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1.
Science ; 378(6621): 704-706, 2022 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119339

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination causes small changes to menstruation that quickly resolve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Menstruation , Vaccination , Female , Humans , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277288, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117078

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of COVID-19 vaccination on menstrual patterns and mental health of medical students and to explore the students' perspective regarding this effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This mixed-method study was conducted on the medical and dental students of the private and public sector institutions of Peshawar from September 2021 to March 2022. A Menstrual symptom questionnaire (MSQ) and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) were used. This was followed by qualitative interviews with the students who faced problems in their menstruation after the COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 953 students were included, with a mean age of 20.67±1. 56 years. More than half (n = 512, 53.7%) experienced menstrual cycle abnormalities post-vaccination. The majority having disturbances in their menstrual cycle had significantly higher levels of anxiety (p = 0.000). Results on the menstrual symptom questionnaire, anxiety, and depression subtype of HADS showed a negative and statistically significant relationship with changes after COVID-19 vaccination (p<0.05). In the qualitative interviews, 10 (58.8%) students each had problems with frequency and flow, followed by 7 (41.2%) students, who had dysmenorrhea. Seven (41.2%) consulted a gynecologist for management. The majority (n = 14, 82.4%) stated that these issues had an adverse impact on their mental health and almost half (n = 8, 47.1%) suggested consulting a gynecologist while facing such situations. CONCLUSION: This study showed the impact of the COVID-19 vaccine on women`s menstrual patterns and subsequent mental health status. Although the majority of the students experienced menstrual cycle abnormalities and subsequent mental health adversities post COVID-19 vaccination but these were temporary and self-limiting and were attributed to the psychological impact of the vaccination. Therefore, it is imperative to alert health care professionals about possible side effects and prior counseling is expected to play an important role in this context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Menstruation , Mental Health , Students, Medical , Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries , Menstruation/psychology , Students, Medical/psychology , Vaccination
3.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 3199758, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098038

ABSTRACT

Background: Several factors such as stress, depression, infection, and vaccination influenced the menstrual cycle in women during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We investigated whether there were changes in the menstrual cycle in women after COVID-19 vaccination or infection and, if so, the nature of the change. Methods: This study was designed as a descriptive, cross-sectional study. A face-to-face survey was conducted among menstruating women aged 18-50 years from May 31 to July 31, 2022. Women were inquired about their first three menstrual cycles that occurred after COVID-19 infection or vaccination. Results: Of 241 women with COVID-19 infection, 86 (35.7%) mentioned that they experienced various changes in their menstrual patterns in the first three cycles after infection. Of 537 participants who received various COVID-19 vaccines, 82 (15.1%) stated that they experienced changes in their menstrual patterns after vaccination. The incidence of postvaccination menstrual change was higher in women who received Pfizer-BioNTech and Sinovac (CoronaVac) vaccines. Only 10.9% of women who reported a change in their menstrual pattern after vaccination or infection consulted a physician. Conclusion: COVID-19 infection and vaccination can affect the menstrual cycle in women. It is important to be aware of the menstrual changes after COVID-19 infection and vaccination and to warn and inform women about this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Menstruation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination
4.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087990

