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1.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 387-396, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify the prevalence of the adverse mental health outcomes in medical staff working in the hospital settings during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and explore the relative distribution of anxiety and depressive symptoms. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG DATA, and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals were searched for articles published from January 1, 2019, to April 19, 2020. The prevalence estimates of adverse mental health symptoms in medical staff were pooled using the random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 35 articles and data of 25,343 medical staff were used in the final analysis. The pooled prevalence estimates in medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic were as follows (ordered from high to low): fear-related symptoms, 67% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 61%-73%); high levels of perceived stress, 56% (95% CI = 32%-79%), anxiety symptoms, 41% (95% CI = 35%-47%); insomnia, 41% (95% CI = 33%-50%); posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 38% (95% CI = 34%-43%); depressive symptoms, 27% (95% CI = 20%-34%); and somatic symptoms, 16% (95% CI = 3%-36%). The subgroup analysis revealed that the prevalence estimates of fear-related symptoms were consistently high. CONCLUSIONS: Medical staff during the COVID-19 epidemic have a high prevalence of adverse mental health symptoms. Data-based strategies are needed to optimize mental health of medical staff and other health care professionals during times of high demand such as the COVID-19 and other epidemics.PROSPERO Registration: CRD42020182433.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics
2.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 322-327, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931973

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the mental health and psychological responses in Wuhan, a severely affected area, and other areas of China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on February 10-20, 2020. A set of online questionnaires was used to measure mental health and responses. A total of 1397 participants from Wuhan (age, 36.4 ± 10.7 years; male, 36.1%) and 2794 age- and sex-matched participants from other areas of China (age, 35.9 ± 9.9 years; male, 39.0%) were recruited. RESULTS: Compared with their counterparts, participants from Wuhan had a significantly higher prevalence of any mental health problems (46.6% versus 32.2%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.65-2.17), anxiety (15.2% versus 6.2%; adjusted OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.14-3.29), depression (18.3% versus 9.7%; adjusted OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.74-2.54), suicidal ideation (10.5% versus 7.1%; adjusted OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.28-2.02), and insomnia (38.6% versus 27.6%; adjusted OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.48-1.96). Participants from Wuhan had a slightly higher rate of help-seeking behavior (7.1% versus 4.2%; adjusted OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.12-2.77) but similar rate of treatment (3.5% versus 2.7%; adjusted OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.68-2.24) for mental problems than did their counterparts. In addition, compared with their counterparts, participants from Wuhan gave higher proportions of responses regarding "fearful" (52% versus 36%, p < .001), "discrimination against COVID-19 cases" (64% versus 58%, p = .006), "strictly comply with preventive behaviors" (98.7% versus 96%, p = .003), and "fewer living and medical supplies" (<2 weeks: 62% versus 57%, p = .015). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 epidemic has raised enormous challenges regarding public mental health and psychological responses, especially in the highly affected Wuhan area. The present findings provide important information for developing appropriate strategies for the prevention and management of mental health problems during COVID-19 and other epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Epidemics , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Suicidal Ideation , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(8): 811-817, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905765

ABSTRACT

Importance: Neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported as a prominent feature of postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), with common symptoms that include cognitive impairment, sleep difficulties, depression, posttraumatic stress, and substance use disorders. A primary challenge of parsing PASC epidemiology and pathophysiology is the lack of a standard definition of the syndrome, and little is known regarding mechanisms of neuropsychiatric PASC. Observations: Rates of symptom prevalence vary, but at least 1 PASC neuropsychiatric symptom has been reported in as many as 90% of patients 6 months after COVID-19 hospitalization and in approximately 25% of nonhospitalized adults with COVID-19. Mechanisms of neuropsychiatric sequelae of COVID-19 are still being elucidated. They may include static brain injury accrued during acute COVID-19, neurodegeneration triggered by secondary effects of acute COVID-19, autoimmune mechanisms with chronic inflammation, viral persistence in tissue reservoirs, or reactivation of other latent viruses. Despite rapidly emerging data, many gaps in knowledge persist related to the variable definitions of PASC, lack of standardized phenotyping or biomarkers, variability in virus genotypes, ascertainment biases, and limited accounting for social determinants of health and pandemic-related stressors. Conclusions and Relevance: Growing data support a high prevalence of PASC neuropsychiatric symptoms, but the current literature is heterogeneous with variable assessments of critical epidemiological factors. By enrolling large patient samples and conducting state-of-the-art assessments, the Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER), a multicenter research initiative funded by the National Institutes of Health, will help clarify PASC epidemiology, pathophysiology, and mechanisms of injury, as well as identify targets for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , United States
7.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 34-39, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719335

