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3.
Lancet ; 400(10354): 732, 2022 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184629
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e23976, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diverse Asian American population has been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, but due to limited data and other factors, disparities experienced by this population are hidden. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the Asian American community's experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on the Greater San Francisco Bay Area, California, and to better inform a Federally Qualified Health Center's (FQHC) health care services and response to challenges faced by the community. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey between May 20 and June 23, 2020, using a multipronged recruitment approach, including word-of-mouth, FQHC patient appointments, and social media posts. The survey was self-administered online or administered over the phone by FQHC staff in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, and Vietnamese. Survey question topics included COVID-19 testing and preventative behaviors, economic impacts of COVID-19, experience with perceived mistreatment due to their race/ethnicity, and mental health challenges. RESULTS: Among 1297 Asian American respondents, only 3.1% (39/1273) had previously been tested for COVID-19, and 46.6% (392/841) stated that they could not find a place to get tested. In addition, about two-thirds of respondents (477/707) reported feeling stressed, and 22.6% (160/707) reported feeling depressed. Furthermore, 5.6% (72/1275) of respondents reported being treated unfairly because of their race/ethnicity. Among respondents who experienced economic impacts from COVID-19, 32.2% (246/763) had lost their regular jobs and 22.5% (172/763) had reduced hours or reduced income. Additionally, 70.1% (890/1269) of respondents shared that they avoid leaving their home to go to public places (eg, grocery stores, church, and school). CONCLUSIONS: We found that Asian Americans had lower levels of COVID-19 testing and limited access to testing, a high prevalence of mental health issues and economic impacts, and a high prevalence of risk-avoidant behaviors (eg, not leaving the house) in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings provide preliminary insights into the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Asian American communities served by an FQHC and underscore the longstanding need for culturally and linguistically appropriate approaches to providing mental health, outreach, and education services. These findings led to the establishment of the first Asian multilingual and multicultural COVID-19 testing sites in the local area where the study was conducted, and laid the groundwork for subsequent COVID-19 programs, specifically contact tracing and vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Mental Disorders/ethnology , Pandemics , Risk Reduction Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , San Francisco/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(9): 1354-1358, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197198

ABSTRACT

A Denver program is helping people capture images and write narratives to help in their mental health recovery.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Mental Health Recovery , Humans , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health , Narration
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25951, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191012

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: During outbreaks of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many countries adopted quarantine to slow the spread of the virus of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Quarantine will cause isolation from families, friends, and the public, which consequently leads to serious psychological pressure with potentially long-lasting effects on the quarantined population. Experience of specific practices to improve the psychological status of the mandatory quarantined population was limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of mandatory quarantine, and evaluate the effect of psychological intervention on the quarantined population.We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess and manage the psychological status of a mandatory quarantined population in Beijing, China. A total of 638 individuals completed 2 questionnaires and were enrolled in this study, of which 372 participants accepted designed psychological intervention while other 266 participants refused it. The SCL-90 questionnaire was used to evaluate the psychological status and its change before and after the intervention. The differences of SCL-90 factor scores between participants and the national norm group were assessed by 2 samples t test. While the SCL-90 factor scores before and after intervention were compared with 2 paired samples t test.Compared with the Chinese norms of SCL-90, the participants had higher SCL-90 factor scores in most items of the SCL-90 inventory. The SCL-90 factor scores of participants with psychological intervention significantly decreased in somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. In contrast, most factor scores of the SCL-90 inventory changed little without statistical significance in participants without psychological intervention.Psychological problems should be emphasized in the quarantined individuals and professional psychological intervention was a feasible approach to improve the psychological status of the mandatory quarantined population in the epidemic of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
preprints.org; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202301.0448.v1