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The menstrual health and menstrual hygiene management (MHM) of incarcerated women remains relatively low on the agenda of public health interventions globally, widening the inequitable access of incarcerated women to safe and readily available menstrual health products (MHP). The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted on the MHM gains made in various development sectors in the global North and South, through its amplification of vulnerability for already at-risk populations. This is especially significant to developing countries such as South Africa where the incarcerated female population are an often-forgotten minority. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This viewpoint highlights the ignominious silence of research and policy attention within the South African carceral context in addressing MHM. The ethical and political implications of such silences are unpacked by reviewing international and local literature that confront issues of inequality and equitable access to MHP and MHM resources within incarcerated contexts. FINDINGS: Structural inequalities in various contexts around the world have exacerbated COVID-19 and MHM. Within the prison context in South Africa, women face multiple layers of discrimination and punishment that draw attention to the historical discourses of correctional facilities as a site of surveillance and discipline. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: This study acknowledges that while this viewpoint is essential in rising awareness about gaps in literature, it is not empirical in nature. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The authors believe that this viewpoint is essential in raising critical awareness on MHM in carceral facilities in South Africa. The authors hope to use this publication as the theoretical argument to pursue empirical research on MHM within carceral facilities in South Africa. The authors hope that this publication would provide the context for international and local funders, to assist in the empirical research, which aims to roll out sustainable MHP to incarcerated women in South Africa. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS: The authors believe that this viewpoint is the starting point in accelerating the roll out of sustainable MHP to incarcerated females in South Africa. These are females who are on the periphery of society that are in need of practical interventions. Publishing this viewpoint would provide the team with the credibility to apply for international and national funding to roll out sustainable solutions. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: It is hoped that the gaps in literature and nodes for social and human rights activism highlighted within this viewpoint establish the need for further participatory research, human rights advocacy and informed civic engagement to ensure the voices of these women and their basic human rights are upheld.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Menstruation , Female , Humans , Male , Hygiene , COVID-19/epidemiology , South Africa/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prisons
5.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269341, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The menstrual needs of girls and women are important to health, education, and well-being. Unmet need and harm from poor menstrual health in low-and- middle-income countries have been documented, but with little empirical research undertaken in high income countries. Continuing austerity in the UK suggests menstruators are likely more vulnerable to 'period poverty' than previously, with the COVID-19 pandemic assumed to exacerbate the situation. AIM: To explore the menstrual experiences and perceptions of women in the UK who are living under circumstances of deprivation, alongside views of staff working in organisations supporting these women, to understand whether women's menstrual needs are met. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in an inner-city in NW England. Three focus group discussions and 14 in-depth interviews were conducted across three study sites supporting impoverished women. Data was analysed thematically. RESULTS: Themes were: reflections on menstruation; affordability of products; access to public facilities; organisational support; potential solutions. Many women perceived menstruation as a burden in three aspects: physical discomfort and pain; psychological anxiety; and shame and stigma. Managing menstruation was difficult due to cost relative to low incomes, with food, heating and lighting prioritised, leaving women improvising with materials or wearing products for longer than desired. Most suggested that products should be free, often remarking if men required similar items this would happen. Most women were unaware supporting organisations provided free products. Staff felt the small range of products offered did not meet client needs and were ill-prepared to have conversations on products and clients' menstrual needs. CONCLUSION: Impoverished women lack the necessary resources to manage their menses well which negatively impacts their health and brings stress, embarrassment, and shame. Support, including access to free products, is needed at both local and national level to help impoverished women manage their menstrual hygiene.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Menstruation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Hygiene , Male , Menstruation/psychology , Pandemics , Poverty
6.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 18: 17455057221112237, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Menstrual disorders were not reported as a possible secondary effect in any of the clinical trials for the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. AIM: To describe the prevalence of perceived premenstrual and menstrual changes after COVID-19 vaccine administration. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 14,153 women (mean age 31.5 ± 9.3 years old) who had received the full course of vaccination at least three months earlier were included in this cross-sectional study. Data including the type of vaccine administered, perceived changes in the amount and duration of menstrual bleeding, presence of clots, cycle length, and premenstrual symptoms were collected through a retrospective online survey from June to September 2021. RESULTS: Of the women who participated in this study, 3136 reported no menstrual changes and 11,017 (78% of the study sample) reported experiencing menstrual cycle changes after vaccination. In summary, women who reported menstrual changes after vaccination were older (overall p < 0.001) and slightly more smokers (p = 0.05) than women who did not report any changes. The most prevalent changes in relation to premenstrual symptoms were increased fatigue (43%), abdominal bloating (37%), irritability (29%), sadness (28%), and headaches (28%). The most predominant menstrual changes were more menstrual bleeding (43%), more menstrual pain (41%), delayed menstruation (38%), fewer days of menstrual bleeding (34.5%), and shorter cycle length (32%). CONCLUSION: Women vaccinated against COVID-19 usually perceive mild menstrual and premenstrual changes. Future studies are warranted to clarify the physiological mechanisms behind these widely reported changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Menstruation Disturbances , Premenstrual Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Extravehicular Activity , Female , Humans , Menstrual Cycle/physiology , Menstruation , Menstruation Disturbances/etiology , Premenstrual Syndrome/diagnosis , Premenstrual Syndrome/drug therapy , Premenstrual Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Young Adult
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 746399, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775919

