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1.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(3): 277-286, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599453

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Direct face-to-face interview between a psychiatrist and a patient is crucial in psychiatric evaluation, however, such traditional interviews are becoming difficult to conduct because of the infection risk in the COVID-19 era. As telepsychiatry, video interviews using internet are suggested to be useful to evaluate and assist individuals with mental disorders. However, some patients especially with social phobia, depression, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) hesitate to use even such face-to-face-like tools. Communication robots have been proposed as future assistant tools for such patients. Herein, we summarize recent advancements in robot psychiatry, and propose the benefits of communication robots in psychiatric evaluation. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have suggested that communication robots are effective in assisting people with ASD. As a pilot trial, we herein conducted semi-structured interviews to evaluate depression and hikikomori, a form of pathological social withdrawal, using a communication robot and a psychiatrist, respectively. There was almost identical evaluation between the two. Interestingly, a person with hikikomori answered that the robot was easier to disclose. SUMMARY: Robots can reduce the burden of human resources and the infection risk in the COVID-19 era. Robot interview is expected to be implemented for future evaluation system in psychiatry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Psychiatry , Robotics , Humans , Psychiatry/trends , Robotics/trends
2.
Pediatrics ; 148(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depression is common, and suicide rates are increasing. Adolescent depression screening might miss those with unidentified suicide risk. Our primary objective in this study was to compare the magnitude of positive screen results across different approaches. METHODS: From June 2019 to October 2020, 803 mostly Medicaid-enrolled adolescents aged ≥12 years with no recent history of depression or self-harm were screened with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Modified for Adolescents (PHQ-9A) and the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) across 12 primary care practices. Two PHQ-9A screening strategies were evaluated: screening for any type of depression or other mental illness (positive on any item) or screening for major depressive disorder (MDD) (total score ≥10). RESULTS: Overall, 56.4% of patients screened positive for any type of depression, 24.7% screened positive for MDD, and 21.1% screened positive for suicide risk. Regardless of PHQ-9A screening strategy, the ASQ identified additional subjects (eg, 2.2% additional cases compared with screening for any type of depression or other mental illness and 8.3% additional cases compared with screening positive for MDD). Of those with ≥6 month follow-up, 22.9% screened positive for any type of depression (n = 205), 35.6% screened positive for MDD (n = 90), and 42.7% with a positive ASQ result (n = 75) had a depression or self-harm diagnosis or an antidepressant prescription. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide risk screening identifies cases not identified by depression screening. In this study, we underscore opportunities and challenges in primary care related to the high prevalence of depression and suicide risk. Research is needed regarding optimal screening strategies and to help clinicians manage the expected number of screening-identified adolescents.


Subject(s)
Depression/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Primary Health Care/methods , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Suicide/prevention & control , Young Adult
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134315, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513768

