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1.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 231, 2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468067

ABSTRACT

It is well accepted that environmental stressors experienced over a one's life, from microbial infections to chemical toxicants to even psychological stressors, ultimately shape central nervous system (CNS) functioning but can also contribute to its eventual breakdown. The severity, timing and type of such environmental "hits", woven together with genetic factors, likely determine what CNS outcomes become apparent. This focused review assesses the current COVID-19 pandemic through the lens of a multi-hit framework and disuses how the SARS-COV-2 virus (causative agent) might impact the brain and potentially interact with other environmental insults. What the long-term consequences of SAR2 COV-2 upon neuronal processes is yet unclear, but emerging evidence is suggesting the possibility of microglial or other inflammatory factors as potentially contributing to neurodegenerative illnesses. Finally, it is critical to consider the impact of the virus in the context of the substantial psychosocial stress that has been associated with the global pandemic. Indeed, the loneliness, fear to the future and loss of social support alone has exerted a massive impact upon individuals, especially the vulnerable very young and the elderly. The substantial upswing in depression, anxiety and eating disorders is evidence of this and in the years to come, this might be matched by a similar spike in dementia, as well as motor and cognitive neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Mental Disorders/immunology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology , Neuroimmunomodulation/immunology , Animals , Brain/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunotherapy/trends , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/therapy , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/immunology , Stress, Psychological/therapy
2.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 33(5): 273-276, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392713

ABSTRACT

Patients with mental illness are at an increased risk of COVID-19 infection, morbidity, and mortality, and prioritisation of this group for COVID-19 vaccination programmes has therefore been suggested. Vaccine uptake may, however, be compromised by vaccine hesitancy amongst patients with mental illness, posing a critical public health issue. We conducted two surveys to provide weighted estimates of vaccine willingness amongst patients with mental illness and the general population of Denmark. Vaccine willingness was high in both groups, but slightly lower amongst patients with mental illness (84.8%), compared with the general population (89.5%) (p < .001). Based on these findings, vaccine hesitancy does not appear to be a major barrier for vaccine uptake amongst patients with mental illness in Denmark, but may be so in other countries with lower general vaccine willingness. Replication of the present study in other countries is strongly warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/immunology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Case-Control Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/mortality , Mental Disorders/virology , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(2)2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286942

ABSTRACT

Genetic and nongenetic factors associated with an increased inflammatory response may mediate a link between severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) and serious mental illness (SMI). However, systematic assessment of inflammatory response­related factors associated with SMI that could influence COVID­19 outcomes is lacking. In the present review, dietary patterns, smoking and the use of psychotropic medications are discussed as potential extrinsic risk factors and angiotensin­converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphisms are considered as potential intrinsic risk factors. A genetics­based prediction model for SMI using ACE­I/D genotyping is also proposed for use in patients experiencing severe COVID­19. Furthermore, the literature suggests that ACE inhibitors may have protective effects against SMI or severe COVID­19, which is often linked to hypertension and other cardiovascular comorbidities. For this reason, we hypothesize that using these medications to treat patients with severe COVID­19 might yield improved outcomes, including in the context of SMI associated with COVID­19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/immunology , Mental Disorders/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , Comorbidity , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 160, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135651

ABSTRACT

Psychiatric symptoms are seen in some COVID-19 patients, as direct or indirect sequelae, but it is unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 infection interacts with underlying neuronal or psychiatric susceptibilities. Such interactions might arise from COVID-19 immune responses, from infection of neurons themselves or may reflect social-psychological causes. To clarify this we sought the key gene expression pathways altered in COVID-19 also affected in bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and schizophrenia, since this may identify pathways of interaction that could be treatment targets. We performed large scale comparisons of whole transcriptome data and immune factor transcript data in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from COVID-19 patients and patients with psychiatric disorders. We also analysed genome-wide association study (GWAS) data for symptomatic COVID-19 patients, comparing GWAS and whole-genome sequence data from patients with bipolar disorder, PTSD and schizophrenia patients. These studies revealed altered signalling and ontology pathways shared by COVID-19 patients and the three psychiatric disorders. Finally, co-expression and network analyses identified gene clusters common to the conditions. COVID-19 patients had peripheral blood immune system profiles that overlapped with those of patients with psychiatric conditions. From the pathways identified, PTSD profiles were the most highly correlated with COVID-19, perhaps consistent with stress-immune system interactions seen in PTSD. We also revealed common inflammatory pathways that may exacerbate psychiatric disorders, which may support the usage of anti-inflammatory medications in these patients. It also highlights the potential clinical application of multi-level dataset studies in difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorders in this COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Schizophrenia/genetics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/genetics , Bipolar Disorder/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Comorbidity , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Ontology , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genomics , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Mental Disorders/genetics , Mental Disorders/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Schizophrenia/immunology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/immunology , Whole Genome Sequencing
5.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983191

