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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 406, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Activity and participation are critical to health and wellbeing. Limited evidence exists on how to support people with mental illness in participating in everyday activities. AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of Meaningful Activities and Recovery (MA&R), a co-led peer occupational therapy intervention focusing on activity engagement, functioning, quality of life, and personal recovery. METHODS: In a statistician blinded, multicenter RCT including 139 participants from seven community and municipal mental health services in Denmark, participants were randomly assigned to 1) MA&R and standard mental health care or 2) standard mental health care. The MA&R intervention lasted 8 months and consisted of 11 group sessions, 11 individual sessions, and support to engage in activities. The primary outcome, activity engagement, was measured using Profile of Occupational Engagement in People with Severe Mental Illness (POES-S). Outcomes were measured at baseline and post-intervention follow-up. RESULTS: Meaningful Activities and Recovery was delivered with high fidelity and 83% completed the intervention. It did not demonstrate superiority to standard mental health care, as intention-to treat analysis revealed no significant differences between the groups in activity engagement or any of the secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: We did not find positive effects of MA&R, possibly because of COVID-19 and related restrictions. Fidelity assessments and adherence rates suggest that MA&R is feasible and acceptable. However, future studies should focus on refining the intervention before investigating its effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered 24/05/2019 at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03963245.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Occupational Therapy , Humans , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Disorders/psychology
2.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 58(2): 141-151, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233040

ABSTRACT

Substance use disorders (SUDs) are complex illnesses and may occur in individuals with other physical and mental illnesses. Common comorbidities for SUDs include mental health illness and/or chronic pain. Nurses face additional risk factors for the development of SUD and comorbid illnesses. The relationships among these comorbidities and SUD are multifaceted, requiring understanding of the individual disease processes and how they may impact the manifestations of one another, as well as response to treatment considerations. Understanding the prevalence of these comorbidities and potential relationships is crucial to prevention, management, and treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Prevalence , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Comorbidity , Mental Health , Risk Factors
3.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 25(7): 301-311, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239925