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed increased strain on health care workers and disrupted childcare and schooling arrangements in unprecedented ways. As substantial gender inequalities existed in medicine before the pandemic, physician mothers may be at particular risk for adverse professional and psychological consequences. Objective: To assess gender differences in work-family factors and mental health among physician parents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 276 US physicians enrolled in the Intern Health Study since their first year of residency training. Physicians who had participated in the primary study as interns during the 2007 to 2008 and 2008 to 2009 academic years and opted into a secondary longitudinal follow-up study were invited to complete an online survey in August 2018 and August 2020. Exposures: Work-family experience included 3 single-item questions and the Work and Family Conflict Scale, and mental health symptoms included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were work-to-family and family-to-work conflict and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms during August 2020. Depressive symptoms between 2018 (before the COVID-19 pandemic) and 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic) were compared by gender. Results: Among 215 physician parents who completed the August 2020 survey, 114 (53.0%) were female and the weighted mean (SD) age was 40.1 (3.57) years. Among physician parents, women were more likely to be responsible for childcare or schooling (24.6% [95% CI, 19.0%-30.2%] vs 0.8% [95% CI, 0.01%-2.1%]; P < .001) and household tasks (31.4% [95% CI, 25.4%-37.4%] vs 7.2% [95% CI, 3.5%-10.9%]; P < .001) during the pandemic compared with men. Women were also more likely than men to work primarily from home (40.9% [95% CI, 35.1%-46.8%] vs 22.0% [95% CI, 17.2%-26.8%]; P < .001) and reduce their work hours (19.4% [95% CI, 14.7%-24.1%] vs 9.4% [95% CI, 6.0%-12.8%]; P = .007). Women experienced greater work-to-family conflict (ß = 2.79; 95% CI, 1.00 to 4.59; P = .03), family-to-work conflict (ß = 3.09; 95% CI, 1.18-4.99; P = .02), and depressive (ß = 1.76; 95% CI, 0.56-2.95; P = .046) and anxiety (ß = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.49-4.26; P < .001) symptoms compared with men. We observed a difference between women and men in depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic (mean [SD] PHQ-9 score: 5.05 [6.64] vs 3.52 [5.75]; P = .009) that was not present before the pandemic (mean [SD] PHQ-9 score: 3.69 [5.26] vs 3.60 [6.30]; P = .86). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found significant gender disparities in work and family experiences and mental health symptoms among physician parents during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may translate to increased risk for suicide, medical errors, and lower quality of patient care for physician mothers. Institutional and public policy solutions are needed to mitigate the potential adverse consequences for women's careers and well-being.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Parents , Sex Factors , Work-Life Balance/standards , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Family Relations/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Psychometrics/instrumentation , Psychometrics/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Work-Life Balance/statistics & numerical data
5.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e68, 2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467030

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Patients with mental illness are vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection because of behavioural changes associated with cognitive deterioration, especially without their caregivers. While studies have reported that SARS-CoV-2 infection risk and severe clinical outcomes are high among patients with mental illness, there is a lack of quantitative research supporting this claim. This study investigates if SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related death are higher in patients with mental illness than among those without a mental disorder. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted using the COVID-19 database of the National Health Insurance Service in South Korea. A total of 123 480 patients aged ⩾20 years who visited a hospital between 1 January 2020 and 30 May 2020 were analysed. Mental disorder diagnoses and types were determined based on 2019 medical records, and a multivariate logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) for SARS-CoV-2 infection and deaths. RESULTS: The ORs for SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.45-1.71) and COVID-19-related death (OR 2.18; 95% CI 1.57-3.04) were high among patients with mental illness. The OR of SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher among patients with severe mental illness (OR 2.60; 95% CI 2.21-3.06), dementia (OR 1.90; 95% CI 1.62-2.22) and substance use disorder (OR 4.98, 95% CI 3.60-6.88). The OR for COVID-19-related death was high among patients with severe mental illness (OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.82-6.83) and dementia (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.39-3.22). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mental illness are at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related death. Behavioural changes associated with cognitive deterioration and long-term care facility residence increase SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, and severe medical conditions and delayed treatment increase the COVID-19-related mortality risk in patients with mental illness. Patients with mental illness are a priority target population for COVID-19 prevention and treatment, and it is important to plan prevention measures that address their needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(10): 1543-1550, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456100

ABSTRACT

In the United States, mental health conditions are the most common complications of pregnancy and childbirth, and suicide and overdose combined are the leading cause of death for new mothers. Although awareness of and action on perinatal mental health is increasing, significant gaps remain. Screening and treatment are widely recommended but unevenly implemented, and policies and funding do not adequately support the mental health of childbearing people. As a result, treatable perinatal mental health conditions can have long-term, multigenerational negative consequences. This article provides an overview of the perinatal mental health landscape in the United States by identifying serious gaps in screening, education, and treatment; describing recent federal and state policy efforts; highlighting successful models of care; and offering recommendations for robust and integrated perinatal mental health care.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Mental Health , Delivery, Obstetric , Female , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mothers , Policy , Pregnancy , United States
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e045615, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455713

