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1.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3991602.v1

ABSTRACT

Background This study explores post-COVID-19 psychological challenges in a 31-year-old female patient—manifesting as Anxiety, fatigue, weakness, irritability, anger, and concentration issues. The treatment approach combines SSRI and Clonazepam medications with Shirodhara therapy using Balashwagandhadi taila, presenting a novel and comprehensive intervention strategy.Methods The patient was evaluated using recognized scales, such as HAM-A, HDRS, PHQ-9, and QOL. Additionally, monitoring serum cortisol levels served as a potential physiological marker. The integrative treatment approach addresses psychological symptoms and potential underlying physiological mechanisms.Results Significant improvement is observed across various domains, evidenced by reduced HAM-A, HDRS, and PHQ-9 scores and enhanced QOL. Post-Shirodhara therapy, a notable increase in serum cortisol levels from 3.09 ug/dL to 11.76 ug/dL, suggesting a correlation with clinical improvements.Conclusion This case underscores Shirodhara's promising role as an adjunctive therapy for post-COVID-19 Anxiety and depression. Findings advocate further exploring integrative approaches in post-viral psychological care, emphasizing addressing psychological and potential physiological aspects for holistic recovery.


Subject(s)
Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological , COVID-19 , Muscle Weakness , Mental Disorders , Anxiety Disorders , Fatigue
2.
medrxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2024.02.14.24302768

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Understanding the potential adverse effects of the Covid-19-pandemic remains a challenge for public mental health. In this regard, the differentiation between potential consequences of actual infection with SARS-CoV-2 and the subjective burden of the pandemic due to measures and restrictions to daily life remains elusive. Methods: Here we investigated the differential association between infection with SARS-Cov-2 and subjective burden of the pandemic in a study cohort of 7601 participants from the German population-based cohort for digital health research (DigiHero), who were recruited between March 4th and April 25th 2022. Data was collected using the online survey tool LimeSurvey between March and October 2022 in consecutive surveys, which included questionnaires on infection status and symptoms following COVID-19 as well as retrospective assessment of the subjective burden of the pandemic. Results: We observed an association of a past SARS-CoV-2 infection on deteriorated mental health related symptoms, whereas no association or interaction with burden of the pandemic occurred. The association was driven by participants with persistent symptoms 12 weeks after acute infection. On a symptom specific level, neuropsychiatric symptoms such as exhaustion and fatigue, concentration deficits as well as problems with memory function were the primary drivers of the association. Conclusion: Our findings underscore the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infections on mental health in patients suffering from ongoing symptoms 12 weeks after infection. As the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and mental health appeared more pronounced in populations with higher vulnerability for mental disorders, increased attention should be dedicated towards these subgroups regarding the prevention of infection.


Subject(s)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , COVID-19 , Status Epilepticus , Mental Disorders , Fatigue , Infections
3.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3956593.v1

ABSTRACT

Background Our Hospital in Northern Italy assists 3817 people living with HIV (PLWH) and has faced the impact of COVID-19. Little is known about the impact of HIV infection on the risk of post-COVID-19 conditions (PCCs) onset. We aim to assess the incidence of PCC in PLWH and the factors associated with its occurrence.Methods We performed a retrospective, observational study including all PLWH > 18 years registered in the Brescia Health Protection Agency database, assessing SARS-CoV-2 burden, vaccination status, socio-demographic, and viro-immunological parameters from February 2020 until May 2022. Persistence of self-reported symptoms (clustered into gastrointestinal, respiratory, osteo-muscular, and neuro-behavioral symptoms) was evaluated after 3 months by a telephone-administered questionnaire. We estimated the associations between all variables and outcomes through univariate and multivariable logistic models.Results In the study period, 653 PLWH were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection (17.1%). We observed 19 (2.9%) reinfections, 71 (10.9%) hospitalizations, and 3 (0.5%) deaths. We interviewed 510/653 PLWH (78%), and 178 (PCCs prevalence 34.9%; CI95% 30.7–39.2) reported persistent symptoms. Asthenia/fatigue was the most reported symptom (60/178), followed by muscular pain (54/178). In the multivariate regression model, male sex was protective (adjusted OR = 0.64; CI95% 0.99–3.66), while hospitalization during acute infection was associated with an increased the risk of PCCs (adjusted OR = 1.9; CI95% 0.99–3.66). Notably, no viro-immunological variable modified the PCCs risk onset.Conclusions Our study highlights a substantial prevalence of PCCs among PLWH, three months post-SARS-CoV-2 infection, independent of viro-immunological features or vaccination status.