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic is a significant psychological stressor in addition to its tremendous impact on every facet of individuals' lives and organizations in virtually all social and economic sectors worldwide. Fear of illness and uncertainty about the future precipitate anxiety- and stress-related disorders, and several groups have rightfully called for the creation and dissemination of robust mental health screening and treatment programs for the general public and front-line healthcare workers. However, in addition to pandemic-associated psychological distress, the direct effects of the virus itself (several acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2), and the subsequent host immunologic response, on the human central nervous system (CNS) and related outcomes are unknown. We discuss currently available evidence of COVID-19 related neuropsychiatric sequelae while drawing parallels to past viral pandemic-related outcomes. Past pandemics have demonstrated that diverse types of neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as encephalopathy, mood changes, psychosis, neuromuscular dysfunction, or demyelinating processes, may accompany acute viral infection, or may follow infection by weeks, months, or longer in recovered patients. The potential mechanisms are also discussed, including viral and immunological underpinnings. Therefore, prospective neuropsychiatric monitoring of individuals exposed to SARS-CoV-2 at various points in the life course, as well as their neuroimmune status, are needed to fully understand the long-term impact of COVID-19, and to establish a framework for integrating psychoneuroimmunology into epidemiologic studies of pandemics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Acute Disease , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/immunology , Anxiety/psychology , Bacterial Translocation , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Demyelinating Diseases/etiology , Demyelinating Diseases/immunology , Demyelinating Diseases/physiopathology , Demyelinating Diseases/psychology , Depression/etiology , Depression/immunology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/immunology , Mental Health , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Psychoneuroimmunology , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Psychotic Disorders/immunology , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/immunology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
8.
JAMA ; 327(6): 559-565, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1711979

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: One-year outcomes in patients who have had COVID-19 and who received treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU) are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of physical, mental, and cognitive symptoms among patients with COVID-19 at 1 year after ICU treatment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: An exploratory prospective multicenter cohort study conducted in ICUs of 11 Dutch hospitals. Patients (N = 452) with COVID-19, aged 16 years and older, and alive after hospital discharge following admission to 1 of the 11 ICUs during the first COVID-19 surge (March 1, 2020, until July 1, 2020) were eligible for inclusion. Patients were followed up for 1 year, and the date of final follow-up was June 16, 2021. EXPOSURES: Patients with COVID-19 who received ICU treatment and survived 1 year after ICU admission. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The main outcomes were self-reported occurrence of physical symptoms (frailty [Clinical Frailty Scale score ≥5], fatigue [Checklist Individual Strength-fatigue subscale score ≥27], physical problems), mental symptoms (anxiety [Hospital Anxiety and Depression {HADS} subscale score ≥8], depression [HADS subscale score ≥8], posttraumatic stress disorder [mean Impact of Event Scale score ≥1.75]), and cognitive symptoms (Cognitive Failure Questionnaire-14 score ≥43) 1 year after ICU treatment and measured with validated questionnaires. RESULTS: Of the 452 eligible patients, 301 (66.8%) patients could be included, and 246 (81.5%) patients (mean [SD] age, 61.2 [9.3] years; 176 men [71.5%]; median ICU stay, 18 days [IQR, 11 to 32]) completed the 1-year follow-up questionnaires. At 1 year after ICU treatment for COVID-19, physical symptoms were reported by 182 of 245 patients (74.3% [95% CI, 68.3% to 79.6%]), mental symptoms were reported by 64 of 244 patients (26.2% [95% CI, 20.8% to 32.2%]), and cognitive symptoms were reported by 39 of 241 patients (16.2% [95% CI, 11.8% to 21.5%]). The most frequently reported new physical problems were weakened condition (95/244 patients [38.9%]), joint stiffness (64/243 patients [26.3%]) joint pain (62/243 patients [25.5%]), muscle weakness (60/242 patients [24.8%]) and myalgia (52/244 patients [21.3%]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this exploratory study of patients in 11 Dutch hospitals who survived 1 year following ICU treatment for COVID-19, physical, mental, or cognitive symptoms were frequently reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Critical Care , Adult , Aged , Arthralgia/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Myalgia/etiology , Netherlands , Prospective Studies , Self Report
9.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2022279, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684419

