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1.
Psychiatry Res ; 307: 114318, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616708

ABSTRACT

Loneliness, which is increasingly recognised as an important public health problem, may have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic in the wake of social distancing measures. This study examined loneliness in Japan during the ongoing pandemic and its association with mental health. Cross-sectional online survey data that were collected at monthly intervals from April to December 2020 were analysed. Loneliness was assessed with the Three-Item Loneliness Scale. Information was also obtained on depressive (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. For the combined sample (N = 9000), 41.1% of the respondents were categorised as lonely when using ≥ 6 as a cutoff score, and 16.5% when the cutoff was ≥ 7. The prevalence of loneliness changed little across the period. Younger age, male sex and socioeconomic disadvantage (low income, deteriorating financial situation, unemployment) were associated with loneliness. In fully adjusted analyses, loneliness was linked to depressive (odds ratio [OR]: 5.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.08-6.57) and anxiety symptoms (OR: 5.34, 95% CI: 4.53-6.29). Loneliness is prevalent in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic and associated with socioeconomic disadvantage and poorer mental health. A focus on loneliness as a public health issue in Japan is now warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Loneliness , Male , Mental Health , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613807

ABSTRACT

Due to the demanding changes caused in the population by the COVID-19 pandemic, including a persisting experience of fear and social isolation, multiple studies have focused on the protective role of several psychological characteristics on mental health. Emotional intelligence and social support are commonly linked to mental health and well-being. The present study aims to analyze the mediator role of emotional intelligence and social support on university students' mental health, taking into consideration the role of gender differences. An online questionnaire was administered to a sample of 923 university students during the COVID-19 lockdown in Portugal. Significant gender differences were found on mental health symptoms, emotional intelligence, and social support. A double mediation model was computed to verify if gender influences on mental health were mediated by emotional intelligence and social support. The results show indirect effects of gender on mental health. However, as both mediators mediate in the opposite direction, the total indirect effects become null. Thus, a strong direct effect of gender on mental health remains. The results of the present study have theoretical implications on protective factors of mental health by gender and practical implications for psychological intervention in university counselling services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Emotional Intelligence , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Students , Universities
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613769

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the mental health of healthcare workers in many countries including Japan. While many survey-based findings have reported the serious state of their wellbeing among healthcare workers, the first-hand experience of the mental health and coping in this population remains to be evaluated. Accordingly, this study aimed to appraise them using constructionist thematic analysis on semi-structured interviews attended by a purposive and snowball sample of 24 healthcare workers in Japan conducted in December 2020-January 2021. Four themes were identified: (1) increased stress and loneliness, (2) reduced coping strategies, (3) communication and acknowledgement as a mental health resource, and (4) understanding of self-care. Participants noted that the characteristics of Japanese work culture such as long hours, collectivism and hatarakigai (i.e., meaning in work) to explain these themes. These findings suggest that robust support at an organizational and individual level, capturing intrinsic values, are particularly important for this key workforce to cope with increased stress and loneliness, leading to better patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Health Personnel , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613768