Subject(s)
Pain , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Mental Disorders , Fatigue , Nail-Patella Syndrome , Acute Disease
4.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3953045.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: Social restrictions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic have altered children’s movement behaviours and impacted their mental health. However, the influence of social restrictions on subjective health complaints remains inadequately understood. This study compared adherence to 24-hour movement behaviour guidelines and the prevalence of subjective health complaints during school closure and one year after reopening. We also examined how combinations of adherence to movement behaviour recommendations relate to subjective health complaints. Methods: A repeated cross-sectional survey was conducted at two points. The first survey in May 2020 included 1535 (766 boys and 769 girls) participants during school closures, while the second survey from May to July 2021 involved 1125 (583 boys and 542 girls) participants one year after school reopening. The questionnaire covered socio-demographics, physical activity, screen time, sleep, and subjective health complaints. Differences between periods were analysed using chi-square tests. Logistic regression models assessed the association between adherence to guidelines and subjective health complaints. Results: During school closure, children were more likely to meet ‘only sleep’ recommendations and experience irritability and lethargy symptoms as compared to one year after school reopening. Irrespective of sex, those adhering to two or all three recommendations (excluding physical activity and screen time) had a lower risk of symptoms related to physical and mental pain, fatigue, irritability, and lethargy as compared to those who met no recommendation. Conclusions: Children should meet at least one physical activity or screen time recommendation in addition to sleep recommendations for subjective health. Strategies considering the priority of each movement behaviour are crucial, even during abnormal situations, such as pandemic-related social restrictions. This study offers insightful findings concerning children’s mental health issues during unprecedented and massive disasters or crises.


Subject(s)
Pain , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Lethargy , Fatigue
5.
medrxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2024.02.03.24302281

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic has created complex conditions and the horrific loss of numerous lives, grieving the loss of loved ones in close families can be extremely difficult. To reduce the suffering of the loss and prevent the development of complicated grief, it is necessary to provide bereavement care as soon as possible. Therefore, we quickly developed a complete online program that included supportive psycho-therapeutic interventions and psychiatric counseling. The structure of all services is the main emphasis of the study, which also emphasizes the quantitative components and the unique characteristics of the interventions. Based on the lesson learned, we discussed the difficulties experienced in putting into practice an internet-based preventive service.


Subject(s)
Learning Disabilities , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders
6.
authorea preprints; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.170667796.68599970.v1