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed fundamental challenges on nearly every area of life. Objective: The purpose of the current study was to expand on the literature on the impact of the pandemic on college students by a) examining domains of impact of the pandemic on psychiatric and alcohol outcomes and b) controlling for pre-pandemic outcomes. Method: Participants included 897 college students (78.6% female) from a larger longitudinal study on college student mental health. Structural equation models were fit to examine how COVID-19 impact (exposure, worry, food/housing insecurity, change in social media use, change in substance use) were associated with PTSD, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and alcohol phenotypes. Models were fit to adjust for pre-pandemic symptoms. Results: No effects of COVID-19 exposure remained after adjusting for earlier outcomes. COVID-19 worry predicted PTSD, depression, and anxiety, even after adjusting for earlier levels of outcomes (ß's: .091-.180, p's < .05). Housing/food concerns predicted PTSD, anxiety, and depression symptoms as well as suicidal ideation (ß's: .085-.551, p's < .05) after adjusting for earlier levels of symptoms. Change in media use predicted alcohol consumption (ß's: ± .116-.197, p's < .05). Change in substance use affected all outcomes except suicidality (ß's: .112-.591, p's < .05). Conclusions: Domains of COVID-19 impact had differential effects on mental health and substance outcomes in college students during the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic. Future studies should examine the trajectory of these factors on college student mental health across waves of the pandemic.


Antecedentes: La pandemia de COVID-19 ha impuesto desafíos fundamentales en prácticamente todas las áreas de la vida.Objetivo: El propósito del presente estudio fue ampliar la literatura sobre el impacto de la pandemia en estudiantes universitarios, a) examinando dominios de impacto de la pandemia sobre resultados psiquiátricos y de alcohol, y b) controlando por resultados pre-pandemia.Método: Los participantes incluyeron 897 estudiantes universitarios (78,6% mujeres) de un estudio longitudinal más grande sobre salud mental de estudiantes universitarios. Se ajustaron modelos de ecuaciones estructurales para examinar cómo se asociaba el impacto del COVID-19 (exposición, preocupación, inseguridad de alimentos/habitación, cambio en el uso de medios sociales, cambio en uso de sustancias) con los fenotipos TEPT, ansiedad, depresión, ideación suicida y alcohol. Los modelos se ajustaron por síntomas pre-pandémicos.Resultados: No permanecieron efectos de la exposición al COVID-19 luego de ajustar por resultados previos. La preocupación por el COVID-19 predijo TEPT, depresión y ansiedad incluso luego de ajustar por niveles previos de resultados (ß's: .091­.180, p's < .05). Los problemas de habitación/alimentación predijeron síntomas de TEPT, ansiedad y depresión así como también ideación suicida (ß's: .085­.551, p's < .05) después de ajustar por niveles sintomáticos previos. El cambio en el uso de medios predijo el consumo de alcohol (ß's: ±.116­.197, p's < .05). El cambio en el uso de sustancias afectó a todos los resultados excepto suicidalidad (ß's: .112­.591, p's < .05).Conclusiones: Los dominios de impacto del COVID-19 tuvieron diferentes efectos sobre los resultados de salud mental y uso de sustancias en estudiantes universitarios durante la primera ola de la pandemia de coronavirus. Futuros estudios deberían examinar la trayectoria de esos factores en la salud mental de estudiantes universitarios a través de las olas de la pandemia.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Suicidal Ideation , Universities , Virginia/epidemiology
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260726, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546966

