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2.
Hum Resour Health ; 18(1): 100, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stress, anxiety, and depression are some of the most important research and practice challenges for psychologists, psychiatrists, and behavioral scientists. Due to the importance of issue and the lack of general statistics on these disorders among the Hospital staff treating the COVID-19 patients, this study aims to systematically review and determine the prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression within front-line healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this research work, the systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression approaches are used to approximate the prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression within front-line healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients. The keywords of prevalence, anxiety, stress, depression, psychopathy, mental illness, mental disorder, doctor, physician, nurse, hospital staff, 2019-nCoV, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 and Coronaviruses were used for searching the SID, MagIran, IranMedex, IranDoc, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science (ISI) and Google Scholar databases. The search process was conducted in December 2019 to June 2020. In order to amalgamate and analyze the reported results within the collected studies, the random effects model is used. The heterogeneity of the studies is assessed using the I2 index. Lastly, the data analysis is performed within the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. RESULTS: Of the 29 studies with a total sample size of 22,380, 21 papers have reported the prevalence of depression, 23 have reported the prevalence of anxiety, and 9 studies have reported the prevalence of stress. The prevalence of depression is 24.3% (18% CI 18.2-31.6%), the prevalence of anxiety is 25.8% (95% CI 20.5-31.9%), and the prevalence of stress is 45% (95% CI 24.3-67.5%) among the hospitals' Hospital staff caring for the COVID-19 patients. According to the results of meta-regression analysis, with increasing the sample size, the prevalence of depression and anxiety decreased, and this was statistically significant (P < 0.05), however, the prevalence of stress increased with increasing the sample size, yet this was not statistically significant (P = 0.829). CONCLUSION: The results of this study clearly demonstrate that the prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression within front-line healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients is high. Therefore, the health policy-makers should take measures to control and prevent mental disorders in the Hospital staff.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged , Nurses/psychology , Occupational Stress , Physicians/psychology , Prevalence , Stress, Psychological/etiology
3.
Ir J Psychol Med ; 37(4): 247-249, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978479

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 continues to exert unprecedented challenges for society and it is now well recognised that mental health is a key healthcare issue related to the pandemic. The current edition of the Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine focusses on the impact of COVID-19 on mental illness by combining historical review papers, current perspectives and original research. It is important that psychiatrists leading mental health services in Ireland continue to advocate for mental health supports for healthcare workers and their patients, while aiming to deliver services flexibly. As the pandemic evolves, it remains to be seen whether the necessary funding to deliver effective mental healthcare will be allocated to psychiatric services. Ongoing service evaluation and research is needed as the myriad impacts of the pandemic continue to evolve. In a time of severe budgetary constraints, ensuring optimum use of scare resources becomes an imperative.


Subject(s)
/complications , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Health , /epidemiology , Humans , Ireland , Pandemics , Self Care
5.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(10): 181-182, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967475
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243702, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967103

ABSTRACT

To clarify the physical and mental conditions of children during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and consequent social distancing in relation to the mental condition of their caregivers. This internet-based nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted between April 30 and May 13, 2020. The participants were 1,200 caregivers of children aged 3-14 years. Child health issues were categorized into "at least one" or "none" according to caregivers' perception. Caregivers' mental status was assessed using the Japanese version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-6. The association between caregivers' mental status and child health issues was analyzed using logistic regression models. Among the participants, 289 (24.1%) had moderate and 352 (29.3%) had severe mental distress and 69.8% of children in their care had health issues. The number of caregivers with mental distress was more than double that reported during the 2016 national survey. After adjusting for covariates, child health issues increased among caregivers with moderate mental distress (odds ratio 2.24, 95% confidence interval 1.59-3.16) and severe mental distress (odds ratio 3.05, 95% confidence interval 2.17-4.29) compared with caregivers with no mental distress. The results highlight parents' psychological stress during the pandemic, suggesting the need for adequate parenting support. However, our study did not consider risk factors of caregivers' mental distress such as socioeconomic background. There is an urgent need for further research to identify vulnerable populations and children's needs to develop sustainable social support programs for those affected by the outbreak.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Child Health , Mental Disorders/etiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged , Stress, Psychological/psychology
7.
Clin Nurse Spec ; 35(1): 18-22, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953480