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The mental health burden and treatment gap in South and Southeast Asia is high and significant. Capacity building of healthcare workers is essential to support programmes related to the detection and management of patients with mental health conditions. We aim to conduct a systematic review to summarise the research on educational, training and capacity-building interventions aimed at the healthcare workforce in detection and management of mental health conditions in South and Southeast Asia. OBJECTIVE: To synthesise evidence on (1) the types of educational and training interventions that have been used to improve the knowledge, skills and attitudes of healthcare workers in South and Southeast Asian countries in the detection and management of mental health conditions; (2) the effectiveness, including cost-effectiveness of the interventions; and (3) the enabling factors and barriers that influence the effectiveness of these interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This review will be conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines. We will search six electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Global Health for empirical studies published from 1 January 2000 to 31 August 2020. Search results from each database will be combined and uploaded in Covidence library. Title, abstract and full-text screening, and data extraction of each included study will be performed by two independent reviewers. Disagreements between reviewers will be resolved by a third reviewer and study team. Quality of included studies will be assessed by the modified Cochrane Collaboration tool and ROBINS-I tool. Data will be synthesised and if a meta-analysis is not appropriate, a stepwise thematic analysis will be performed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for this study. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, fact sheets, multimedia press briefings, conferences, seminars and symposia. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020203955.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Mental Health , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/therapy , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic
8.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 183-192, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450925

ABSTRACT

This narrative review examines current academic literature on the mental health of Filipino seafarers working internationally, including the mental health effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Framed within a rights-based approach, it aims to identify and analyse emerging themes on Filipino seafarers' mental health literature to understand what these studies potentially mean for the improvement of seafarers' education on mental health. Based on a broad selection criteria, 28 eligible papers demonstrate collectively three key findings: firstly, there is paucity in published research on seafarers' mental health; secondly, the majority of published studies are associated with a recent piracy crisis, where a significant number of mariners were attacked, taken as hostages, or killed; thirdly, three key areas emerged under which research on Filipino seafarers' mental health can be organized: the medical repatriation of seafarers, system of care for the mental health of seafarers including the diagnostic standards used, and seafarers' experiences and conceptions of mental health including the mental health effects of COVID-19. Though the bulk of the current understanding of the mental health problems is associated with piracy, several risk factors for which the quality of quantitative and qualitative evidence are patchy. The few sources of primary data to date lack focus on mental health needs which makes it difficult to grasp the extent of the problem. Developing policies and programmes for the promotion of mental health through mental health education among seafarers is important for a couple of reasons. Seafaring remains a dangerous and socially isolating occupation where work-related accidents are likely and will be potentially traumatic to mariners. Research on occupational stressors is increasingly providing evidence of their contributions to poor mental health outcomes among seafarers. Thus, mental health education of seafarers in the context of their work is important for proactive training and development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/education , Naval Medicine/methods , Crime/psychology , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Occupational Health , Occupational Stress , Philippines/ethnology , Ships
9.
Compr Psychiatry ; 111: 152277, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433104

ABSTRACT

We present data on outcomes associated with COVID-19 in a time-limited sample of 1181 patients who were receiving treatment within secondary care services from a mental health and learning disabilities service provider. Unfortunately, 101 (9%) died after contracting COVID-19, though the real death rate is probably lower due to mild, unreported cases. Those who died were more likely to be male, of older age (75.7 vs. 42.7 yrs) and have a diagnosis of dementia (57% vs. 3.4%). We examined Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) scores as possible predictors for COVID-19 outcomes. Although the deceased group had higher HoNOS scores (17.7 vs. 13.2), the differences disappeared when examining only cases of dementia in 65+ age-group, suggesting that diagnosis is key. There has been little information published about people with severe mental health problems within secondary care. Although our sample is small, it does highlight some important inequalities that would benefit from further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Mental Health Services , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Health , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 225-231, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401810