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-therapeutic hysterectomy has been performed to this day in Mexican women with intellectual disabilities (IDs), but the rationale for performing the procedure has been rarely submitted to clinical ethics committees. The objectives of the present research were to determine the frequency of hysterectomy and the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics that associated to the indication of hysterectomy in girls and young females with IDs and to analyse the emerging ethical issues related to the procedure. Materials and Methods: A medical chart review was conducted to identify female patients aged ≤ 25 years who had IDs based on anatomical pathologies and hospital records and underwent hysterectomy between January 2014 and December 2019 in nine high-concentration hospitals in Mexico City. Data were collected using a questionnaire developed ex professo and validated through a pilot study and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 21.0 software. Results: Information of 234 female patients with or without ID who were ≤ 25 years of age was reported by the departments of anatomical pathology and paediatrics. Of the patients, 184 (79%) were excluded because the information reported was found to be erroneous or incomplete during the medical records review. Most of the 50 emales included in the study had moderate ID (n = 23, 46%) followed by those with severe ID (n = 17, 34%). The mean age at hysterectomy was 15 ± 2.9 years. Prophylactic-total abdominal hysterectomy was the most frequently performed (n = 42, 84%). A concurrence was observed between the parental and medical reasons justifying hysterectomy. The most frequent reasons were fertility control (parents vs. physicians: 46 vs. 42%), management of menstrual hygiene (28 vs. 30%) and risk of sexual abuse (6 vs. 6%). Conclusion: This study showed that performing non-therapeutic hysterectomy is subject to the clinical judgement of physicians according to their perception of the patient's quality of life. Therefore, the ethical quality of the decision to perform the procedure in girls and young females resides in the ethical value of its consequences.


Subject(s)
Intellectual Disability , Adult , Child , Female , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Hygiene , Hysterectomy/methods , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Menstruation , Mexico/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life
8.
Glob Health Promot ; 29(3): 77-85, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775269

ABSTRACT

Medical and public health research supports an ongoing need for health promotion in meeting menstrual hygiene needs, including menstrual hygiene management (MHM) education and the adoption of reusable sanitary napkins. This quality improvement project focuses on menstruation education for adolescent girls in rural Tamil Nadu, India and the promotion of reusable sanitary napkins. Results indicate a significant improvement in MHM knowledge, confidence in managing menstruation, adoption of reusable sanitary napkins, and a decrease in missed school days. These findings support global recommendations for health promotion in India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Menstruation , Female , Adolescent , Humans , Hygiene/education , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Quality Improvement , India/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
9.
Women Health ; 62(4): 287-292, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774104