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus-19 erupted in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, rapidly spreading globally until it was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. With no known treatment in place, the world could only respond with symptom management and public health measures to contain the spread of the lethal virus. In its wake, both the pandemic and the interventions have left a significant negative impact on the mental health of the population that may rise to its own level of epidemic. Exploration and recognition of the various factors involved in creating this impact can assist in identifying both strengths and areas in need of more formal intervention. Treatment modalities range from resiliency techniques to trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy to pharmacotherapy. Assessment and monitoring over time for lasting sequelae will be important for all healthcare disciplines.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e041133, 2020 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947831

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mental health disorders are common during pregnancy and the postnatal period and can have serious adverse effects on women and their children. The consequences for global mental health due to COVID-19 are likely to be significant and may have a long-term impact on the global burden of disease. Besides physical vulnerability, pregnant women are at increased risk of mental health problems such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder due to the consequences of social distancing. It can result in altered healthcare routines, less support from the family and friends, and in some cases, partners not being allowed to be present during prenatal visits, labour and delivery. Higher than expected, rates of perinatal anxiety and depression have been already reported during the pandemic. Pregnant women may also feel insecure and worried about the effects of COVID-19 on their unborn child if they get infected during pregnancy. Today, young urban women are used to using internet services frequently and efficiently. Therefore, providing mental health support to pregnant women via internet may be effective in ameliorating their anxiety/depression, reducing the risk of serious mental health disorders, and lead to improved maternal and perinatal outcomes. OVERARCHING AIM: Our aim is to explore the effectiveness of a web-based psychosocial peer-to-peer support intervention in reducing the risk and severity of perinatal mental health disorders and preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women living in metropolitan urban settings. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We plan to conduct a multicentre prospective randomised controlled trial, Mental health of Urban Mothers trial. Pregnant women living in large metropolitan cities will be recruited using internet-based application through non-profit organisations' websites. The women who consent will be randomised to receive a web-based peer-to-peer support intervention or usual care. Data will be analysed to identify the effects of intervention on Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score and Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7 scores as well as pregnancy outcomes. The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on maternal stress will be assesed using Impact Event Scale-R. Any differences in outcomes between cities will be addressed in subgroup analyses. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study will be conducted according to the principles of Good Clinical Practice and will follow the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The study protocol has been approved by the ethical review board of Chinese University of Hong Kong (IRB number 2019-8170) and Shanghai Center for Women's and Children's Health (international review board (IRB) number 2020-F001-12). The results will be disseminated at national and international scientific conferences, published in peer-reviewed medical journals and spread to the public through social media, news outlets and podcasts. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04363177; Trial sponsor Karolinska Institute, CLINTEC, Stockholm, Sweden.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Mental Health , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Psychotherapy/methods , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Urban Population , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , Child , Depression/etiology , Depression/prevention & control , Depression, Postpartum/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Internet , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Peer Group , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women/psychology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design , Stress, Psychological/etiology
11.
Psychol Med ; 50(15): 2498-2513, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933627

ABSTRACT

The upsurge in the number of people affected by the COVID-19 is likely to lead to increased rates of emotional trauma and mental illnesses. This article systematically reviewed the available data on the benefits of interventions to reduce adverse mental health sequelae of infectious disease outbreaks, and to offer guidance for mental health service responses to infectious disease pandemic. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, WHO Global Research Database on infectious disease, and the preprint server medRxiv were searched. Of 4278 reports identified, 32 were included in this review. Most articles of psychological interventions were implemented to address the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, followed by Ebola, SARS, and MERS for multiple vulnerable populations. Increasing mental health literacy of the public is vital to prevent the mental health crisis under the COVID-19 pandemic. Group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, psychological first aid, community-based psychosocial arts program, and other culturally adapted interventions were reported as being effective against the mental health impacts of COVID-19, Ebola, and SARS. Culturally-adapted, cost-effective, and accessible strategies integrated into the public health emergency response and established medical systems at the local and national levels are likely to be an effective option to enhance mental health response capacity for the current and for future infectious disease outbreaks. Tele-mental healthcare services were key central components of stepped care for both infectious disease outbreak management and routine support; however, the usefulness and limitations of remote health delivery should also be recognized.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health Services , Psychotherapy , Telemedicine , Humans , Mental Disorders/etiology
12.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 106: 110159, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899415