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings in global mental health along several domains including socioeconomic determinants, inequities, funding, and inclusion in global mental health research and practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Mental illness continues to disproportionately impact vulnerable populations and treatment coverage continues to be low globally. Advances in integrating mental health care and adopting task-shifting are accompanied by implementation challenges. The mental health impact of recent global events such as the COVID-19 pandemic, geo-political events, and environmental change is likely to persist and require coordinated care approaches for those in need of psychosocial support. Inequities also exist in funding for global mental health and there has been gradual progress in terms of building local capacity for mental health care programs and research. Lastly, there is an increasing effort to include people with lived experiences of mental health in research and policy shaping efforts. The field of global mental health will likely continue to be informed by evidence and perspectives originating increasingly from low- and middle-income countries along with ongoing global events and centering of relevant stakeholders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Global Health
4.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 69(4): 928-941, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Internationally, hospital-based short-stay crisis units have been introduced to provide a safe space for stabilisation and further assessment for those in psychiatric crisis. The units typically aim to reduce inpatient admissions and psychiatric presentations to emergency departments. AIMS: To assess changes to service use following a service user's first visit to a unit, characterise the population accessing these units and examine equality of access to the units. METHODS: A prospective cohort study design (ISCTRN registered; 53431343) compared service use for the 9 months preceding and following a first visit to a short-stay crisis unit at three cities and one rural area in England. Included individuals first visited a unit in the 6 months between 01/September/2020 and 28/February/2021. RESULTS: The prospective cohort included 1189 individuals aged 36 years on average, significantly younger (by 5-13 years) than the population of local service users (<.001). Seventy percent were White British and most were without a psychiatric diagnosis (55%-82% across sites). The emergency department provided the largest single source of referrals to the unit (42%), followed by the Crisis and Home Treatment Team (20%). The use of most mental health services, including all types of admission and community mental health services was increased post discharge. Social-distancing measures due to the COVID-19 pandemic were in place for slightly over 50% of the follow-up period. Comparison to a pre-COVID cohort of 934 individuals suggested that the pandemic had no effect on the majority of service use variables. CONCLUSIONS: Short-stay crisis units are typically accessed by a young population, including those who previously were unknown to mental health services, who proceed to access a broader range of mental health services following discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Services, Psychiatric , Mental Disorders , Humans , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Aftercare , Cities , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Disorders/psychology , England/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation
5.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 10(6): 371, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243727
7.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 11: e44951, 2023 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A total of 75% of people with mental health disorders have an onset of illness between the ages of 12 and 24 years. Many in this age group report substantial obstacles to receiving quality youth-centered mental health care services. With the rapid development of technology and the recent COVID-19 pandemic, mobile health (mHealth) has presented new opportunities for youth mental health research, practice, and policy. OBJECTIVE: The research objectives were to (1) synthesize the current evidence supporting mHealth interventions for youths who experience mental health challenges and (2) identify current gaps in the mHealth field related to youth's access to mental health services and health outcomes. METHODS: Guided by the methods of Arksey and O'Malley, we conducted a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies that used mHealth tools to improve youth mental health (January 2016-February 2022). We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase databases using the following key terms: (1) mHealth; (2) youth and young adults; and (3) mental health. The current gaps were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: The search produced 4270 records, of which 151 met inclusion criteria. Included articles highlight the comprehensive aspects of youth mHealth intervention resource allocation for targeted conditions, mHealth delivery methods, measurement tools, evaluation of mHealth intervention, and youth engagement. The median age for participants in all studies is 17 (IQR 14-21) years. Only 3 (2%) studies involved participants who reported their sex or gender outside of the binary option. Many studies (68/151, 45%) were published after the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak. Study types and designs varied, with 60 (40%) identified as randomized controlled trials. Notably, 143 out of 151 (95%) studies came from developed countries, suggesting an evidence shortfall on the feasibility of implementing mHealth services in lower-resourced settings. Additionally, the results highlight concerns related to inadequate resources devoted to self-harm and substance uses, weak study design, expert engagement, and the variety of outcome measures selected to capture impact or changes over time. There is also a lack of standardized regulations and guidelines for researching mHealth technologies for youths and the use of non-youth-centered approaches to implementing results. CONCLUSIONS: This study may be used to inform future work as well as the development of youth-centered mHealth tools that can be implemented and sustained over time for diverse types of youths. Implementation science research that prioritizes youths' engagement is needed to advance the current understanding of mHealth implementation. Moreover, core outcome sets may support a youth-centered measurement strategy to capture outcomes in a systematic way that prioritizes equity, diversity, inclusion, and robust measurement science. Finally, this study suggests that future practice and policy research are needed to ensure the risk of mHealth is minimized and that this innovative health care service is meeting the emerging needs of youths over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Young Adult , Humans , Child , Adult , Mental Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Telemedicine/methods
8.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 51(4): 295-309, 2023 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316179

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 and Psychiatric Disorders in Minors: Changes in Inpatient Treatment According to Hospital Statistics Abstract: Increased rates of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric emergencies in children and adolescents stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic have been reported, with more children and adolescents suffering from internalizing disorders. This study analyzes whether the increased rates led to increased rates of inpatient treatment in child and adolescent psychiatric and pediatric hospitals in Germany as well as a change in diagnoses of the treated patients. We analyzed routine hospital data ("InEK" data, § 21 KHG data files) from a prepandemic (2019) and a pandemic (2021) half-year regarding changes in the number of cases, diagnoses, and length of stay (LoS) in child and adolescent psychiatry and pediatrics. We also investigated the development of psychiatric emergencies in minors. We found an increase in internalizing problems (depression, anorexia nervosa, trauma-related disorders) and a decrease in externalizing problems among the admitted psychiatric inpatients. Further, we observed a halving of cases treated for alcohol intoxication. However, we discovered no change for the frequency of psychiatric emergency treatments nationwide. A more detailed analysis revealed that, in areas with a low number of child and adolescent psychiatry inpatient beds, emergency care was prioritized and LoS decreased, whereas in areas with a fair bed-to-inhabitant ratio among minors, there was a trend toward increased LoS, also in pediatric departments. We recommend continued monitoring of inpatient care after the pandemic, with special attention paid to underprivileged children and adolescents such as those with externalizing problems.


