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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e238271, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20233806

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study determined whether COVID-19 fear is correlated with sociodemographic characteristics, general health, mental health, and sleep quality in an elderly Brazilians. Methods: Elderly people aged ≥ 60 years replied to an online survey containing questions about their sociodemographic characteristics; general health; levels of stress, anxiety, and depression; sleep quality; and COVID fear. Results: Data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics (α = 5%). In total, 705 elderly people with mean age of 66 ± 5 years, and most (82.7%) respondents were women, graduated and from southeastern Brazil. COVID-19 fear correlated positively and moderately with sleep quality and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress (all p < 0.001). It was associated with females. Elderly people from northern and northeastern Brazil and diabetics had increased COVID-19 fear (all p < 0.05). Conclusion: The fear of COVID-19 exists among Brazilian female old people, diabetics, increases anxiety and stress symptoms, and worsen sleep quality in elderly people


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Fear/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Sleep Quality , Mental Disorders/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sociodemographic Factors
2.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 69(4): 928-941, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Internationally, hospital-based short-stay crisis units have been introduced to provide a safe space for stabilisation and further assessment for those in psychiatric crisis. The units typically aim to reduce inpatient admissions and psychiatric presentations to emergency departments. AIMS: To assess changes to service use following a service user's first visit to a unit, characterise the population accessing these units and examine equality of access to the units. METHODS: A prospective cohort study design (ISCTRN registered; 53431343) compared service use for the 9 months preceding and following a first visit to a short-stay crisis unit at three cities and one rural area in England. Included individuals first visited a unit in the 6 months between 01/September/2020 and 28/February/2021. RESULTS: The prospective cohort included 1189 individuals aged 36 years on average, significantly younger (by 5-13 years) than the population of local service users (<.001). Seventy percent were White British and most were without a psychiatric diagnosis (55%-82% across sites). The emergency department provided the largest single source of referrals to the unit (42%), followed by the Crisis and Home Treatment Team (20%). The use of most mental health services, including all types of admission and community mental health services was increased post discharge. Social-distancing measures due to the COVID-19 pandemic were in place for slightly over 50% of the follow-up period. Comparison to a pre-COVID cohort of 934 individuals suggested that the pandemic had no effect on the majority of service use variables. CONCLUSIONS: Short-stay crisis units are typically accessed by a young population, including those who previously were unknown to mental health services, who proceed to access a broader range of mental health services following discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Services, Psychiatric , Mental Disorders , Humans , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Aftercare , Cities , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Disorders/psychology , England/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation
3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 13(1): 186, 2023 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233704

ABSTRACT

To assess the inter-relationships between residual depressive symptoms (RDS) and Internet addiction (IA) using network analysis among clinically stable adolescents with major psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. RDS and IA were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), respectively. Central symptoms and bridge symptoms in the network model were examined. A total of 1,454 adolescents met the study criteria and were included in the analyses. The prevalence of IA was 31.2% (95% CI: 28.8%-33.6%). In the network analysis, the nodes IAT15 ("Preoccupation with the Internet"), PHQ2 ("Sad mood"), and PHQ1 ("Anhedonia") were the most central symptoms in the IA-RDS network model. Bridge symptoms included IAT10 ("Sooth disturbing about your Internet use"), PHQ9 ("Suicide ideation"), and IAT3 ("Prefer the excitement online to the time with others"). Additionally, PHQ2 ("Sad mood") was the main node linking "Anhedonia" to other IA clusters. Internet addiction was common among clinically stable adolescents with major psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. Core and bridge symptoms identified in this study could be prioritized as targets for the prevention and treatment of IA in this population.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Humans , Adolescent , Depression/epidemiology , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Anhedonia , Internet
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 406, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Activity and participation are critical to health and wellbeing. Limited evidence exists on how to support people with mental illness in participating in everyday activities. AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of Meaningful Activities and Recovery (MA&R), a co-led peer occupational therapy intervention focusing on activity engagement, functioning, quality of life, and personal recovery. METHODS: In a statistician blinded, multicenter RCT including 139 participants from seven community and municipal mental health services in Denmark, participants were randomly assigned to 1) MA&R and standard mental health care or 2) standard mental health care. The MA&R intervention lasted 8 months and consisted of 11 group sessions, 11 individual sessions, and support to engage in activities. The primary outcome, activity engagement, was measured using Profile of Occupational Engagement in People with Severe Mental Illness (POES-S). Outcomes were measured at baseline and post-intervention follow-up. RESULTS: Meaningful Activities and Recovery was delivered with high fidelity and 83% completed the intervention. It did not demonstrate superiority to standard mental health care, as intention-to treat analysis revealed no significant differences between the groups in activity engagement or any of the secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: We did not find positive effects of MA&R, possibly because of COVID-19 and related restrictions. Fidelity assessments and adherence rates suggest that MA&R is feasible and acceptable. However, future studies should focus on refining the intervention before investigating its effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered 24/05/2019 at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03963245.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Occupational Therapy , Humans , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Disorders/psychology
5.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285788, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322031