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: It is known that viral infections are epidemiologically prevalent and some of them are harmful to the central nervous system (CNS) due to the development of neuropsychiatric syndromes which affect the cognitive, affective, behavioral and perceptual domains. OBJECTIVE: To carry out a comprehensive analysis of the psychiatric and neuropsychiatric repercussions of COVID-19 based on epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical foundations observed in previous and recent pandemic events, and also to make a proposition about effective therapeutic interventions to help tackle this serious public health problem, more specifically in its neuropsychiatric developments. METHOD: This current literature review has utilized literature reserves and scientific search engines MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. The search terms included, "SARS-CoV-2", "etiology," "psychiatric and neuropsychiatric repercussions", "severe infections" "COVID-19". Specific choices of unique papers from each of the searches were identified. The inclusion criteria were relevance and availability of full-text. Papers were excluded on the basis of relevance and non-availability of full-text. Papers were identified in the general literature reserve as pertinent to the search terms. RESULTS: The main psychiatric and neuropsychiatric repercussions analyzed were depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, psychosis, nonspecific neurological symptoms, delirium, cerebrovascular complications, encephalopathies, neuromuscular disorders, anosmia and ageusia. CONCLUSION: The psychiatric and neuropsychiatric symptoms of acute respiratory syndromes can appear during or after the infectious stage. Among the risk factors pointed out for such effects are the female gender, health professionals, presence of avascular necrosis and distressing pain.


Subject(s)
/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , /epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pandemics
13.
Brain Behav Immun ; 91: 756-770, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898492

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has emerged as a striking 21st century pandemic. Communities across the globe have experienced significant infection rates and widespread psychosocial stress and trauma, leading to calls for increased allocation of resources for mental health screening and treatment. In addition to the burden of psychosocial stress, there is increasing evidence of direct viral neuroinvasion of the central nervous system through physical contact with the nasal mucosa. In a parallel fashion, there is a significant body of ongoing research related to the risk of in utero viral transmission and the resulting neurodevelopmental impact in the fetus. Aberrant neurodevelopment secondary to viral transmission has previously been related to the later development of psychosis, schizophrenia, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, generating the hypothesis that this population of individuals exposed to SARS-CoV-2 may see an increased incidence in future decades. We discuss the current understanding of the possible neurotropism and vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and relate this to the history of viral pandemics to better understand the relationship of viral infection, aberrant immune response and neurodevelopment, and the risk for schizophrenia disorder.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/virology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Animals , /psychology , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Psychotic Disorders/virology , Risk Factors , /metabolism , /pathogenicity
14.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020505, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895667

ABSTRACT

Background: Epidemic outbreaks have significant impact on psychological well-being, increasing psychiatric morbidity among the population. We aimed to describe the early psychological impact of COVID-19 and its contributing factors in a large Spanish sample, globally and according to mental status (never mental disorder NMD, past mental disorder PMD, current mental disorder CMD). Methods: An online questionnaire was conducted between 19 and 26 March, five days after the official declaration of alarm and the lockdown order. Data included sociodemographic and clinical information and the DASS-21 and IES questionnaires. We analysed 21 207 responses using the appropriate descriptive and univariate tests as well as binary logistic regression to identify psychological risk and protective factors. Results: We found a statistically significant gradient in the psychological impact experienced in five domains according to mental status, with the NMD group being the least affected and the CMD group being the most affected. In the three groups, the depressive response was the most prevalent (NMD = 40.9%, PMD = 51.9%, CMD = 74.4%, F = 1011.459, P < 0.001). Risk factors were female sex and classification as a case in any psychological domain. Protective factors were younger age and ability to enjoy free time. Variables related to COVID-19 had almost no impact except for having COVID-19 symptoms, which was a risk factor for anxiety in all three groups. Conclusions: Our results can help develop coping strategies addressing modifiable risk and protective factors for each mental status for early implementation in future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2025591, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888008