ABSTRACT

Mental health disorders represent an enormous cost to society, are related to economic outcomes, and have increased markedly since the COVID-19 outbreak. Economic activity contracted dramatically on a global scale in 2020, representing the worst crisis since the Great Depression. This study used the COVID Impact Survey to provide insights on the interactions of mental illness and economic uncertainty during COVID-19. We used a probability-based panel survey, COVID Impact Survey, conducted in the U.S. over three waves in the period April-June 2020. The survey covered individual information on employment, economic and financial uncertainty, mental and physical health, as well as other demographic information. The prevalence of moderate mental distress was measured using a Psychological Distress Scale, a 5-item scale that is scored on a 4-point scale (total range: 0-15). The mental distress effect of employment, economic, and financial uncertainty, was assessed in a logit regression analysis conditioning for demographic and health information. It is found that employment, health coverage, social security, and food provision uncertainty are additional stressors for mental health. These economic factors work in addition to demographic effects, where groups who display increased risk for psychological distress include: women, Hispanics, and those in poor physical health. A decrease in employment and increases in economic uncertainty are associated with a doubling of common mental disorders. The population-representative survey evidence presented strongly suggests that economic policies which support employment (e.g., job keeping, job search support, stimulus spending) provide not only economic security but also constitute a major health intervention. Moving forward, the economic uncertainty effect ought to be reflected in community level intervention and prevention efforts, which should include strengthening economic support to reduce financial and economic strain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Economic Recession , Mental Disorders/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Employment/economics , Employment/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/economics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Psychological Distress , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Uncertainty , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260410, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546955

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies carried out during previous pandemics revealed an increase in the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome and other psychiatric disorders among health professionals. A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders is also observed in some health categories, during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review/meta-analysis study aims to assess the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome and other psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, stress, and insomnia) among health care professionals and other support professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Observational studies published from December 2019, without language restrictions in which the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome and other psychiatric disorders among health professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic will be assessed. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHAL, PsycINFO, LILACS, SCOPUS, and The Cochrane Library will be searched for eligible studies. Two reviewers will independently screen and select studies, assess methodological quality, and extract data. A meta-analysis will be performed, if possible, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE). ETHICS AND DISCLOSURE: This study will use secondary data. Thus, there is no need for submission to the ethics committee. The results of this systematic review will be published in a journal after a peer-review process. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Systematic review registration number: CRD42020212036.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/etiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mental Disorders/etiology , Prevalence
16.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(12): 1503-1509, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482083

ABSTRACT

Importance: Neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 have been reported in the pediatric population. Objective: To determine whether anti-SARS-CoV-2 and autoreactive antibodies are present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of pediatric patients with COVID-19 and subacute neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series includes 3 patients with recent SARS-CoV-2 infection as confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction or IgG serology with recent exposure history who were hospitalized at the University of California, San Francisco Benioff Children's Hospital and for whom a neurology consultation was requested over a 5-month period in 2020. During this period, 18 total children were hospitalized and tested positive for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction or rapid antigen test. Main Outcomes and Measures: Detection and characterization of CSF anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and antineural antibodies. Results: Of 3 included teenaged patients, 2 patients had intrathecal anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. CSF IgG from these 2 patients also indicated antineural autoantibodies on anatomic immunostaining. Autoantibodies targeting transcription factor 4 (TCF4) in 1 patient who appeared to have a robust response to immunotherapy were also validated. Conclusions and Relevance: Pediatric patients with COVID-19 and prominent subacute neuropsychiatric symptoms, ranging from severe anxiety to delusional psychosis, may have anti-SARS-CoV-2 and antineural antibodies in their CSF and may respond to immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Autoantibodies/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Mental Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Mental Disorders/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Adolescent , Animals , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Autoimmunity , Female , Humans , Male , Marijuana Smoking/immunology , Mice , Movement Disorders/etiology , Neurologic Examination , Transcription Factor 4/immunology
17.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258095, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450730