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on mental health at the level of the population. The current study adds to the evidence base by examining how the prevalence of psychological distress changed in Australia during the pandemic. The study also assesses the psychometric properties of a new single-item measure of mental distress included in a survey program conducted regularly throughout the pandemic. Data are from 1158 respondents in wave 13 (early July 2020) of the nationally representative Taking the Pulse of the Nation (TTPN) Survey. The questionnaire included the six-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) and a new single-item measure of distress. Results show a significant increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia, from 6.3% pre-pandemic to 17.7% in early July 2020 (unadjusted odds ratio = 3.19; 95% CI (confidence interval) = 2.51 to 4.05). The new single-item measure of distress is highly correlated with the K6. This study provides a snapshot at one point in time about how mental health worsened in Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, by demonstrating the accuracy of the new single-item measure of distress, this analysis also provides a basis for further research examining the trajectories and correlates of distress in Australia across the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 19, 2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global health crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, confront healthcare workers (HCW) with increased exposure to potentially morally distressing events. The pandemic has provided an opportunity to explore the links between moral distress, moral resilience, and emergence of mental health symptoms in HCWs. METHODS: A total of 962 Canadian healthcare workers (88.4% female, 44.6 + 12.8 years old) completed an online survey during the first COVID-19 wave in Canada (between April 3rd and September 3rd, 2020). Respondents completed a series of validated scales assessing moral distress, perceived stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms, and moral resilience. Respondents were grouped based on exposure to patients who tested positive for COVID-19. In addition to descriptive statistics and analyses of covariance, multiple linear regression was used to evaluate if moral resilience moderates the association between exposure to morally distressing events and moral distress. Factors associated with moral resilience were also assessed. FINDINGS: Respondents working with patients with COVID-19 showed significantly more severe moral distress, anxiety, and depression symptoms (F > 5.5, p < .020), and a higher proportion screened positive for mental disorders (Chi-squared > 9.1, p = .002), compared to healthcare workers who were not. Moral resilience moderated the relationship between exposure to potentially morally distressing events and moral distress (p < .001); compared to those with higher moral resilience, the subgroup with the lowest moral resilience had a steeper cross-sectional worsening in moral distress as the frequency of potentially morally distressing events increased. Moral resilience also correlated with lower stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms (r > .27, p < .001). Factors independently associated with stronger moral resilience included: being male, older age, no mental disorder diagnosis, sleeping more, and higher support from employers and colleagues (B [0.02, |-0.26|]. INTERPRETATION: Elevated moral distress and mental health symptoms in healthcare workers facing a global crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic call for the development of interventions promoting moral resilience as a protective measure against moral adversities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Morals , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 284: 225-227, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606222

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the OpenNotes movement presents an optimal solution for virtual engagement through the sharing of clinical notes within mental health care settings. Therefore, we conducted interviews to discover how mental health clinicians interact with patients using OpenNotes. We integrated The Consolidated Framework for Intervention Research to establish implementation recommendations. As both challenges and opportunities were identified, future research should address challenges to foster patient and clinician engagement in sharing clinical notes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Canada , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nature ; 601(7891): 26, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605871
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7964-7970, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608921

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop mental health nursing strategies for the inbound quarantined population based on the results of a survey study and frontline nursing experiences. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A mixed research method was selected, we collected data by questionnaires from 128 quarantined people, and by semi-structured interviews from 5 registered nurses. Generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were used in the quantitative research to identify the prevalence of psychological issues and risk factors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the qualitative study to conclude nursing experiences from RNs. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia were 34%, 41%, and 18% respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that social support, urban residence, and chronic disease were associated with mental health problems in certain aspects. Three themes were emerged from the analysis of RNs interviews: personality, chronic diseases, and social support. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of mental health issues in the inbound quarantined population was the same as the general population in the initial stage of COVID-19 outbreak, and significantly lower than people who lived in high-risk areas. Living in urban areas, with chronic diseases, and obtaining less social support are the risk factors. Finally, four nursing strategies were proposed by the research team for mental health well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/organization & administration , Psychiatric Nursing/organization & administration , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Professional Role , Quarantine/standards , Risk Factors , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/prevention & control , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Social Support/psychology , Social Support/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
9.
Clin Invest Med ; 44(4): E2-10, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607599