ABSTRACT

Objective: - To determine the prevalence of peripartum depression (PPD) and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic, any differences between COVID-infected and non-infected mothers and its risk factors. Study design- Cross-sectional study. Setting- Tertiary care maternity hospital Population- Pregnant and postpartum women Methods- Questionnaire based direct interview. EPDS (Edinburgh postnatal depression scale) score, COVID-19 anxiety scale (CAS) was used. Outcome measures- Possible PPD (EPDS13), Probable PPD (EPDS14), Peripartum anxiety (EPDS anxiety sub score4), COVID-19 related anxiety and risk factors of PPD. Results- Out of 842 eligible subjects, 142 were confirmed COVID-19 positive and 670 patients were without the infection. The mean age was 25±3.9 years and 571 (67.8%) subjects were postpartum. Among the subjects, 383 (45.5%) had possible depression, 317 (37.6%) had probable depression. Peripartum anxiety was observed among 763(90.6%) subjects and the median CAS score was 15(8-28). While there was no significant difference in the prevalence of PPD, peripartum anxiety was higher among COVID non-infected subjects (91.6% vs 86.6%, p=0.04). The CAS score was higher among COVID-19 infected compared to the non-infected [17(10-28) vs 15(8-25), p=0.00]. In multivariate analysis, history of psychiatric illness [OR- 4.2(95% CI- 1.82-9.93), p=0.001], domestic violence [OR-2.4(95% CI-1.16-5.10), p=0.019] and past obstetric complications [OR-1.5(95%CI-1.01-2.27), p=0.042] were significant risk factors for PPD. Conclusion- High prevalence of PPD was observed during COVID-19 pandemic without any significant difference between COVID-19 infected and non-infected subjects. COVID-19 infected patients had higher COVID related anxiety. Funding- None taken Keywords- peripartum depression; EPDS; COVID-19 anxiety scale.


Subject(s)
Depression, Postpartum , Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Anxiety Disorders , Infections
7.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3904203.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant global impact, particularly on the older adult population. To address concerns regarding the emergence and persistence of cognitive impairment and its potential risk factors, this study aimed to investigate cognitive function and its relationship with inflammation in older COVID-19 survivors during a three-month follow-up. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 177 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 aged >60 years were examined between July 2021 and February 2022.Psychiatric and cognitive assessments were conducted at discharge and at one month and three months post-discharge. All the statistical analyses were conducted using a Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24 (P<0.05). Cognitive status was analyzed with the Repeated Measures Test, and relationships between inflammatory indices and cognitive function were explored via the Pearson correlation test and Mann‒Whitney U test. The normality of the data was examined using the Kolmogorov‒Smirnov test. Results:A cognitive assessment of patients indicated lower scores onthe informant subscales of the General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG) during the time of discharge, as well as at the 1-and 3-month follow-up intervals. Negative correlations were found between cognitive function and depression/anxiety. Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were linked to lower cognitive scores, while the Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were not significantly correlated. Over time, cognitive function and anxiety improved, while depression and daily activity challenges persisted. Conclusions: This study highlights the lingering impact of inflammation on cognition among older COVID-19 survivors. Moreover, these findings underscore the urgent need for focused interventions and rehabilitation efforts to foster sustained cognitive recovery in this population.


Subject(s)
Inflammation , Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Anxiety Disorders , Cognition Disorders
8.
medrxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2024.01.25.24301772

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated mental health challenges, particularly depression among college students. Detecting at-risk students early is crucial but remains challenging, particularly in developing countries. Utilizing data-driven predictive models presents a viable solution to address this pressing need. AIMS: 1) To develop and compare machine learning (ML) models for predicting depression in Argentinean students during the pandemic. 2) To assess the performance of classification and regression models using appropriate metrics. 3) To identify key features driving depression prediction. METHODS: A longitudinal dataset (N = 1492 college students) captured T1 and T2 measurements during the Argentinean COVID-19 quarantine. ML models, including linear logistic regression classifiers/ridge regression (LogReg/RR), random forest classifiers/regressors, and support vector machines/regressors (SVM/SVR), are employed. Assessed features encompass depression and anxiety scores (at T1), mental disorder/suicidal behavior history, quarantine sub-period information, sex, and age. For classification, models' performance on test data is evaluated using Area Under the Precision-Recall Curve (AUPRC), Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve, Balanced Accuracy, F1 score, and Brier loss. For regression, R-squared (R2), Mean Absolute Error, and Mean Squared Error are assessed. Univariate analyses are conducted to assess the predictive strength of each individual feature with respect to the target variable. The performance of multi- vs univariate models is compared using the mean AUPRC score for classifiers and R2 score for regressors. RESULTS: The highest performance is achieved by SVM and LogReg (e.g., AUPRC: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.81) and SVR and RR models (e.g., R2 for SVR and RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.45, 0.64 and 0.45, 0.63, respectively). Univariate models, particularly LogReg and SVM using depression (AUPRC: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.79) or anxiety scores (AUPRC: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.78) and RR using depression scores (R2: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.57) exhibit performance levels close to those of the multivariate models, which include all features. DISCUSSION: These findings highlight the relevance of pre-existing depression and anxiety conditions in predicting depression during quarantine, underscoring their comorbidity. ML models, particularly SVM/SVR and LogReg/RR, demonstrate potential in timely detection of at-risk students, enabling preventive measures for improved mental health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Learning Disabilities , Mental Disorders , Anxiety Disorders
9.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3880692.v1