ABSTRACT

In early 2020, Australia experienced a nation-wide lockdown to help stop the spread of COVID-19. While many aspects of normal life were put on hold, others, like menstruation, did not stop. We examined the impact of the lockdown on the ability of people to access their usual period products. We conducted an online survey open for 2.5 weeks during the lockdown. Here, we report on responses from participants who identified as female, who were of reproductive age, and who answered questions regarding their ability to access their usual products. We fitted univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to explore factors associated with difficulty accessing period products and utilized a conventional content analysis for the free-text qualitative data. Of the 410 participants, nearly one-third reported difficulties accessing their usual period products during lockdown. Women under 25 years were more likely to experience difficulty accessing products. Free-text comments revealed the ways in which women handled this, often purchasing whatever was available regardless of whether it was a product that met their needs or not. Periods do not stop in a pandemic, and it is vital that people are able to access the products they require to manage their periods hygienically and comfortably.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Humans , Menstruation , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 554, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Access to affordable and effective menstrual hygiene products (MHP) is critical to the menstrual health of adolescent girls and young women (AGYW). In this mixed-methods analysis, we use data from a programme delivering comprehensive sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services to describe access to MHP and how COVID-19-related closures affected access to MHP; we use qualitative data to understand AGYW's experience accessing products during the study. METHODS: Between September 2019-January 2021, we used data routinely collected from ten Yathu Yathu hubs offering community-based, peer-led SRH services to adolescents and young people aged 15-24. Hubs offered free MHP (primarily disposable pads) as a service. To incentivise service access, a "loyalty" card system was embedded within Yathu Yathu, allowing individuals to gain points for services accessed and redeem rewards using these points. Branded pads, tampons and reusable pads were among available rewards. We describe access to service pads and to reward MHP, and use logistic regression to investigate factors associated with accessing pads and reward products before (Sept 2019-March 2020) and after (July 2020-Jan 2021) COVID-19-related closures. Focus group discussions explored accessibility of offering MHP through hubs. RESULTS: Between September 2019-January 2021, 6374 AGYW made 34,116 hub visits to access an SRH service and/or redeem a reward. At 30% of these visits, AGYW accessed any MHP. Before COVID19-closures, an average of 17% of monthly visits were for freely-available disposable pads compared to 34% after hubs reopened (p < 0.001). Results were similar for reward visits. Overall, 63% of 6374 AGYW collected pads as a service at least once. Prior to COVID19-closures, AGYW aged 18-24 were more likely to access service pads than adolescents (15-17-years). After reopening, access was lower among older AGYW. Prior to hub closures, uptake of reward MHP was higher among AGYW with some secondary education but not after reopening. Discussions revealed that, for adolescents aged 15-19, COVID-19-related hub closures required reverting to using ineffective materials to manage menstruation. CONCLUSION: Availability of MHP through Yathu Yathu provided a large number of AGYW with access to these products. Hubs seemed particularly important for adolescent girls. Community-based, peer-led hubs should be considered as spaces to provide AGYW access to affordable and effective MHP.


Subject(s)
Menstrual Hygiene Products , Reproductive Health Services , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Community Health Services , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Menstruation , Pandemics , Young Adult
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732038

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the extent to which schools are struggling with the provision of safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). To describe the WASH conditions in schools and discuss the implications for the safe reopening of schools during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on WASH in schools in low- and middle-income countries was performed. In April 2021, five databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science, Scopus, AJOL, and LILACS, were used to identify studies. Sixty-five papers met the inclusion criteria. We extracted and analyzed data considering the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) definitions and the normative contents of Human Rights to safe drinking water and sanitation. Publications included in this systematic review considered 18,465 schools, across 30 different countries. Results indicate a lack of adequate WASH conditions and menstrual hygiene management requirements in all countries. The largely insufficient and inadequate school infrastructure hampers students to practice healthy hygiene habits and handwashing in particular. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, being hindered to implement such a key strategy to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the school environment is of major concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drinking Water , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Humans , Hygiene , Menstruation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sanitation , Schools , Water Supply
12.
Health Care Women Int ; 43(4): 413-427, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541378