ABSTRACT

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and quarantine measures have raised concerns regarding their psychological effects on populations. Among the general population, university students appear to be particularly susceptible to experiencing mental health problems. Objectives: To measure the prevalence of self-reported mental health symptoms, to identify associated factors, and to assess care seeking among university students who experienced the COVID-19 quarantine in France. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study collected data from April 17 to May 4, 2020, from 69 054 students living in France during the COVID-19 quarantine. All French universities were asked to send an email to their students asking them to complete an online questionnaire. The targeted population was approximately 1 600 000 students. Exposure: Living in France during the COVID-19 quarantine. Main Outcomes and Measures: The rates of self-reported suicidal thoughts, severe distress, stress, anxiety, and depression were assessed using the 22-item Impact of Events Scale-Revised, the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, the 20-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (State subscale), and the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Covariates were sociodemographic characteristics, precariousness indicators (ie, loss of income or poor quality housing), health-related data, information on the social environment, and media consumption. Data pertaining to care seeking were also collected. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors. Results: A total of 69 054 students completed the survey (response rate, 4.3%). The median (interquartile range) age was 20 (18-22) years. The sample was mainly composed of women (50 251 [72.8%]) and first-year students (32 424 [47.0%]). The prevalence of suicidal thoughts, severe distress, high level of perceived stress, severe depression, and high level of anxiety were 11.4% (7891 students), 22.4% (15 463 students), 24.7% (17 093 students), 16.1% (11 133 students), and 27.5% (18 970 students), respectively, with 29 564 students (42.8%) reporting at least 1 outcome, among whom 3675 (12.4%) reported seeing a health professional. Among risk factors identified, reporting at least 1 mental health outcome was associated with female gender (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 2.02-2.19; P < .001) or nonbinary gender (OR, 3.57; 95% CI, 2.99-4.27; P < .001), precariousness (loss of income: OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.22-1.33; P < .001; low-quality housing: OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 2.06-2.57; P < .001), history of psychiatric follow-up (OR, 3.28; 95% CI, 3.09-3.48; P < .001), symptoms compatible with COVID-19 (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.49-1.61; P < .001), social isolation (weak sense of integration: OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 3.35-3.92; P < .001; low quality of social relations: OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 2.49-2.75; P < .001), and low quality of the information received (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.49-1.64; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this survey study suggest a high prevalence of mental health issues among students who experienced quarantine, underlining the need to reinforce prevention, surveillance, and access to care.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Students/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Universities , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Quarantine , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(6)2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883925

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In light of the current evolving coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and the need to learn from past infectious disease outbreaks to provide better psychological support for our frontline health care workers (HCW), we conducted a rapid review of extant studies that have reported on both psychological and coping responses in HCW during recent outbreaks. DATA SOURCES: We performed a systematic search of the available literature using PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid), and Web of Science, combining key terms regarding recent infectious disease outbreaks and psychological and coping responses. Papers published from database inception to April 20, 2020, were considered for inclusion. Only studies in the English language and papers from peer-reviewed journals were included. STUDY SELECTION: We identified 95 (PubMed) and 49 papers (Web of Science) from the database search, of which 23 papers were eventually included in the review. DATA EXTRACTION: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used for data extraction. The McMaster University critical appraisal tool was used to appraise quantitative studies. Guidelines by Higginbotham and colleagues were used to appraise qualitative studies. Only studies exploring the combined psychological and coping responses of HCW amid infectious diseases were included. RESULTS: Salient psychological responses that can persist beyond the outbreaks included anxiety/fears, stigmatization, depression, posttraumatic stress, anger/frustration, grief, and burnout, but also positive growth and transformation. Personal coping methods (such as problem solving, seeking social support, and positive thinking) alongside workplace measures (including infection control and safety, staff support and recognition, and clear communication) were reported to be helpful. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological support for HCW in the current COVID-19 pandemic and future outbreaks should focus on both individual (eg, psychoeducation on possible psychological responses, self-care) and institutional (eg, clear communication, providing access to resources for help, recognition of efforts of HCW) measures.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Mental Disorders/psychology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Social Support
17.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(5): 714-717, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-849769