ABSTRACT

The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) is the most popular measure of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which has been recently validated in Arabic. This instrumental study aimed to determine optimal cutoff scores of the IES-R and its subscales in Arab samples of psychiatric patients (N = 168, 70.8% females) and healthy adults (N = 992, 62.7% females) from Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic as an ongoing collective traumatic event. Based on a cutoff score of 14 of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed two optimal points of 39.5 and 30.5 for the IES-R in the samples (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.86 & 0.91, p values = 0.001, 95% CI: 0.80-0.92 & 0.87 to 0.94, sensitivity = 0.85 & 0.87, specificity = 0.73 & 0.83, Youden index = 0.58 & 0.70, respectively). Different cutoffs were detected for the six subscales of the IES-R, with numbing and avoidance expressing the lowest predictivity for distress. Meanwhile, hyperarousal followed by the irritability expressed stronger predictive capacity for distress than all subscales in both samples. In path analysis, pandemic-related irritability resulted from direct and indirect effects of key PTSD symptoms (intrusion, hyperarousal, and numbing). Irritability contributed to traumatic symptoms of sleep disturbance in both samples while the opposite was not true. The findings suggest usefulness of the IES-R at a score of 30.5 for detecting adults prone to trauma related distress, with higher scores needed for screening in psychiatric patients. Various PTSD symptoms may induce dysphoric mood, which represents a considerable burden that may induce circadian misalignment and more noxious psychiatric problems/ co-morbidities (sleep disturbance) in both healthy and diseased groups.


Subject(s)
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Mental Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Traumatic , Mood Disorders , Anxiety Disorders , Wounds and Injuries
9.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.01.18.23284681

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There were concerns that suicide deaths might increase due to Covid-19 pandemic-related stressors. Previous research demonstrated that suicide deaths actually decreased in 2020 in the US. An update covering 2021-2022 with regional data is warranted. Methods: Observational cohort, US and regional data. Expected monthly deaths were modeled using pre-pandemic US and regional data (2015-2020). Mortality data was accessed from CDC public reporting. Results: We find that suicide deaths in the United States were below expected levels throughout the pandemic period (March 1, 2020-June 30,2022) with >4,100 fewer suicide deaths than would have been expected to occur during the study period. Stratifying suicide mortality by US Census Bureau region yielded statistically significant decreases from expected suicide deaths in all regions except the Midwest, (which recorded no significant change in suicide deaths during the overall pandemic period). Conclusion: Suicide mortality is down in the US since the pandemic began, through June 30, 2022. Possible explanations include an early 'coming together' effect; Later, increased access to mental health resources and a greater focus on mental health in the media may have reduced stigma and barriers in seeking necessary psychiatric care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders
10.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2473019.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: This report examines the cross-sectional association between new bereavement and binge drinking. Bingeing is defined as 4 or more drinks (women) or 5 or more drinks (men) in a 2-to-4-hour setting. In the 2019 Georgia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS), bereavement is a defined as a ‘Yes’ answer to ‘Have you experienced the death of a family member or close friend in the years 2018 or 2019?’. Methods: Georgia BRFSS is a complex sampling survey administered annually. It is designed to represent the 8.1 million persons in the U.S. state of Georgia aged 18 years and older. Alcohol consumption is routinely measured in the common core. In 2019, the state added a new item probing for bereavement in the prior 24 months predating the pandemic of COVID-19. Imputation and weighting techniques were applied to yield population prevalence rates of new bereavement, bingeing, and their co-occurrence with other high-risk health states. Models, adjusted for age, gender, and race were used to estimate the risk for other unhealthy behaviors posed by the co-occurrence of bereavement and bingeing. Results: In Georgia, bereavement is common (45.8 %), and alcohol consumption is common (48.8 %). Bereavement and alcohol use co-occurred among 1,796,817 persons (45 % of all drinkers). The subset of co-occurring bereavement and binging totaled 608,282 persons. Within this group, the highest rates of bereavement were associated with death of a friend / neighbor (30.7%) or 3 plus deaths (31.8%). Conclusions: While bingeing is a known risk to public health, its co-occurrence with new bereavement is a new observation. Public health surveillance systems need to monitor this co-occurrence to protect both individual and societal health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders
11.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.01.10.23284300