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is a biological response to the activation of the immune system by various infectious or non-infectious agents, which may lead to tissue damage and various diseases. Gut commensal bacteria maintain a symbiotic relationship with the host and display a critical function in the homeostasis of the host immune system. Disturbance to the gut microbiota leads to immune dysfunction both locally and at distant sites, which causes inflammatory conditions not only in the intestine but also in the other organs such as lungs and brain, and may induce a disease state. Probiotics are well known to reinforce immunity and counteract inflammation by restoring symbiosis within the gut microbiota. As a result, probiotics protect against various diseases, including respiratory infections and neuroinflammatory disorders. A growing body of research supports the beneficial role of probiotics in lung and mental health through modulating the gut-lung and gut-brain axes. In the current paper, we discuss the potential role of probiotics in the treatment of viral respiratory infections, including the COVID-19 disease, as major public health crisis in 2020, and influenza virus infection, as well as treatment of neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis and other mental illnesses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Influenza, Human/therapy , Mental Disorders/therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Brain/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Humans , Immunomodulation , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/microbiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Lung/immunology , Mental Disorders/immunology , Mental Disorders/microbiology , Microbial Consortia/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/microbiology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Symbiosis/immunology
8.
Brain Behav Immun ; 89: 594-600, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688835

ABSTRACT

Infection-triggered perturbation of the immune system could induce psychopathology, and psychiatric sequelae were observed after previous coronavirus outbreaks. The spreading of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic could be associated with psychiatric implications. We investigated the psychopathological impact of COVID-19 in survivors, also considering the effect of clinical and inflammatory predictors. We screened for psychiatric symptoms 402 adults surviving COVID-19 (265 male, mean age 58), at one month follow-up after hospital treatment. A clinical interview and a battery of self-report questionnaires were used to investigate post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, insomnia, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatology. We collected sociodemographic information, clinical data, baseline inflammatory markers and follow-up oxygen saturation levels. A significant proportion of patients self-rated in the psychopathological range: 28% for PTSD, 31% for depression, 42% for anxiety, 20% for OC symptoms, and 40% for insomnia. Overall, 56% scored in the pathological range in at least one clinical dimension. Despite significantly lower levels of baseline inflammatory markers, females suffered more for both anxiety and depression. Patients with a positive previous psychiatric diagnosis showed increased scores on most psychopathological measures, with similar baseline inflammation. Baseline systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), which reflects the immune response and systemic inflammation based on peripheral lymphocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts, positively associated with scores of depression and anxiety at follow-up. PTSD, major depression, and anxiety, are all high-burden non-communicable conditions associated with years of life lived with disability. Considering the alarming impact of COVID-19 infection on mental health, the current insights on inflammation in psychiatry, and the present observation of worse inflammation leading to worse depression, we recommend to assess psychopathology of COVID-19 survivors and to deepen research on inflammatory biomarkers, in order to diagnose and treat emergent psychiatric conditions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/immunology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/immunology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/immunology , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/immunology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/immunology , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Italy/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/immunology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged , Monocytes , Neutrophils , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/immunology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/immunology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
10.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 34-39, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46065

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic is a significant psychological stressor in addition to its tremendous impact on every facet of individuals' lives and organizations in virtually all social and economic sectors worldwide. Fear of illness and uncertainty about the future precipitate anxiety- and stress-related disorders, and several groups have rightfully called for the creation and dissemination of robust mental health screening and treatment programs for the general public and front-line healthcare workers. However, in addition to pandemic-associated psychological distress, the direct effects of the virus itself (several acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2), and the subsequent host immunologic response, on the human central nervous system (CNS) and related outcomes are unknown. We discuss currently available evidence of COVID-19 related neuropsychiatric sequelae while drawing parallels to past viral pandemic-related outcomes. Past pandemics have demonstrated that diverse types of neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as encephalopathy, mood changes, psychosis, neuromuscular dysfunction, or demyelinating processes, may accompany acute viral infection, or may follow infection by weeks, months, or longer in recovered patients. The potential mechanisms are also discussed, including viral and immunological underpinnings. Therefore, prospective neuropsychiatric monitoring of individuals exposed to SARS-CoV-2 at various points in the life course, as well as their neuroimmune status, are needed to fully understand the long-term impact of COVID-19, and to establish a framework for integrating psychoneuroimmunology into epidemiologic studies of pandemics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Acute Disease , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/immunology , Anxiety/psychology , Bacterial Translocation , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Demyelinating Diseases/etiology , Demyelinating Diseases/immunology , Demyelinating Diseases/physiopathology , Demyelinating Diseases/psychology , Depression/etiology , Depression/immunology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/immunology , Mental Health , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Psychoneuroimmunology , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Psychotic Disorders/immunology , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/immunology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
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