ABSTRACT

While clinical instances of cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (CLOCCs) are well-documented, international reports specific to COVID-19-related cases remain limited. This paper presents the case of a 40-year-old female patient admitted due to "sudden dizziness and poor limb coordination for 7 weeks following fever." She tested positive for COVID-19 and experienced symptoms like dizziness, temporary confusion, nausea, vomiting, cerebellar speech issues, and ataxia after fever onset. Later, she developed pyramidal tract symptoms and behavioral abnormalities. Head MRI revealed abnormal high signal in the splenium of the corpus callosum and abnormal signals in the left cerebellar peduncle on DWI. With no significant medical history and exclusion of other causes during treatment (including steroid therapy and two doses of intravenous immunoglobulin), a follow-up MRI after one month showed the lesions had disappeared. However, clinical recovery was slow, with residual symptoms persisting for almost a year, including involuntary tremors in the upper limbs and head. Phenytoin, gabapentin, and pregabalin showed limited effectiveness in treatment, but Arotinolol and donepezil led to slight improvement in involuntary tremors. This case suggests that COVID-19-associated CLOCCs might have a protracted course and severe symptoms, demanding differentiation from ischemic cerebrovascular diseases, particularly in early stages.


Subject(s)
Fever , Vomiting , Dizziness , COVID-19 , Confusion , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Mental Disorders , Ataxia , Tremor , Cerebrovascular Trauma , Nausea
10.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3872739.v1

ABSTRACT

Background The CoMeH cohort was established to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of mental health services in Italy in the short and long term, with a particular focus on socioeconomic and/or citizenship inequalities.Methods All residents subjects for at least 2 years, aged ≥ 10 years, and assisted by an NHS general practitioner (GP) of the area of residence, in three vast catchment areas (N = 5,167,043). Primary outcomes of interest are the following indicators of mental health care services’ use: first access to any mental health care service, total number of accesses to mental health care services, the consumption of psychiatric drugs, the number of psychiatric or psychological outpatient visits, the number of residential or day care days spent in psychiatric facilities, the number of emergency and/or inpatient admissions to hospitals.Results Incident users were 3.2% of the population for Bergamo LHA, 3.5% for Rome2 LHA, and 4.4% for the Tuscany Region. The overall crude incidence rate of access to mental health care was 3.3% in the pre-COVID-19 period and 2.6% during the pandemic. Prescriptions for a mental disorder (57.2%) and ED admissions (25.1%) were the main reasons for enrollment. Compared to the general population, people with mental health conditions were older and more often female. The distribution of the incident users by deprivation index overlapped that of the population. Immigrants were younger, socioeconomically more deprived, and more often entered the study for an ED admission.Discussion We will focus on the impact of the pandemic through the evaluation of accesses to hospitalization, emergency, outpatient visits, residential and day care services, and drug prescriptions. We will also evaluate socioeconomic inequalities through the use of census-based deprivation index and migration status. Finally, we will also analyze the impact of COVID-19 infection and outcome on the study cohort.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , COVID-19
11.
medrxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2024.01.14.23300571