Subject(s)
Anorexia Nervosa , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Minors , Inpatients/psychology , Emergencies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Anorexia Nervosa/therapy , Hospitals
10.
Healthc Q ; 26(1): 10-13, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318793

ABSTRACT

Improving access to mental health and substance use (MHSU) services continues to be an area of growing concern in Canada, amplified by the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. It was also identified as a priority for federal, provincial and territorial governments in the Shared Health Priorities (SHP) work (CIHI n.d.a.). As part of the SHP work, the Canadian Institute for Health Information recently released 2022 results for two newly developed indicators that help to fill data and information gaps in understanding access to MHSU services in Canada. The first, "Early Intervention for Mental Health and Substance Use among Children and Youth," showed that three in five children and youth (aged 12-24 years) with self-reported early needs accessed at least one community MHSU service in Canada. The second, "Navigation of Mental Health and Substance Use Services," revealed that two out of five Canadians (15 years and older) who accessed at least one MHSU service said that they always or usually had support navigating their services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Mental Health , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Canada/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 327, 2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a procedural treatment that is potentially life-saving for some patients with severe psychiatric illness. At the start of the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, ECT practice was remarkably disrupted, putting vulnerable individuals at increased risk of symptom exacerbation and death by suicide. This study aimed to capture the self-reported experiences of psychiatrists based at healthcare facilities across Canadian provinces who were delivering ECT treatments during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., from mid-March 2020 to mid-May 2020). METHODS: A multidisciplinary team of experts developed a survey focusing on five domains: ECT unit operations, decision-making, hospital resources, ECT procedure, and mitigating patient impact. Responses were collected from psychiatrists providing ECT at 67 ECT centres in Canada, grouped by four geographical regions (Ontario, Quebec, Atlantic Canada, and Western Canada). RESULTS: Clinical operations of ECT programs were disrupted across all four regions - however, centres in Atlantic Canada were able to best preserve outpatient and maintenance care, while centres in Western Canada were able to best preserve inpatient and acute care. Similarly, Atlantic and Western Canada demonstrated the best decision-making practices of involving the ECT team and clinical ethicists in the development of pandemic-related guidelines. Across all four regions, ECT practice was affected by the redeployment of professionals, the shortage of personal protective equipment, and the need to enforce social distancing. Attempts to introduce modifications to the ECT delivery room and minimize bag-valve-mask ventilation were consistently reported. All four regions developed a new patient prioritization framework, and Western Canada, notably, aimed to provide ECT to only the most severe cases. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that ECT provision was disproportionately affected across different parts of Canada. Possible factors that could explain these interregional differences include population, distribution of urban vs. rural areas, pre-pandemic barriers in access to ECT, number of cases, ability to control the spread of infection, and the general reduction in physicians' activities across different areas of health care. Studying these factors in the future will inform how medical centres should respond to public health emergencies and pandemic-related circumstances in the context of procedural treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electroconvulsive Therapy , Mental Disorders , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Electroconvulsive Therapy/methods , Mental Disorders/therapy , Ontario
12.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 58(2): 83-85, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298052
13.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 84: 103578, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292425

ABSTRACT

This paper outlines the psychosocial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic as reported by 145 licensed mental health providers in the Philippines in an online survey. Respondents perceived an increase in observed mental health disorders in their beneficiaries and an overall decrease in stigma associated with receiving mental health care services during the pandemic. Respondents further identified specific stigma-related help-seeking barriers during the pandemic. Positive impacts of telehealth and importance of increased public education of mental health were highlighted, with implications for improving the landscape of mental health care for Philippines post-pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Telemedicine , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Philippines , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy
14.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 32: e17, 2023 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302056