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The crisis situation generated by COVID-19 and the measures adopted have generated social changes in the normal dynamics of the general population and especially for health workers, who find themselves caring for patients with suspected or confirmed infection. Recent studies have detected in them depression and anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome, with personal and social conditions impacting their response capacity during the health emergency. Our aim was to generate recommendations for the promotion and protection of the mental health of health workers and teams in the first line of care in the health emergency due to COVID-19. METHODS: A rapid literature search was carried out in PubMed and Google Scholar, and an iterative expert consensus and through electronic consultation, with 13 participants from the areas of psychology, psychiatry and medicine; the grading of its strength and directionality was carried out according to the international standards of the Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS: Thirty-one recommendations were generated on self-care of health workers, community care among health teams, screening for alarm signs in mental health and for health institutions. CONCLUSIONS: The promotion and protection activities in mental health to face the health emergency generated by COVID-19 worldwide can include coordinated actions between workers, health teams and health institutions as part of a comprehensive, community care, co-responsible and sustained over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/therapy , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/therapy , Occupational Health Services/methods , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/standards , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Occupational Health Services/standards , Preventive Health Services/methods , Preventive Health Services/standards , Self Care/methods , Self Care/standards
12.
Arch Iran Med ; 24(8): 643-650, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the overwhelming mental health consequences of infectious epidemics, timely identification and treatment of people with mental health problems is essential. In this narrative review, screening instruments and procedures for identification of mental health problems at the time of epidemic crises are reviewed and the results are discussed in the context of our experience in the recent COVID-19 epidemic in Iran. METHODS: Forty studies were retrieved from searches in several databases which used screening procedures for identification of mental health conditions during infectious epidemics. RESULTS: Studies were performed on three groups of health care workers, at-risk general population, and patients with confirmed/ suspected infection, using a wide range of instruments. Most have used screening instruments for the purpose of prevalence estimation and only 5 have included it as a health intervention while none has investigated its effectiveness. CONCLUSION: The evidence base for screening at the time of epidemics is weak. If it is used to identify the needs and enhance help seeking, the screening instruments should have adequate psychometric properties; moreover, their integration in the available services is strongly recommended. Original studies are needed to investigate the usefulness of mental health screening programs in crises such as the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans
13.
Chest ; 160(3): e279-e283, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379053

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old previously healthy woman was brought to the hospital for acute altered mental status. One week prior to presentation, she had developed a sore throat, nausea, and vomiting. At that time, SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction and rapid streptococcal pharyngitis test results were both negative. On the day prior to presentation, the patient had developed an erythematous painful rash on her left arm. The following day she was noted to be agitated, combative, and having trouble communicating, prompting ED evaluation. In the ED, the patient was tachycardic to 108 beats/min and tachypneic to 30 breaths/min but normotensive and afebrile. Her initial workup was notable for leukocytosis with bandemia, acute liver injury with coagulopathy, and acute renal failure. She was intubated, transferred to our hospital, and admitted to the MICU. The patient's medical history was notable for obesity and oral contraceptive use. She had no family history of autoimmune, rheumatologic, or hematologic disorders. She was a student and worked part time in retail. She had no recent travel or outdoor exposure. The patient's family was unaware of any tobacco or drug use but did report that she drank socially.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Health , Acute Disease , Biopsy , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mental Disorders/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Young Adult
14.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(9): 622-627, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376356