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related stigmatization of affected people or people at risk of infection has been shown to enhance the reluctance of affected individuals to use health services and reduce their mental health. It is thus highly important to gain a thorough understanding of COVID-19-related stigmatization. The present study's first aim was to explore stigmatization profiles of experienced stigmatization (anticipated stigmatization, internalized stigmatization, enacted stigmatization, disclosure concerns) and stigmatization practices in 371 German people at high risk of infection using latent class analyses. The second aim was to investigate the relationship between stigmatization profiles and psychological distress via multiple regression analysis taking into account other possible negative and positive risk factors. Our results showed two stigmatization profiles: "high stigmatization group" and "low stigmatization group". Belonging to the "high stigmatization group" was significantly correlated with higher levels of psychological distress. Other risk factors significantly related to psychological distress were mental health disorders in the past, exposure to COVID-19, fear related to COVID-19, perceived risk of being infected, lower perceived self-efficacy, and lower subjective knowledge about COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Psychological Distress , Humans , Stereotyping , Depression/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology
7.
JAMA ; 329(17): 1469-1477, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313133

ABSTRACT

Importance: There has been increasing concern about the burden of mental health problems among youth, especially since the COVID-19 pandemic. Trends in mental health-related emergency department (ED) visits are an important indicator of unmet outpatient mental health needs. Objective: To estimate annual trends in mental health-related ED visits among US children, adolescents, and young adults between 2011 and 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data from 2011 to 2020 in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, an annual cross-sectional national probability sample survey of EDs, was used to examine mental health-related visits for youths aged 6 to 24 years (unweighted = 49 515). Main Outcomes and Measures: Mental health-related ED visits included visits associated with psychiatric or substance use disorders and were identified by International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM; 2011-2015) and ICD-10-CM (2016-2020) discharge diagnosis codes or by reason-for-visit (RFV) codes. We estimated the annual proportion of mental health-related pediatric ED visits from 2011 to 2020. Subgroup analyses were performed by demographics and broad psychiatric diagnoses. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses estimated factors independently associated with mental health-related ED visits controlling for period effects. Results: From 2011 to 2020, the weighted number of pediatric mental health-related visits increased from 4.8 million (7.7% of all pediatric ED visits) to 7.5 million (13.1% of all ED visits) with an average annual percent change of 8.0% (95% CI, 6.1%-10.1%; P < .001). Significant linearly increasing trends were seen among children, adolescents, and young adults, with the greatest increase among adolescents and across sex and race and ethnicity. While all types of mental health-related visits significantly increased, suicide-related visits demonstrated the greatest increase from 0.9% to 4.2% of all pediatric ED visits (average annual percent change, 23.1% [95% CI, 19.0%-27.5%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Over the last 10 years, the proportion of pediatric ED visits for mental health reasons has approximately doubled, including a 5-fold increase in suicide-related visits. These findings underscore an urgent need to improve crisis and emergency mental health service capacity for young people, especially for children experiencing suicidal symptoms.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital , Health Services Needs and Demand , Mental Disorders , Mental Health , Suicide , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Young Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/trends , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Suicide/psychology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data
8.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 43: 92-97, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308119

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at verifying the relationship between lifestyle and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents. This is an observational and cross-sectional study developed with adolescents from a capital city in the Brazilian Amazon. Data collection was performed using an electronic form containing items from the Fantastic Lifestyle and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire instruments. For data analysis, the bootstrap t-Test and calculation of Cohen's d statistic value were performed to assess the effect size of the difference between means. A total of 479 adolescents participated in the study. There was a high relationship between emotional and behavioral problems and lifestyle (p < 0.01; d = 1.36), especially regarding emotional problems (p < 0.01; d = 1.09), hyperactivity (p < 0.01; d = 0.92) and peer problems (p < 0.01; d = 0.78). The lifestyle attributes that were highly related to emotional and behavioral problems were insight (p < 0.01; d = 1.30), sleep, seatbelt, stress and safe sex (p < 0.01; d = 0.93), type of behavior (p < 0.01; d = 0.86) and career (p < 0.01; d = 0.85). It is therefore concluded that there was a high relationship between lifestyle and emotional and behavioral problems among the adolescents surveyed. Thus, it becomes necessary to promote socio-emotional skills and restorative and health-protective lifestyles in this population.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Mental Disorders , Problem Behavior , Humans , Adolescent , Problem Behavior/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emotions , Mental Disorders/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Life Style , Adolescent Behavior/psychology
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 35(1): 80-85, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300762