ABSTRACT

AIMS: WHO declared that mental health care should be considered one essential health service to be maintained during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aims to describe the effect of lockdown and restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy on mental health services' utilisation, by considering psychiatric diagnoses and type of mental health contacts. METHODS: The study was conducted in the Verona catchment area, located in the Veneto region (northeastern Italy). For each patient, mental health contacts were grouped into: (1) outpatient care, (2) social and supportive interventions, (3) rehabilitation interventions, (4) multi-professional assessments, (5) day care. A 'difference in differences' approach was used: difference in the number of contacts between 2019 and 2020 on the weeks of lockdown and intermediate restrictions was compared with the same difference in weeks of no or reduced restrictions, and such difference was interpreted as the effect of restrictions. Both a global regression on all contacts and separate regressions for each type of service were performed and Incidence Rate Ratios (IRRs) were calculated. RESULTS: In 2020, a significant reduction in the number of patients who had mental health contacts was found, both overall and for most of the patients' characteristics considered (except for people aged 18-24 years for foreign-born population and for those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Moreover, in 2020 mental health contacts had a reduction of 57 096 (-33.9%) with respect to 2019; such difference remained significant across the various type of contacts considered, with rehabilitation interventions and day care showing the greatest reduction. Negative Binomial regressions displayed a statistically significant effect of lockdown, but not of intermediate restrictions, in terms of reduction in the number of contacts. The lockdown period was responsible of a 32.7% reduction (IRR 0.673; p-value <0.001) in the overall number of contacts. All type of mental health contacts showed a reduction ascribable to the lockdown, except social and supportive interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the access to community mental health care during the pandemic was overall reduced, the mental health system in the Verona catchment area was able to maintain support for more vulnerable and severely ill patients, by providing continuity of care and day-by-day support through social and supportive interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Mental Health Centers , Community Mental Health Services , Mental Disorders , Quarantine , Italy/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community Mental Health Centers/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Community Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/rehabilitation , Mental Disorders/therapy
15.
Encephale ; 48(6): 712-713, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281262
17.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 59(3): 7-12, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267661

ABSTRACT

Emergency departments (EDs) are experiencing a worsening crisis of overcrowding, especially during the coronavirus pandemic. Persons experiencing psychiatric emergencies must be evaluated medically and screened for risks of harm to self or others before they can be cleared for transfer to inpatient units or discharged. Severe shortages of inpatient psychiatric beds can lead to hours or even days of costly boarding in the ED. The purpose of this article is to examine the potential role of psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioners in psychiatric ED care, from initial intake and medical clearance, screening for suicide risk, de-escalation, stabilization, and discharge. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 59(3), 7-12.].


Subject(s)
Emergencies/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Mental Health Services , Nurse Practitioners , Psychiatric Nursing , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/therapy , Nurse's Role , Patient Discharge
19.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(3): 544-546, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285794

ABSTRACT

There is paucity of Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) utilization surveys from the Arabian Gulf region and none available from Qatar. There is no literature available on impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on ECT provision. ECT is a lifesaving treatment in psychiatric practice requiring anesthetic support and there were concerns that redeployment of anesthetists due to COVID-19 pandemic might have comparatively bigger impact on the provision of ECT. These concerns stem from the fact that psychiatric patients often get discriminated against in health care systems; largely due to stigma and the belief among healthcare providers that psychiatric illness is somehow not as serious as other types of medical or surgical illness. In this brief report we present pre-COVID ECT utilization from Qatar. We also report findings on ECT utilization during COVID-19 and compare changes with other elective and non-elective surgeries. ECT provision was down by 40% during March to August 2020 in our setting. The decline in ECT provision was comparable to other elective and non-elective surgeries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electroconvulsive Therapy , Mental Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , Qatar/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy
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