ABSTRACT

The researchers' aim was to determine the impact of the awareness and fear of COVID-19 on menstrual symptoms. We conducted the cross-sectional study with 125 women and collected using the Visual Analog Scale, the Menstruation Symptom Scale, the Awareness of COVID-19 Scale and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. While 39% of the women reported that there was no change in the menstrual pattern during the pandemic process, 22.4% reported an increase in menstrual pain and 25.6% reported deterioration in the menstrual pattern. A one-unit increase in the women's fear of COVID-19 scale score increases the Menstrual Symptom Scale total score by 1016 points (p < .001). However, the awareness of COVID-19 had no impact on menstrual symptoms. As fear of COVID-19 increases menstrual symptoms, when providing nursing care, nurses should be aware that women need more support to cope with this condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Menstruation , SARS-CoV-2
13.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259583, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious disease outbreaks like COVID-19 and their mitigation measures can exacerbate underlying gender disparities, particularly among adolescents and young adults in densely populated urban settings. METHODS: An existing cohort of youth ages 16-26 in Nairobi, Kenya completed a phone-based survey in August-October 2020 (n = 1217), supplemented by virtual focus group discussions and interviews with youth and stakeholders, to examine economic, health, social, and safety experiences during COVID-19, and gender disparities therein. RESULTS: COVID-19 risk perception was high with a gender differential favoring young women (95.5% vs. 84.2%; p<0.001); youth described mixed concern and challenges to prevention. During COVID-19, gender symmetry was observed in constrained access to contraception among contraceptive users (40.4% men; 34.6% women) and depressive symptoms (21.8% men; 24.3% women). Gender disparities rendered young women disproportionately unable to meet basic economic needs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.21; p<0.05) and in need of healthcare during the pandemic (aOR = 1.59; p<0.001). At a bivariate level, women had lower full decisional control to leave the house (40.0% vs. 53.2%) and less consistent access to safe, private internet (26.1% vs. 40.2%), while men disproportionately experienced police interactions (60.1%, 55.2% of which included extortion). Gender-specific concerns for women included menstrual hygiene access challenges (52.0%), increased reliance on transactional partnerships, and gender-based violence, with 17.3% reporting past-year partner violence and 3.0% non-partner sexual violence. Qualitative results contextualize the mental health impact of economic disruption and isolation, and, among young women, privacy constraints. IMPLICATIONS: Youth and young adults face gendered impacts of COVID-19, reflecting both underlying disparities and the pandemic's economic and social shock. Economic, health and technology-based supports must ensure equitable access for young women. Gender-responsive recovery efforts are necessary and must address the unique needs of youth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Contraception/methods , Contraception Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Menstruation/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258314, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477534

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As war and famine are population level stressors that have been historically linked to menstrual cycle abnormalities, we hypothesized that the COVID-19 pandemic could similarly affect ovulation and menstruation among women. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a retrospective cohort study examining changes in ovulation and menstruation among women using the Natural Cycles mobile tracking app. We compared de-identified cycle data from March-September 2019 (pre-pandemic) versus March-September 2020 (during pandemic) to determine differences in the proportion of users experiencing anovulation, abnormal cycle length, and prolonged menses, as well as population level changes in these parameters, while controlling for user-reported stress during the pandemic. FINDINGS: We analyzed data from 214,426 cycles from 18,076 app users, primarily from Great Britain (29.3%) and the United States (22.6%). The average user was 33 years of age; most held at least a university degree (79.9%). Nearly half (45.4%) reported more pandemic-related stress. Changes in average cycle and menstruation lengths were not clinically significant, remaining at 29 and 4 days, respectively. Approximately 7.7% and 19.5% of users recorded more anovulatory cycles and abnormal cycle lengths during the pandemic, respectively. Contrary to expectation, 9.6% and 19.6% recorded fewer anovulatory cycles and abnormal cycle lengths, respectively. Women self-reporting more (32.0%) and markedly more (13.6%) stress during the pandemic were not more likely to experience cycle abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: The COVD-19 pandemic did not induce population-level changes to ovulation and menstruation among women using a mobile app to track menstrual cycles and predict ovulation. While some women experienced abnormalities during the pandemic, this proportion was smaller than that observed prior to the pandemic. As most app users in this study were well-educated women over the age of 30 years, and from high-income countries, their experience of the COVID-19 pandemic might differ in ways that limit the generalizability of these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Menstruation , Mobile Applications , Ovulation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged
16.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 43(4): 769, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364423
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244012