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has emerged as a major public health concern worldwide. While containing the infection and caring for the ill has been a focus over the last 2 years, there has also been a burgeoning concern for mental health issues during this never-ending pandemic. The focus of health care machinery prioritized confronting and containing the pandemic that had majorly side-lined other aspects of public health. This also impacted persons with mental illness (PMI) requiring Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), an often essential and life-saving treatment and thus an essential procedure. ECT and other non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) services have seen a setback during this pandemic both in terms of its accessibility by the PMI and in effectively delivering its benefits by psychiatrists. In this article, we will be discussing the problems with provision and delivery of ECT services as well as other NIBS during this pandemic with a brief outline on the solutions for such with special focus on a developing country like India. This article will also endeavour in providing a roadmap in the delivery and provision of NIBS modalities of therapy for future pandemics, if any.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electroconvulsive Therapy , Mental Disorders , Humans , Electroconvulsive Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Mental Disorders/psychology , Brain
15.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284095, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263527

ABSTRACT

Public perceptions of the determinants of mental illness have important implications for attitudes and stigma, but minimal previous research has explored how causal attributions are spontaneously invoked in everyday public discourse. This study investigated how causal explanations for mental illness are disseminated in popular Irish news media, in the two years before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Keyword searches of a news media database identified 1,892 articles published between March 2018 to March 2022 that mentioned one of six categories of mental disorders: anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance-related disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, and psychotic disorders. Overall, 25% of the identified articles contained a causal explanation for mental illness. Inductive content analysis revealed the content and prevalence of eight types of causal explanations for mental disorders. Overall, attributions to life events/experiences, the cultural/societal environment, interpersonal relations, and health and lifestyle factors occurred more frequently than attributions to biological or psychological determinants. Life events/experiences were the most common explanation for anxiety and personality disorders, cultural/societal environment for eating disorders, and health/lifestyle factors for mood and psychotic disorders. Interpersonal factors in mental illness aetiology became more salient following the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings emphasise the need for theory and research on lay explanations of mental disorders to account for diversity, both in the range of attributions invoked, and in how attributional patterns shift across time and mental disorders category.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Psychotic Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology
16.
17.
Biol Psychiatry ; 92(7): 528-529, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252234
18.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(12): 900-911, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229433

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to quantify the association between exposure to pandemic outbreaks and psychological health via a comprehensive meta-analysis. Literature retrieval, study selection, and data extraction were completed independently and in duplicate. Effect-size estimates were expressed as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Data from 22 articles, involving 40,900 persons, were meta-analyzed. Overall analyses revealed a significant association of exposing to SARS-CoV-related pandemics with human mental health (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.24-1.40; p < 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed that anxiety (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.19-1.58; p < 0.001), depression (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15-1.42; p < 0.001), posttraumatic stress (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.17-1.58; p < 0.001), and psychological distress (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.40; p < 0.001) were all obviously related to pandemic diseases. In the context of infectious disease outbreaks, the mental health of general populations is clearly vulnerable. Therefore, all of us, especially health care workers, need special attention and psychological counseling to overcome pandemic together.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Population Health , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
19.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 61(7): 21-28, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225867

ABSTRACT

Family caregivers of individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) faced increasing challenges during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic; however, empirical evidence on the general challenges they experienced is lacking. Thus, the purpose of the current integrative review was to explore family caregivers' challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of nine relevant studies were included. Family caregivers experienced greater care burdens, physical and mental health problems, and limited access to health care services due to the pandemic. It is necessary to develop mental health policies and appropriate interventions to help individuals with mental illness and their family caregivers in the event of future crises. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 61(7), 21-28.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Mental Health Services , Humans , Caregivers/psychology , Pandemics , Mental Disorders/psychology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225157

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2019 and the associated restrictions, mental health in children and adolescents has been increasingly discussed in the media. Negative impacts of the pandemic, including a sharp increase in psychopathology and, consequently, reduced quality of life, appear to have particularly affected children and young people, who may be especially vulnerable to the adverse effects of isolation. Nevertheless, many children and adolescents have managed to cope well with the restrictions, without deterioration of their mental health. The present study therefore explored the links between COVID-19 infection (in oneself or a family member, as well as the death of a family member due to the virus), protective factors such as self-efficacy, resilience, self-esteem, and health-related quality of life, and measures of psychopathology such as depression scores, internalizing/externalizing problems, emotion dysregulation, and victimization. For this purpose, we examined data from 2129 adolescents (mean age = 12.31, SD = 0.67; 51% male; 6% born outside of Germany) using a structural equation model. We found medium to high loadings of the manifest variables with the latent variables (COVID-19, protective factors, and psychopathology). Protective factors showed a significant negative correlation with psychopathology. However, COVID-19 had a weak connection with psychopathology in our sample. External pandemic-related factors (e.g., restrictions) and their interaction with existing psychopathology or individual protective factors appear to have a greater influence on young people's mental health than the impact of the virus per se. Sociopolitical efforts should be undertaken to foster prevention and promote individual resilience, especially in adolescence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Child , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Protective Factors , Pandemics , Quality of Life , COVID-19/epidemiology
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