ABSTRACT

Recent time-dependent analyses of stress-related disorders have identified heterogeneity of trajectories and their modifying factors. While psychiatric patients are vulnerable to stress events, it is unclear how psychiatric conditions in the general population modulate subsequent stress responses. Using our longitudinal online survey from before the COVID-19 pandemic to post-pandemic follow-ups (n = 3815 Japanese adults), here we identified four trajectories of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) a latent growth mixture model; resilient, chronic, mild chronic, and early response. The depression/anxiety were identified as specific risk factors for the early-response trajectory. In contrast, general psychiatric burden and social withdrawal were identified as common risk/protective factors. Further, we estimated "baseline" PTSS to determine the predictability of the PTSS prognosis from pre-pandemic states. The chronic group showed significantly higher baseline PTSS scores than the mild-chronic and early-response groups, both of which were significantly higher than the resilient group. We concluded that prior psychiatric conditions significantly affect the PTSS trajectory. These results suggest that prior psychiatric conditions may be considered for the prevention and treatment of maladaptive stress responses.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Traumatic , Mental Disorders , Anxiety Disorders , Fractures, Stress
12.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3865066.v1

ABSTRACT

Recent time-dependent analyses of stress-related disorders have identified heterogeneity of trajectories and their modifying factors. While psychiatric patients are vulnerable to stress events, it is unclear how psychiatric conditions in the general population modulate subsequent stress responses. Using our longitudinal online survey from before the COVID-19 pandemic to post-pandemic follow-ups (n = 3815 Japanese adults), here we identified four trajectories of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) a latent growth mixture model; resilient, chronic, mild chronic, and early response. The depression/anxiety were identified as specific risk factors for the early-response trajectory. In contrast, general psychiatric burden and social withdrawal were identified as common risk/protective factors. Further, we estimated “baseline” PTSS to determine the predictability of the PTSS prognosis from pre-pandemic states. The chronic group showed significantly higher baseline PTSS scores than the mild-chronic and early-response groups, both of which were significantly higher than the resilient group. We concluded that prior psychiatric conditions significantly affect the PTSS trajectory. These results suggest that prior psychiatric conditions may be considered for the prevention and treatment of maladaptive stress responses.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Traumatic , Mental Disorders , Anxiety Disorders , Fractures, Stress
13.
medrxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2024.01.08.24300980

ABSTRACT

BackgroundDuring times of environmental challenges, adaptive coping strategies are essential to maintain mental health. Coping relies on executive control, which is often impaired in individuals with psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, emotional reactivity may interfere with executive control. Studying the association between cognitive skills and adaptive coping strategies, as well as the potential impact of emotional reactivity, could inform how we can provide mental support during large-scale adversity. In this study we examined coping strategies in a thoroughly phenotyped psychiatric cohort, the MIND-Set cohort, during the early COVID-19 pandemic stage. MethodsWe studied 1) the association between coping and both subjective and objective executive control before the pandemic, and three different coping strategies used during the pandemic, 2) the mediating role of emotional reactivity, indexed by amygdala reactivity, and 3) the moderating role of the presence of a psychiatric diagnosis in these associations. After finding no specific impact of patient or control status in this association, we decided to post-hoc study the transdiagnostic impact of depression severity in these associations. Resultsshowed 1) only a significant association between subjective executive control and a self-reported positive reappraisal style and corona-related reappraisal. However, after controlling for depression severity, this association was no longer significant. Additionally, objective executive control was only directly associated with right amygdala reactivity, while amygdala reactivity in neither of the hemispheres mediated the association between executive control and any of the coping styles. Furthermore, the type of diagnosis did not moderate the association between executive control and coping. ConclusionOur findings firstly underline the difference between self-reported and performance based executive control. While both deficits in subjective and performance based EC may play a role in the persistence of psychiatric symptomatology, this finding emphasizes how depressive symptoms or negative affect can impact reappraisal ability. As this ability is fundamental to staying resilient, treatments focused on reducing negative affect and thereby training reappraisal are pivotal in the maintenance of mental health in the entire population during environmental challenges. Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , Mental Disorders , COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders
14.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3785018.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: Kegel exercise or pelvic floor muscle exercise helps in improving strength of the pelvic floor muscles and build up their function. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Kegel exercise among pregnant women in PHC setting in Abha city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 370 pregnant women. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire that assessed the practice of Kegel exercises and various characteristics of the participants. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and p-values were used to analyze the data.  Results: The results showed that educational level and income were significantly associated with the practice of Kegel exercises. Pregnant women with a higher level of education and an income of 5000 to 10000 SAR demonstrated a higher proportion of good practice. The presence of specific chronic diseases among participants, such as psychiatric disorders and diabetes mellitus, was significantly associated with poor practice. Physicians were identified as the primary source of information about Kegel exercises, followed by social media and family/friends.  Conclusion: The findings suggest that education, income level, chronic diseases, and the source of information play significant roles in the practice of Kegel exercises among pregnant women. Healthcare providers should prioritize providing comprehensive education, irrespective of educational background, and ensure equal access to resources for all pregnant women. Tailored support should be provided to women with chronic diseases, and healthcare professionals should actively discuss Kegel exercises during antenatal visits. The study emphasizes the importance of multidimensional approaches to promote the practice of Kegel exercises during pregnancy and enhance pelvic floor health.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Chronic Disease , Diabetes Mellitus
15.
arxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2312.13096v1