ABSTRACT

The availability of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services is a key prerequisite for quality care and infection prevention and control in health care facilities (HCFs). In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance and urgency of enhancing WASH coverage to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission and other healthcare-associated infections. As a part of COVID-19 preparedness and response interventions, the Government of Zimbabwe, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and civil society organizations conducted WASH assessments in 50 HCFs designated as COVID-19 isolation facilities. Assessments were based on the Water and Sanitation for Health Facility Improvement Tool (WASH FIT), a multi-step framework to inform the continuous monitoring and improvement of WASH services. The WASH FIT assessments revealed that one in four HCFs did not have adequate services across the domains of water, sanitation, health care waste, hand hygiene, facility environment, cleanliness and disinfection, and management. The sanitation domain had the largest proportion of health care facilities with poor service coverage (42%). Some of the recommendations from this assessment include the provision of sufficient water for all users, Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM)- and disability-friendly sanitation facilities, handwashing facilities, waste collection services, energy for incineration or waste treatment facilities, cleaning supplies, and financial resources for HCFs. WASH FIT may be a useful tool to inform WASH interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sanitation , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Disinfection , Health Facilities , Humans , Hygiene , Menstruation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Water , Water Supply , Zimbabwe
19.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 42(1): 260-267, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065548

ABSTRACT

RESEARCH QUESTION: Does SARS-CoV-2 infection have an effect on ovarian reserve, sex hormones and menstruation of women of child-bearing age? DESIGN: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study in which clinical and laboratory data from 237 women of child-bearing age diagnosed with COVID-19 were retrospectively reviewed. Menstrual data from 177 patients were analysed. Blood samples from the early follicular phase were tested for sex hormones and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). RESULTS: Among 237 patients with confirmed COVID-19, severely ill patients had more comorbidities than mildly ill patients (34% versus 8%), particularly for patients with diabetes, hepatic disease and malignant tumours. Of 177 patients with menstrual records, 45 (25%) patients presented with menstrual volume changes, and 50 (28%) patients had menstrual cycle changes, mainly a decreased volume (20%) and a prolonged cycle (19%). The average sex hormone and AMH concentrations of women of child-bearing age with COVID-19 were not different from those of age-matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: Average sex hormone concentrations and ovarian reserve did not change significantly in COVID-19 women of child-bearing age. Nearly one-fifth of patients exhibited a menstrual volume decrease or cycle prolongation. The menstruation changes of these patients might be the consequence of transient sex hormone changes caused by suppression of ovarian function that quickly resume after recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/blood , Menstruation/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/analysis , Humans , Menstrual Cycle/physiology , Middle Aged , Ovarian Reserve/physiology , Ovary/physiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
20.
Clin Transl Med ; 11(2): e297, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049592

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in December 2019 and has subsequently spread worldwide. Currently, there is no effective method to cure COVID-19. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may be able to effectively treat COVID-19, especially for severe and critical patients. Menstrual blood-derived MSCs have recently received much attention due to their superior proliferation ability and their lack of ethical problems. Forty-four patients were enrolled from January to April 2020 in a multicenter, open-label, nonrandomized, parallel-controlled exploratory trial. Twenty-six patients received allogeneic, menstrual blood-derived MSC therapy, and concomitant medications (experimental group), and 18 patients received only concomitant medications (control group). The experimental group was treated with three infusions totaling 9 × 107 MSCs, one infusion every other day. Primary and secondary endpoints related to safety and efficacy were assessed at various time points during the 1-month period following MSC infusion. Safety was measured using the frequency of treatment-related adverse events (AEs). Patients in the MSC group showed significantly lower mortality (7.69% died in the experimental group vs 33.33% in the control group; P = .048). There was a significant improvement in dyspnea while undergoing MSC infusion on days 1, 3, and 5. Additionally, SpO2 was significantly improved following MSC infusion, and chest imaging results were improved in the experimental group in the first month after MSC infusion. The incidence of most AEs did not differ between the groups. MSC-based therapy may serve as a promising alternative method for treating severe and critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Menstruation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Allografts , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
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