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Covid-19 pandemic brought forward unprecedented psycho-social challenges for the world. The devastating loss of human lives created a burden of grief throughout the world. The bereaved were put at a greater risk of grief complications with high death tolls, strict social isolation guidelines and a halt to communal funeral practices. Prolonged Grief Disorder is a young psychiatric condition which refers to an abnormal grief reaction that exceeds the normal cultural, social and religious norms. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD), as mentioned in ICD-11 in Pakistan, along with its correlation to anxiety, depression and psychological distress. Severity of grief reactions were compared with the place of death and relationship with the deceased. Methods: A cross sectional online survey was conducted during the month of October 2021. Sample size was calculated using OpenEpi and data was collected through non probability sampling. The questionnaire was validated and shared through multiple social forums. A total of 737 participants residing in Lahore Pakistan, who had lost a close one due to Covid-19 participated in the study. Demographics, loss related information, and self-reported symptoms measured by 13-item Prolonged Grief Disorder Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-4 and Kessler-6 scales were obtained. Results:The prevalence of Prolonged Grief Disorder was found to be 15.4%. There was a significant correlation of grief intensity with depression and anxiety.Prolonged Grief Disorder puts individuals at greater risk of suffering from serious mental illnesses. People who were closely related to the deceased were more likely to experience severe Prolonged Grief Disorder symptoms. Conclusion: Early detection and treatment of high risk individuals is necessary to mitigate the burden of grief and associated risk of anxiety and depression. Overall we conclude that discussions pertaining to grief and measures to curb the psychological effects are crucial in the post-pandemic world.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Pregnancy, Prolonged , Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities , COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder , Anxiety Disorders , Death
12.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2449452.v1

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study explored the changes in biomarkers indicators and prognosis in COVID-19 patients with mental disorders (n = 60) from the author’ Hospital between 2/13/2020 and 4/15/2020. Significant differences before and after negative conversion were observed in lymphocytes, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and ApoA1 (all P < 0.05). Compared with the patients who had a negative conversion within 3 weeks, those who did not turn negative within 3 weeks had a higher frequency of cardiovascular diseases (27.3% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.040), a higher lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (median, 4.72 vs. 3.35, P = 0.003), and higher total bilirubin levels (median, 12.0 vs. 8.6 µmol/L, P = 0.031). The results present the changes in laboratory parameters in COVID-19 patients with a mental disorder. Cardiovascular diseases and higher lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, and total bilirubin levels could be associated with the amount of time required for negative conversion.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hyperbilirubinemia , COVID-19
16.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2378692.v1

ABSTRACT

Background Global annual cancer incidence is forecast to rise to 27.5M by 2040, a 62% rise from 2018. For most cancers, prevention and early detection are the most effective ways of reducing mortality. This study maps trials in cancer screening, prevention and early diagnosis (SPED) to identify areas of unmet need and highlight research priorities.Methods A systematic mapping review was conducted to evaluate all clinical trials focused on cancer SPED, irrespective of tumour type. The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) portfolio, EMBASE, PubMed and Medline were searched for relevant papers published between 01/01/2007 and 01/04/2020. References were exported into Covidence software and double-screened. Data were extracted and mapped according to tumour site, geographical location, and intervention type.Results 117,701 abstracts were screened, 5157 full texts reviewed, and 2888 studies included. 1184 (52%) trials focussed on screening, 554 (24%) prevention, 442 (20%) early diagnosis and 85 (4%) a combination. Colorectal, breast and cervical cancer comprised 61% of all studies compared with 6.4% in lung and 1.8% in liver cancer. The latter two are responsible for 26.3% of global cancer deaths compared with 19.3% for the former three. Number of studies varied markedly according to geographical location; 88% were based in North America, Europe or Asia.Conclusions This study shows clear disparities in the volume of research conducted across different tumour types and according to geographical location. These findings will help drive future research effort so that resources can be directed towards major challenges in cancer SPED.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Colorectal Neoplasms , Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116056