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has deeply altered social and working environments among health care workers. These health care workers are therefore at risk of additional psychosocial strain and ensuing metal health symptoms, which indirectly affects patient care. In this study, we aimed to assess the psychosocial and psychopathological impact of COVID-19 among acute care mental health and addictions staff. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional survey and contains a sample size of 60 mental health and addiction acute care workers recruited from within Nova Scotia Health Authority. The survey was constructed using the online survey system, Opinio, and consisted of three sections: demographic variables (gender, age group and profession); the DASS-21 Questionnaire (which provides dimensional measures of stress, anxiety and depression); and the MBI-HSS (MP) Questionnaire (which measures three dimensions of burnout-emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal achievement). RESULTS: The majority of participants had at least one pathologic score on the DASS-21 and MBI-HSS (MP) sections (75.5% and 93.5%, respectively). The median severity on the DASS-21 and MBI-HSS (MP) were both moderate, with the younger age group (20-35 years) having more significant burnout scores (p = 0.0494). Simple logistic regression showed a significant relationship between burnout severity and pathologic distress, and simple linear regression showed significant correlation between DASS-21 and MBI-HSS (MP) scores, with a R2 value of 0.4633. CONCLUSION: More planning, programs, resources and further research are needed to support wellness and recovery of all health care professionals who work at the mental health and addictions acute care unit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Burnout, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 3, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607105

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the change in trend of antenatal mental health and associated factors among a cohort of pregnant women during the second wave of COVID-19 using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Previous study using the same scale, during the first wave reported a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression. RESULTS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at the two large maternity hospitals in Colombo, Sri Lanka: Castle Street Hospital for Women (CSHW) and De Soysa Hospital for Women (DSHW). Consecutively recruited 311 women were studied. Out of which, 272 (87.5%) were having uncomplicated pregnancies at the time of the survey and 106 (34.1%) were either anxious, depressed, or both. Prevalence of anxiety was 17.0% and depression 27.0%. Overall, continuing COVID-19 pandemic increased antenatal anxiety and depression. The trend was to aggravate depression more intensively compared to anxiety in this cohort of women studied. Special support is needed for pregnant mothers during infectious epidemics taking more attention to antenatal depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sri Lanka/epidemiology
11.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(11): 537-540, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598846

ABSTRACT

Nurses and nurse leaders are working in unprecedented intense and demanding environments, and the COVID-19 pandemic continues to place strain on their mental well-being. If stressful work conditions remain at extraordinary high levels, nurses and leaders may ultimately leave their positions, creating even more uncertainty in the workforce. Enhancing individual resilience has become a superficial response in retaining nurses during a global nursing shortage. We argue that resilience is not solely an individual responsibility. Rather, resilience it is a mutual responsibility between the individual and the organization. In this article, we discuss how nurse leaders can foster organizational resilience while also enhancing their own individual resilience within the current pandemic environment, and as we transition to a post-COVID environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Workforce , Nurse Administrators , Nurses/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Global Health , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Mental Health , Nurse Administrators/organization & administration , Nurse Administrators/psychology
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 530, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of undergraduate students in China have been reported to have psychological problems. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a series of preventive and control measures were implemented, which undoubtedly worsened their psychological health. Coping style and social support were probably important factors that affected the psychological well-being of undergraduate students during the pandemic. This study aimed to explore the effects of coping style and perceived social support on the psychological well-being of college students and relevant risk factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in February and March of 2020 by distributing an online questionnaire among undergraduate students from seven geographical regions across China. The questionnaire included sociodemographic information; the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21); the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS); and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). For the analyses, t-tests, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple linear regression were utilized. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Among 3113 college students, the rates of anxiety, depression and stress symptoms were 13.3, 15.4 and 6.8%, respectively. Increased rates of current smoking and drinking (5.5 and 25.2%, respectively) among undergraduates were identified. The results indicated that the PSSS subscales and SCSQ subscales were significantly associated with DASS-21 scores (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that active coping style and family support were protective factors while passive coping style could aggravate psychological problems among participants (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A remarkable number of college students adopted passive coping strategies to cope with negative feelings, such as smoking and drinking, which were detrimental to their mental health. In contrast, active coping strategies helped improve their psychological well-being. Moreover, family support was particularly important for maintaining their mental health and ameliorating mental health challenges in this major health crisis. Consequently, suitable psychointervention, routine screening for risk behaviors, and provision of further social support are needed for undergraduate students in the COVID-19 pandemic or other emergency public health events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 123(1): 44-49, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593857