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have described typical clinical manifestations, including fever, cough, diarrhea, and fatigue with COVID-19 infection. However, there are limited data on the association between the presence of neurological manifestations on hospital admission, disease severity, and outcomes. We sought to investigate this correlation to help understand the disease burden. METHODS: We delivered a multi-center retrospective study of positive laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients. Clinical presentation, laboratory values, complications, and outcomes data were reported. Our findings of interest were Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission, intubation, mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 502 patients with a mean age of 60.83 ± 15.5 years, of them 71 patients (14.14%) presented with altered mental status, these patients showed higher odds of ICU admission (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.18 to 3.59, p = 0.01), mechanical ventilation (OR = 3.28, 95%CI = 1.86 to 5.78, p < 0.001), prolonged (>4 days) mechanical ventilation (OR = 4.35, 95%CI = 1.89 to 10, p = 0.001), acute kidney injury (OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.28 to 3.74, p = 0.004), and mortality (HR = 2.82, 95%CI = 1.49 to 5.29, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: This cohort study found that neurological presentations are associated with higher odds of adverse events. When examining patients with neurological manifestations, clinicians should suspect COVID-19 to avoid delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis and lose the chance to treat and prevent further transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003773, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-COVID refers to a variety of symptoms affecting different organs reported by people following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. To date, there have been no robust estimates of the incidence and co-occurrence of long-COVID features, their relationship to age, sex, or severity of infection, and the extent to which they are specific to COVID-19. The aim of this study is to address these issues. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on linked electronic health records (EHRs) data from 81 million patients including 273,618 COVID-19 survivors. The incidence and co-occurrence within 6 months and in the 3 to 6 months after COVID-19 diagnosis were calculated for 9 core features of long-COVID (breathing difficulties/breathlessness, fatigue/malaise, chest/throat pain, headache, abdominal symptoms, myalgia, other pain, cognitive symptoms, and anxiety/depression). Their co-occurrence network was also analyzed. Comparison with a propensity score-matched cohort of patients diagnosed with influenza during the same time period was achieved using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model. The incidence of atopic dermatitis was used as a negative control. Among COVID-19 survivors (mean [SD] age: 46.3 [19.8], 55.6% female), 57.00% had one or more long-COVID feature recorded during the whole 6-month period (i.e., including the acute phase), and 36.55% between 3 and 6 months. The incidence of each feature was: abnormal breathing (18.71% in the 1- to 180-day period; 7.94% in the 90- to180-day period), fatigue/malaise (12.82%; 5.87%), chest/throat pain (12.60%; 5.71%), headache (8.67%; 4.63%), other pain (11.60%; 7.19%), abdominal symptoms (15.58%; 8.29%), myalgia (3.24%; 1.54%), cognitive symptoms (7.88%; 3.95%), and anxiety/depression (22.82%; 15.49%). All 9 features were more frequently reported after COVID-19 than after influenza (with an overall excess incidence of 16.60% and hazard ratios between 1.44 and 2.04, all p < 0.001), co-occurred more commonly, and formed a more interconnected network. Significant differences in incidence and co-occurrence were associated with sex, age, and illness severity. Besides the limitations inherent to EHR data, limitations of this study include that (i) the findings do not generalize to patients who have had COVID-19 but were not diagnosed, nor to patients who do not seek or receive medical attention when experiencing symptoms of long-COVID; (ii) the findings say nothing about the persistence of the clinical features; and (iii) the difference between cohorts might be affected by one cohort seeking or receiving more medical attention for their symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Long-COVID clinical features occurred and co-occurred frequently and showed some specificity to COVID-19, though they were also observed after influenza. Different long-COVID clinical profiles were observed based on demographics and illness severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Survivors , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged , Pain/epidemiology , Pain/etiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
20.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 110: 110330, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health measures to contain the spread of COVID-19 have resulted in adverse effects, including high level of psychological distress, anxiety, and depression. AIMS: This study explored adolescent psychopathological profiles at age 17, and their role in predicting the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic at age 19. METHODS: The analyses used a sample of 904 participants (mean age = 19.17 years) from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) sweep 7 who completed the mental health questions from January 2018 to March 2019 (mean age = 17.18 years) and the COVID-19 Survey in May 2020. Adolescent psychopathological profiles were identified by means of latent class analysis. RESULTS: Four psychopathological profiles were identified: "low-symptom class" (60.17% of participants), "high-symptom class" (23.01% of participants), "substance/behavioural addictions class" (12.03% of participants), and "emotion-dysregulation class" (4.79% of participants). Adolescents in the high-symptom and emotional-dysregulation classes had the worst outcome during the lockdown. Specifically, they experienced more stress, conflict and loneliness, and lower levels of perceived social support than adolescents in the other psychopathological classes. Adolescents in the emotional-dysregulation class also consumed more alcohol and had worse financial situation during the lockdown compared to pre- lockdown period. CONCLUSION: Adolescent psychopathological profiles predicted mental health impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Psychological Distress , Psychopathology , Risk Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
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