possible to evaluate whether the menstrual cycle parameters return to their former order and consequently this hypothesis will be able to be more definitively confirmed.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Menstrual Cycle , Menstruation Disturbances/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Menstrual Hygiene Products/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 541-545, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206793

ABSTRACT

The implications of the menstrual cycle for disease susceptibility, development, and severity of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are largely unknown. Here, we describe two women infected with SARS-CoV-2 whose real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results and symptoms changed during the menstrual cycle. The first patient developed a fever on the first day of her menstrual period, and again on the first day of her next menstrual period after hospital discharge. RT-PCR test results were positive during the first menstrual period before admission, but turned negative during hospitalization, and then were positive again during the second menstrual period after hospital discharge. Another one also developed a fever again on the first day of her menstrual period after hospital discharge. RT-PCR test results were negative before admission and during hospitalization, but turned positive during the first menstrual period after hospital discharge. The cases indicate sex hormones may play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection. For women with history of exposure to SARS-CoV-2, the management protocol should include assessment of the menstrual status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Menstrual Cycle/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 642755, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177967

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected the lives of the global population. It is known that periods of stress and psychological distress can affect women's menstrual cycles. We therefore performed an observational study of women's reproductive health over the course of the pandemic thus far. Materials and Methods: An anonymous digital survey was shared by the authors via social media in September 2020. All women of reproductive age were invited to complete the survey. Results: 1031 women completed the survey. Mean age was 36.7 ± 6.6 years (range, 15-54). 693/70% reported recording their cycles using an app or diary. 233/23% were using hormonal contraception. 441/46% reported a change in their menstrual cycle since the beginning of the pandemic. 483/53% reported worsening premenstrual symptoms, 100/18% reported new menorrhagia (p = 0.003) and 173/30% new dysmenorrhea (p < 0.0001) compared to before the pandemic. 72/9% reported missed periods who not previously missed periods (p = 0.003) and the median number of missed periods was 2 (1-3). 17/21% of those who "occasionally" missed periods pre-pandemic missed periods "often" during pandemic. 467/45% reported a reduced libido. There was no change in the median cycle length (28 days) or days of bleeding (5) but there was a wider variability of cycle length (p = 0.01) and a 1 day median decrease in the minimum (p < 0.0001) and maximum (p = 0.009) cycle length. Women reported a median 2 kg increase in self-reported weight and a 30-min increase in median weekly exercise. 517/50% of women stated that their diet was worse and 232/23% that it was better than before the pandemic. 407/40% reported working more and 169/16% were working less. Women related a significant increase in low mood (p < 0.0001), poor appetite (p < 0.0001), binge eating (p < 0.0001), poor concentration (p < 0.0001), anxiety (p < 0.0001), poor sleep (p < 0.0001), loneliness (p < 0.0001) and excess alcohol use (p < 0.0001). Specific stressors reported included work stress (499/48%), difficulty accessing healthcare (254/25%), change in financial (201/19%) situation, difficulties with home schooling (191/19%) or childcare (99/10%), family or partner conflict (170/16%), family illness or bereavement (156/15%). Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the reproductive health of women. The long term health implications of this are yet to be determined and future studies should address this.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Reproductive Health/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Affect , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Libido , Life Style , Menstrual Cycle , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Social Media , Surveys and Questionnaires , Weight Gain , Young Adult
11.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 42(1): 260-267, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065548

ABSTRACT

RESEARCH QUESTION: Does SARS-CoV-2 infection have an effect on ovarian reserve, sex hormones and menstruation of women of child-bearing age? DESIGN: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study in which clinical and laboratory data from 237 women of child-bearing age diagnosed with COVID-19 were retrospectively reviewed. Menstrual data from 177 patients were analysed. Blood samples from the early follicular phase were tested for sex hormones and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). RESULTS: Among 237 patients with confirmed COVID-19, severely ill patients had more comorbidities than mildly ill patients (34% versus 8%), particularly for patients with diabetes, hepatic disease and malignant tumours. Of 177 patients with menstrual records, 45 (25%) patients presented with menstrual volume changes, and 50 (28%) patients had menstrual cycle changes, mainly a decreased volume (20%) and a prolonged cycle (19%). The average sex hormone and AMH concentrations of women of child-bearing age with COVID-19 were not different from those of age-matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: Average sex hormone concentrations and ovarian reserve did not change significantly in COVID-19 women of child-bearing age. Nearly one-fifth of patients exhibited a menstrual volume decrease or cycle prolongation. The menstruation changes of these patients might be the consequence of transient sex hormone changes caused by suppression of ovarian function that quickly resume after recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/blood , Menstruation/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/analysis , Humans , Menstrual Cycle/physiology , Middle Aged , Ovarian Reserve/physiology , Ovary/physiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
14.
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