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Nostalgia and homesickness are not currently regarded as mental disorders. The psychic pain associated with longing to return home had been considered a mental disorder for centuries, especially in Europe, where it was a sign of moral weakness between nations. Nostalgia's effects on American Civil War soldiers-anxiety, depression, and sleep and appetite disturbances, for example-were described by clinicians and linked to significant morbidity and mortality. Since then, although these effects of combat have been of interest, focus has shifted to psychic trauma, relegating the concept of nostalgia to an unclassified but commonly encountered condition. Besides wartime trauma, symptomatic conditions related to nostalgia have been described among displaced persons and refugees living in the diaspora longing for their homelands (e.g., social displacement syndrome). More recently, nostalgia has pervaded culture as a benign pastime, with no implications for psychopathology. Finally, the longing for return to an idyllic or imagined lifestyle has returned amid worldwide quarantining and isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this new sense, nostalgia has become a remedy rather than a disease. We identify four major iterations of nostalgia: the medical condition of homesickness, the condition studied in wartime, the application to migration and social displacement, and as a remedy for existential anxiety. We conclude that nostalgia per se is neither pathological nor normative, but a consistent phenomenon in human existence that should not be overlooked in cultural assessment and psychotherapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Social Behavior , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Social Problems
15.
Asia Pac Psychiatry ; 13(3): e12482, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352415

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Suicide prevention during Covid 19 has become a global priority because the current pandemic has led to societal difficulties threatening the fabric of our lifestyle with increased morbidity and mortality. Modelling studies published since the COVID 19 pandemic was declared in March 2020 estimate that suicide rates will increase by anywhere between 1% to 145% globally in response to the pandemic and action needs to be taken. METHODS: A narrative literature review on high quality evidence sources limited to human studies and publications written in English language only has been used to examine the relationship of COVID 19 and existing mental illness or history of mental illness, suicide prevention strategies and changes in overall suicide rates. RESULTS: A total of 39 papers are summarised and grouped using the headings aetiological factors, proposed interventions to increase access and national policies to provide a framework for suicide prevention during pandemics such as COVID 19. This review indicates that 1) investing in active labour market programmes will result in a decreased suicide rate during times of high unemployment 2) People in low paid and casual jobs require specific support because they are most financially vulnerable during a pandemic related crisis 3) Women require specific support during a pandemic because of the type of employment they have and because they often carry a greater proportion of the domestic burden and are at increased risk of domestic violence during lockdown and crisis 4) Mental health and substance misuse services need to be appropriately funded and prioritised during and post pandemic, due to the associated increase in substance misuse during a pandemic causing worsening mental health and increased risk of suicide 5) National Suicide Prevention Strategies should be developed by all countries and should anticipate response to a range of disasters, including a pandemic 6) Suicide prevention is everybody's business and National Suicide Prevention Strategies should adopt a whole-systems approach including mental health services, primary care, social care, NGO's and other community stakeholders 7) Suicide is preventable 8) It is essential to prioritise suicide prevention strategies in the COVID and post-COVID period to ensure that lives are saved. DISCUSSION: Increase in suicide is not inevitable and suicide prevention during pandemics and post COVID 19 pandemics requires a collaborative whole system approach. We require real time data to inform dynamic action planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders , Mental Health , Suicide , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Preventive Health Services , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , Social Isolation/psychology , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data
16.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 199-213, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to compare the emotional effects of COVID-19 among three different groups, namely: health personnel, medical students, and a sample of the general population. METHODS: 375 participants were recruited for this study, of which 125 were medical students (preclinical studies, 59; clinical studies, 66), 125 were health personnel (COVID-19 frontline personnel, 59; personnel not related with COVID-19, 66), and 125 belonged to the general population. The PHQ-9, GAD-7, and CPDI scales were used to assess the emotional impact. A multinomial logistic regression was performed to measure differences between groups, considering potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Regarding CPDI values, all other groups showed reduced values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. However, the general population, preclinical and clinical medical students showed increased PHQ-9 values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. Finally, confounding factors, gender and age correlated negatively with higher CPDI and PHQ-9 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Being frontline personnel is associated with increased COVID-19-related stress. Depression is associated, however, with other groups not directly involved with the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Female gender and younger age correlated with COVID-19-related depression and stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health Services , Preventive Health Services/methods , Student Health Services/methods , Students/psychology , Teaching/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Health , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , Student Health Services/organization & administration , Universities , Young Adult
17.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 166-175, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347800