ABSTRACT

In line with priorities set by the Italian Ministry of Health and international literature, the "Crisalide project" provides specific care pathways aimed at young adults (YA) with severe mental disorders (SMD). As described in Materials and Methods, it consists of three lines of activity: transition to adult mental health services (TSMREE/CSM 17-19); Diagnostic, Therapeutic, and Assistance Pathways for Young Adults (PDTA-YA); high-intensity treatment center for young adults "Argolab2 Potential Space". The aim of the study is to assess the results relating to the first three years of implementation of this clinical-organizational model (2018/2020) according to the process indicators identified by the ministry. Among the population aged 18-30 under treatment, results show increased prevalence (30%) and incidence (26%); 0% treatment conclusions due to the expiration of the conventional time limit; 0% involuntary hospitalizations (TSO); 0% STPIT hospitalizations; 0% repeated hospitalizations; 0% hospitalizations in the common mental disorders diagnostic group. Among the population of Argolab2 Potential Space, 45.4% have resumed studies; 40.9% have had a first work experience; 22.7% have obtained educational or training qualifications, and 18.2% live in independent houses. At a time when the academic literature underlines the terrible impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on this population, the present study confirms that specific treatment processes for young populations are a protective factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Mental Health Services , Humans , Young Adult , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Community Mental Health Centers , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Disorders/psychology
19.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.12.12.22283388

ABSTRACT

Background: This scoping review assessed the COVID-19 impacts on mental health and associated risk factors. Methods A systematic literature search for relevant articles published in the period March 2020 to July 2022, was conducted in the APA PsychInfo, JBI Evidence Synthesis, Epistemonikos, PubMed, and Cochrane databases. Results A total of 72 studies met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that the commonly used mental health assessment tools were the Patient Health Questionnaire (41.7%), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (36%), 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress (13.9%), Impact of Event Scale (12.5%), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (9.7%), Symptom Checklist and the General Health Questionnaire (6.9% each). The prevalence rate of depression ranged from 5-76.5%, 5.6-80.5% for anxiety, 9.1-65% for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, 8.3-61.7% for sleep disorders, 4.9-70.1% for stress, 7-71.5% for psychological distress, and 21.4-69.3% for general mental health conditions. The major risks included female gender, healthcare-related/frontline jobs, isolation/quarantine, poverty, lower education, COVID-19 risk, age, commodities, mental illness history, negative psychology, and higher social media exposure. The incidence of mental disorders increased along with the increasing cases of COVID-19 and the corresponding government restrictions. Conclusion Standard assessment tools were used for mental health assessment by the reviewed studies which were conducted during COVID-19. Mental health disorders like depression, anxiety, and stress increased during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns. Various factors impacted the prevalence of mental health disorders. Policymakers need to provide social protective measures to improve coping capacities during critical health events to avoid negative impacts on the population. Further studies should investigate the effectiveness of interventions for reducing the prevalence and risk factors for mental health conditions during a public health challenge.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Traumatic , Depressive Disorder , Anxiety Disorders
20.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 93: 97-102, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119837

ABSTRACT

Inequalities in mental healthcare and lack of social support during the COVID-19 pandemic have lowered quality of life and increased overall burden of disease in people with Parkinson's (PWP). Although the pandemic has brought attention to these inequalities, they are long standing and will persist unless addressed. Lack of awareness of mental health issues is a major barrier and even when recognized disparities based on race, gender, and socioeconomic factors limit access to already scarce resources. Stigma regarding mental illness is highly prevalent and is a major barrier even when adequate care exists. Limited access to mental healthcare during the pandemic and in general increases the burden on caregivers and families. Historically, initiatives to improve mental healthcare for PWP focused on interventions designed for specialty and academic centers generally located in large metropolitan areas, which has created unintended geographic disparities in access. In order to address these issues this point of view suggests a community-based wellness model to extend the reach of mental healthcare resources for PWP.


Subject(s)
Healthcare Disparities/trends , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health/trends , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Social Support/trends , Health Resources/trends , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Social Support/psychology
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