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Young adults are at high risk for increases in loneliness and mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study examined increases in loneliness in a young adult sample, for whom increases were greater, and association with increases in depression and anxiety. METHOD: Data from 564 young adults (ages 22-29, 60.7% women) were collected in January 2020 (pre-pandemic) and April/May 2020 (during pandemic). RESULTS: Loneliness increased from January to April/May and changes in loneliness were greater for females, those with higher perceived social support in January, and those with greater concerns about the pandemic's social impacts. Depression (but not anxiety) increased during this time with changes in loneliness accounting for much of the increase in depression. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention strategies with young adults need to address loneliness and feelings of reduced social support during this time, especially for those who may have had greater disruption in their social lives.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/etiology , Loneliness/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Social Isolation/psychology , Washington , Young Adult
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e19706, 2020 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the four months after the discovery of the index case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), several studies highlighted the psychological impact of COVID-19 on frontline health care workers and on members of the general public. It is evident from these studies that individuals experienced elevated levels of anxiety and depression in the acute phase, when they first became aware of the pandemic, and that the psychological distress persisted into subsequent weeks. It is becoming apparent that technological tools such as SMS text messages, web-based interventions, mobile interventions, and conversational agents can help ameliorate psychological distress in the workplace and in society. To our knowledge, there are few publications describing how digital tools have been used to ameliorate psychological symptoms among individuals. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to identify existing SMS text message, web-based, mobile, and conversational agents that the general public can access to ameliorate the psychological symptoms they are experiencing during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: To identify digital tools that were published specifically for COVID-19, a search was performed in the PubMed and MEDLINE databases from the inception of the databases through June 17, 2020. The following search strings were used: "NCOV OR 2019-nCoV OR SARS-CoV-2 OR Coronavirus OR COVID19 OR COVID" and "mHealth OR eHealth OR text". Another search was conducted in PubMed and MEDLINE to identify existing digital tools for depression and anxiety disorders. A web-based search engine (Google) was used to identify if the cited web-based interventions could be accessed. A mobile app search engine, App Annie, was used to determine if the identified mobile apps were commercially available. Results: A total of 6 studies were identified. Of the 6 identified web-based interventions, 5 websites (83%) could be accessed. Of the 32 identified mobile interventions, 7 apps (22%) could be accessed. Of the 7 identified conversational agents, only 2 (29%) could be accessed. RESULTS: A total of 6 studies were identified. Of the 6 identified web-based interventions, 5 websites (83%) could be accessed. Of the 32 identified mobile interventions, 7 apps (22%) could be accessed. Of the 7 identified conversational agents, only 2 (29%) could be accessed. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant psychological distress. Digital tools that are commercially available may be useful for at-risk individuals or individuals with pre-existing psychiatric symptoms.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Mental Disorders/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Humans , Pandemics
19.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e173, 2020 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808157

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The United Nations warned of COVID-19-related mental health crisis; however, it is unknown whether there is an increase in the prevalence of mental disorders as existing studies lack a reliable baseline analysis or they did not use a diagnostic measure. We aimed to analyse trends in the prevalence of mental disorders prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data from repeated cross-sectional surveys on a representative sample of non-institutionalised Czech adults (18+ years) from both November 2017 (n = 3306; 54% females) and May 2020 (n = 3021; 52% females). We used Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as the main screening instrument. We calculated descriptive statistics and compared the prevalence of current mood and anxiety disorders, suicide risk and alcohol-related disorders at baseline and right after the first peak of COVID-19 when related lockdown was still in place in CZ. In addition, using logistic regression, we assessed the association between COVID-19-related worries and the presence of mental disorders. RESULTS: The prevalence of those experiencing symptoms of at least one current mental disorder rose from a baseline of 20.02 (95% CI = 18.64; 21.39) in 2017 to 29.63 (95% CI = 27.9; 31.37) in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The prevalence of both major depressive disorder (3.96, 95% CI = 3.28; 4.62 v. 11.77, 95% CI = 10.56; 12.99); and suicide risk (3.88, 95% CI = 3.21; 4.52 v. 11.88, 95% CI = 10.64; 13.07) tripled and current anxiety disorders almost doubled (7.79, 95% CI = 6.87; 8.7 v. 12.84, 95% CI = 11.6; 14.05). The prevalence of alcohol use disorders in 2020 was approximately the same as in 2017 (10.84, 95% CI = 9.78; 11.89 v. 9.88, 95% CI = 8.74; 10.98); however, there was a significant increase in weekly binge drinking behaviours (4.07% v. 6.39%). Strong worries about both, health or economic consequences of COVID-19, were associated with an increased odds of having a mental disorder (1.63, 95% CI = 1.4; 1.89 and 1.42, 95% CI = 1.23; 1.63 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence matching concerns that COVID-19-related mental health problems pose a major threat to populations, particularly considering the barriers in service provision posed during lockdown. This finding emphasises an urgent need to scale up mental health promotion and prevention globally.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , Alcohol-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Alcohol-Related Disorders/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
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