ABSTRACT

This article presents a comparative analysis of the ability of two large language model (LLM)-based chatbots, ChatGPT and Bing Chat, recently rebranded to Microsoft Copilot, to detect veracity of political information. We use AI auditing methodology to investigate how chatbots evaluate true, false, and borderline statements on five topics: COVID-19, Russian aggression against Ukraine, the Holocaust, climate change, and LGBTQ+ related debates. We compare how the chatbots perform in high- and low-resource languages by using prompts in English, Russian, and Ukrainian. Furthermore, we explore the ability of chatbots to evaluate statements according to political communication concepts of disinformation, misinformation, and conspiracy theory, using definition-oriented prompts. We also systematically test how such evaluations are influenced by source bias which we model by attributing specific claims to various political and social actors. The results show high performance of ChatGPT for the baseline veracity evaluation task, with 72 percent of the cases evaluated correctly on average across languages without pre-training. Bing Chat performed worse with a 67 percent accuracy. We observe significant disparities in how chatbots evaluate prompts in high- and low-resource languages and how they adapt their evaluations to political communication concepts with ChatGPT providing more nuanced outputs than Bing Chat. Finally, we find that for some veracity detection-related tasks, the performance of chatbots varied depending on the topic of the statement or the source to which it is attributed. These findings highlight the potential of LLM-based chatbots in tackling different forms of false information in online environments, but also points to the substantial variation in terms of how such potential is realized due to specific factors, such as language of the prompt or the topic.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , COVID-19
16.
arxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2312.14180v1

ABSTRACT

Mental health diseases affect children's lives and well-beings which have received increased attention since the COVID-19 pandemic. Analyzing psychiatric clinical notes with topic models is critical to evaluate children's mental status over time. However, few topic models are built for longitudinal settings, and they fail to keep consistent topics and capture temporal trajectories for each document. To address these challenges, we develop a longitudinal topic model with time-invariant topics and individualized temporal dependencies on the evolving document metadata. Our model preserves the semantic meaning of discovered topics over time and incorporates heterogeneity among documents. In particular, when documents can be categorized, we propose an unsupervised topics learning approach to maximize topic heterogeneity across different document groups. We also present an efficient variational optimization procedure adapted for the multistage longitudinal setting. In this case study, we apply our method to the psychiatric clinical notes from a large tertiary pediatric hospital in Southern California and achieve a 38% increase in the overall coherence of extracted topics. Our real data analysis reveals that children tend to express more negative emotions during state shutdowns and more positive when schools reopen. Furthermore, it suggests that sexual and gender minority (SGM) children display more pronounced reactions to major COVID-19 events and a greater sensitivity to vaccine-related news than non-SGM children. This study examines the progression of children's mental health during the pandemic and offers clinicians valuable insights to recognize the disparities in children's mental health related to their sexual and gender identities.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , COVID-19
17.
preprints.org; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202312.0937.v1