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of depression and anxiety among university students during the peak of COVID­19 pandemic in the Slovak Republic in December 2020. The secondary goal was to compare results with a study from 2018 at the same university. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional study was administered at the Comenius University in Bratislava. The final sample consisted of 1,786 participants (approx. 80 % females) with the mean age and standard deviation of M=21.15 and SD=3.53. An online battery of self-report measures of depression, anxiety, perceived stress, loneliness, and resilience was administered. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of moderately severe to­severe depression and anxiety were 34.3 % and 20.1 %, respectively. Depression and anxiety were associated with younger age, higher perception of stress, higher loneliness, and lower resilience. In comparison with 2018, we found a two-fold increase in depression and anxiety. The increase was present across most of the depression and anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: The result of the study revealed elevated rates of depression and anxiety during the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Slovakia. Various demographic and psychological factors were associated with more severe depression and anxiety among university students. Some subgroups of students are at the higher risk of mental health problems (Tab. 4, Ref. 26).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Slovakia/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological , Students
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(12): e26584, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disrupted social connections may negatively affect youth mental health. In contrast, sustained quality social connections (QSCs) can improve mental health outcomes. However, few studies have examined how these quality connections affect depression and anxiety outcomes within digital interventions, and conceptualization is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to conceptualize, appraise, and synthesize evidence on QSC within digital interventions (D-QSC) and the impact on depression and anxiety outcomes for young people aged 14-24 years. METHODS: A systematic scoping review and meta-analysis was conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute methodological frameworks and guided by experts with lived experience. Reporting was guided by the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). The MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases were searched against a comprehensive combination of key concepts on June 24, 2020. The search concepts included young people, digital intervention, depression, anxiety, and social connection. Google was also searched. A reviewer independently screened abstracts and titles and full text, and 9.99% (388/3882) of these were screened by a second reviewer. A narrative synthesis was used to structure the findings on indicators of D-QSC and mechanisms that facilitate the connection. Indicators of D-QSC from the included studies were synthesized to produce a conceptual framework. RESULTS: Of the 5715 publications identified, 42 (0.73%) were included. Among the included studies, there were 23,319 participants. Indicators that D-QSC was present varied and included relatedness, having a sense of belonging, and connecting to similar people. However, despite the variation, most of the indicators were associated with improved outcomes for depression and anxiety. Negative interactions, loneliness, and feeling ignored indicated that D-QSC was not present. In 24% (10/42) of the applicable studies, a meta-analysis showed a significant decrease in depression (-25.6%, 95% CI -0.352 to -0.160; P<.001) and anxiety (-15.1%, 95% CI -0.251 to -0.051; P=.003) after a D-QSC. Digital mechanisms that helped create a quality connection included anonymity, confidentiality, and peer support. In contrast, mechanisms that hindered the connection included disconnection from the real world and inability to see body language. Data synthesis also identified a 5-component conceptual framework of D-QSC that included rapport, identity and commonality, valued interpersonal dynamic, engagement, and responded to and accepted. CONCLUSIONS: D-QSC is an important and underconsidered component for youth depression and anxiety outcomes. Researchers and developers should consider targeting improved QSC between clinicians and young people within digital interventions for depression. Future research should build on our framework to further examine relationships among individual attributes of QSC, various digital interventions, and different populations.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Depression , Adolescent , Anxiety/therapy , Depression/therapy , Humans , Loneliness , Mental Health
17.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(4): 667-675, 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591762