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the emergence of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the world has faced a pandemic with consequences at all levels. In many countries, the health systems collapsed and healthcare professionals had to be on the front line of this crisis. The adverse effects on the mental health of healthcare professionals have been widely reported. This research focuses on identifying the main factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes. METHODS: Descriptive, cross-sectional study based on surveys, applying the PHQ-9, GAD-7, ISI and EIE-R tests to healthcare professionals from Ecuador during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: 1028 participants, distributed in: 557 physicians (54.18%), 349 nurses (33.94%), 29 laboratory workers (2.82%), 27 paramedics (2.62%), 52 psychologists (5.05%) and 14 respiratory therapists (1.36%), from 16 of the 24 provinces of Ecuador. Of these, 27.3% presented symptoms of depression, 39.2% anxiety symptoms, 16.3% insomnia and 43.8% symptoms of PTSD, with the 4 types of symptoms ranging from moderate to severe. The most relevant associated factors were: working in Guayas (the most affected province) (OR = 2.18 for depressive symptoms and OR = 2.59 for PTSD symptoms); being a postgraduate doctor (OR = 1.52 for depressive symptoms and OR = 1.57 for insomnia), perception of not having the proper protective equipment (OR = 1.71 for symptoms of depression and OR = 1.57 for symptoms of anxiety) and being a woman (OR = 1.39 for anxiety). CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals can suffer a significant mental condition that may require psychiatric and psychological intervention. The main associated factors are primarily related to living and working in cities with a higher number of cases and the characteristics of the job, such as being a postgraduate doctor, as well as the perception of security. The main risk factors are primarily related to geographical distribution and job characteristics, such as being a resident physician and self-perception of safety. Further studies are required as the pandemic evolves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Psychological Tests , Risk Factors , Young Adult
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15828, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343475

ABSTRACT

Precise remote evaluation of both suicide risk and psychiatric disorders is critical for suicide prevention as well as for psychiatric well-being. Using questionnaires is an alternative to labor-intensive diagnostic interviews in a large general population, but previous models for predicting suicide attempts suffered from low sensitivity. We developed and validated a deep graph neural network model that increased the prediction sensitivity of suicide risk in young adults (n = 17,482 for training; n = 14,238 for testing) using multi-dimensional questionnaires and suicidal ideation within 2 weeks as the prediction target. The best model achieved a sensitivity of 76.3%, specificity of 83.4%, and an area under curve of 0.878 (95% confidence interval, 0.855-0.899). We demonstrated that multi-dimensional deep features covering depression, anxiety, resilience, self-esteem, and clinico-demographic information contribute to the prediction of suicidal ideation. Our model might be useful for the remote evaluation of suicide risk in the general population of young adults for specific situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/psychology , Neural Networks, Computer , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Area Under Curve , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Prognosis , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Republic of Korea , Resilience, Psychological , Risk Factors , Self Concept , Sensitivity and Specificity , Suicide, Attempted/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 33(4): 266-279, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317092

ABSTRACT

As a potentially life-threatening disease with no definitive treatment and without fully implemented population-wide vaccination, COVID-19 has created unprecedented turmoil in socioeconomic life worldwide. In addition to physical signs from the respiratory and many other systems, the SARS-CoV-2 virus produces a broad range of neurological and neuropsychiatric problems, including olfactory and gustatory impairments, encephalopathy and delirium, stroke and neuromuscular complications, stress reactions, and psychoses. Moreover, the psychosocial impact of the pandemic and its indirect effects on neuropsychiatric health in noninfected individuals in the general public and among health care workers are similarly far-ranging. In addition to acute neuropsychiatric manifestations, COVID-19 may also produce late neuropsychiatric sequelae as a function of the psychoneuroimmunological cascade that it provokes. The present article presents a state-of-the-science review of these issues through an integrative review and synthesis of case series, large-cohort studies, and relevant meta-analyses. Heuristics for evaluation and further study of the neuropsychiatric manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are offered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mental Disorders/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuropsychiatry , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Neuropsychiatry/methods
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