ABSTRACT

Depression and cognitive impairment are recognized complications of COVID-19. This study aimed to assess cognitive performance in clinically diagnosed post-COVID depression (PCD) patients using neuropsychological testing. The study involved 71 post-COVID patients, with matched control groups: recovered COVID-19 individuals without complications (n=18) and individuals without prior COVID-19 history (n=19). A post-COVID depression group (PCD, n=25) was identified based on psychiatric diagnosis, a comparison group (noPCD, n=46) included participants with neurological COVID-19 complications, excluding clinical depression. The PCD patients showed significantly less scores in the MoCA test, decreased immediate memory recall in the Word Memory Test, decreased processing speed and higher accuracy in the Trail Making Test, and near to significant worse executive control and processing speed in the Stroop task compared to controls and the noPCD patients. The number of post-COVID symptoms negatively correlated with immediate word memory recall and processing speed among all post-COVID patients. In PCD patients, negative correlations between number of post-COVID symptoms and delayed recall, between time after recovery and immediate recall, and positive correlation between the number of acute symptoms and processing speed in the incongruent condition of the Stroop task were found. No differences between groups in Sniffin’s stick olfactory test was found. Overall, our study revealed cognitive impairment in PCD patients similar to those in major depressive disorder.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Memory Disorders , Cognition Disorders
18.
preprints.org; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202312.0698.v1

ABSTRACT

Depression is one of the most severe sequelae of COVID-19, with major depressive disorder often characterized by disruption in white matter (WM) connectivity , stemming from changes in brain myelination. This study aimed to quantitatively assess brain myelination in clinically diagnosed post-COVID depression using recently proposed MRI method, macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) mapping. The study involved 63 recovered COVID-19 patients (52 mild, 11 moderate, 2 severe) at 13.5±10.0 months post-recovery, with matched controls without prior COVID-19 history (n=19). A post-COVID depression group (PCD, n=25) was identified based on psychiatric diagnosis, while a comparison group (noPCD, n=38) included participants with neurological COVID-19 complications, excluding clinical depression. Fast MPF mapping revealed extensive demyelination in PCD patients, particularly in juxtacortical WM (predominantly occipital lobe and medial surface), WM tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), posterior thalamic radiation, external capsule, sagittal stratum, tapetum), and grey matter (GM) structures (hippocampus, putamen, globus pallidus, and amygdala). The noPCD group also displayed notable demyelination but with less magnitude and propagation. Multiple regression analysis highlighted IFOF demyelination as the primary predictor of PCD presence and severity according to Hamilton scores. The number of post-COVID symptoms was a significant predictor of PCD presence while the number acute of symptoms was a significant predictor of PCD severity. This study, for the first time, reveals extensive demyelination in numerous WM and GM structures in PCD, outlining IFOF demyelination as a key biomarker.


Subject(s)
Hereditary Central Nervous System Demyelinating Diseases , Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Craniocerebral Trauma , Demyelinating Diseases
19.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.12.05.23299473

ABSTRACT

Amid the ongoing global repercussions of SARS-CoV-2, its crucial to comprehend its potential long-term psychiatric effects. Several recent studies have suggested a link between COVID-19 and subsequent mental health disorders. Our investigation joinsthis exploration, concentrating on Schizophrenia Spectrum and Psychotic Disorders (SSPD). Different from other studies, we took acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and COVID-19 lab negative cohorts as control groups to accurately gauge the impact of COVID-19 on SSPD. Data from 19,344,698 patients, sourced from the N3C Data Enclave platform, were methodically filtered to create propensity matched cohorts: ARDS (n = 222,337), COVID-positive (n = 219,264), and COVID-negative (n = 213,183). We systematically analyzed the hazard rate of new-onset SSPD across three distinct time intervals: 0-21 days, 22-90 days, and beyond 90 days post-infection. COVID-19 positive patients consistently exhibited a heightened hazard ratio (HR) across all intervals [0-21 days (HR: 4.6; CI: 3.7-5.7), 22-90 days (HR: 2.9; CI: 2.3 -3.8), beyond 90 days (HR: 1.7; CI: 1.5-1.)]. These are notably higher than both ARDS and COVID-19 lab-negative patients. Validations using various tests, including the Cochran Mantel Haenszel Test, Wald Test, and Log-rank Test confirmed these associations. Intriguingly, our data indicated that younger individuals face a heightened risk of SSPD after contracting COVID-19, a trend not observed in the ARDS and COVID-negative groups. These results, aligned with the known neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2 and earlier studies, accentuate the need for vigilant psychiatric assessment and support in the era of Long-COVID, especially among younger populations.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Schizophrenia
20.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3707919.v1

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 and the accompanying restrictions disrupted HIV services to children living with HIV [CLHIV] across South Africa. Prior to COVID-19, updated national HIV guidelines were released and included: a] Additional HIV polymerase chain reaction [PCR] testing at six-months for infants exposed to HIV; b] Universal HIV testing at age 18-months; c] CD4 count monitoring cessation if virologically suppressed [HIV viral load [VL] <1000 copies/mL]. We describe the effects of COVID-19 on paediatric HIV services within Tshwane District, South Africa. Methods A retrospective review of National Institute for Communicable Diseases Data Warehouse and District Health Information System data was conducted for Tshwane District from April 2019 to March 2022. Pre-pandemic [2019/20] and pandemic periods [2020/21, 2021/22] were compared. Data included: Early infant Diagnosis [EID], HIV viral load [VL] and CD4 monitoring and HIV management among children [<15 years] living with HIV [CLHIV]. Results Year-on-year, HIV testing improved at 10-weeks [2019/20: 8498; 2020/21: 8657 [+2%]; 2021/22: 8919 [+3%], six-months [2019/20: 4359; 2020/21: 7992 [+83%]; 2021/22: 9178 [+15%]] and 18-months [2019/20: 11727; 2020/21: 16232 [+38%]; 2021/22: 18750 [+16%]]; birth testing decreased [2019/20: 13881; 2020/21: 14206 [+2%]; 2021/22: 13364 [‑6%]]. The HIV EID case rates were 485 [2019/20], 410 [2020/21] and 454 [2021/22], and HIV EID test positivity was 0.77-1.2%. Antiretroviral treatment initiation initially declined [2019/20: 1692; 2020/21: 1576 [‑7%]] but subsequently improved [2021/22: 1663 [+6%]]. Initial year-on-year HIV VL and CD4 testing declined; but HIV VL testing subsequently increased whilst CD4 test numbers further declined [HIV VL tests: 2019/20: 8008; 2020/21: 6976 [‑12%]; 2021/22: 7359 [+6%]] [CD4 tests: 2019/20: 2370; 2020/21: 1953 [-18%]; 2021/22: 1843 [-6%]]. The HIV VL suppression rate among CLHIV was 69-73%. The absolute number of CD4 results <200 cells/µL or <15% declined but the proportion remained constant [2019/20: 279 [13%]; 2020/21: 223 [11%]; 2021/22: 221 [12%]]. Conclusion COVID-19 initially resulted in reduced paediatric HIV services as children disengaged from care. Indicators eventually recovered to proximate pre-pandemic levels; however, compensatory increases did not occur. Some disengaged children may not have returned to care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Mental Disorders
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