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: A change in the body mass may be one of the health consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, and may affect the health condition measured in many dimensions. The paper aims at assessment of the level and determinants of the body mass changes and stress level in the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the interrelation of these two factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected in June 2020, as a cross-sectional on-line survey. The representative sample of 2,535 Poles aged 18-65 was analysed. The main outcome is the Cohen's stress index PSS-4. Among thirteen independent variables, five were related to the change observed during the pandemic (including the body mass change and satisfaction with sexual life). RESULTS: Increase of the body mass within the period of the pandemic was declared by 33.9% of the respondents, including 36.1% in urban and 30.9% in rural areas (p=0.026). The average increase of body mass was 5.11 kg. The increase of body mass was related to the existing overweight and obesity, occurrence of chronic diseases, episodes of physical and mental crisis, and decrease of interest in sexual activity. The average index of stress in the initial months of the pandemic was 6.38±2.94. Multivariate regression analysis showed eight independent predictors of stress in the whole group, seven in towns and five in rural areas. The significance of the relationship with the body mass increase was proved only among residents of rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: The initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic were reflected, to a different extent, among residents of urban and rural areas. Body mass change and sexual health indicators remained significant predictors of stress level, even after analyses were corrected for other covariates.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Health Status , Mental Health , Sexual Health , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Poland , Rural Population , Urban Population
18.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1356, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of breast cancer patients are severely psychologically affected by breast cancer diagnosis and subsequent therapeutic procedures. The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions on public life have additionally caused significant psychological distress for much of the population. It is therefore plausible that breast cancer patients might be particularly susceptible to the additional psychological stress caused by the pandemic, increasing suffering. In this study we therefore aimed to assess the level of psychological distress currently experienced by a defined group of breast cancer patients in our breast cancer centre, compared to distress levels pre-COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Female breast cancer patients of all ages receiving either adjuvant, neoadjuvant, or palliative therapies were recruited for the study. All patients were screened for current or previous COVID-19 infection. The participants completed a self-designed COVID-19 pandemic questionnaire, the Stress and Coping Inventory (SCI), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN®) Distress Thermometer (DT), the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ C30, and the BR23. RESULTS: Eighty-two breast cancer patients were included. Therapy status and social demographic factors did not have a significant effect on the distress caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of the DT pre and during COVID-19 pandemic did not differ significantly. Using the self-designed COVID-19 pandemic questionnaire, we detected three distinct subgroups demonstrating different levels of concerns in relation to SARS-CoV-2. The subgroup with the highest levels of concern reported significantly decreased life quality, related parameters and symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This monocentric study demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected psychological health in a subpopulation of breast cancer patients. The application of a self-created "COVID-19 pandemic questionnaire" could potentially be used to help identify breast cancer patients who are susceptible to increased psychological distress due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and therefore may need additional intensive psychological support. TRIAL REGISTRATION: DRKS-ID: DRKS00022507 .


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/psychology , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Female , Germany , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599612

ABSTRACT

Parents of children with ASD experience a higher incidence of mental health difficulties, including stress, depression, and anxiety, than parents of children without ASD. According to studies related to ASD, parent-child physical activity programs are an effective approach to encourage both parents and their children with ASD to exercise together, thus improving the mental health of parents due to this interactive family activity. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of this web-based parent-child physical activity program on the mental health of parents of children with ASD. A total of 94 parent-child pairs consented to participate in this study, and 75 parent-child pairs completed the study. Three instruments-DASS-21, PSI-4-SF, and WHOQOL-26-were used to measure mental health, parental stress, and quality of life, respectively. A randomized controlled trial design was implemented to examine the effectiveness of the 10-week web-based parent-child physical activity program on improving the mental health of parents of children with ASD. The results showed that after the 10-week parent-child physical activity program, there were significant differences in overall DASS-21 and PSI-4-SF for the experimental group, compared with control group (p < 0.05), which indicated that the parent-child physical activity program has a positive influence on mental health in parents of children with ASD. One sub-area of WHOQOL-26 between the experimental and control groups across pre-/post-testing intervals also showed greater reductions in the item of psychological health (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the findings demonstrated the efficacy of the web-based parent-child physical activity program for improving mental health in parents of children with ASD.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Mental Health , Exercise , Humans , Internet , Parent-Child Relations , Quality of Life
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598579

ABSTRACT

Common mental health disorders (CMDs) represent a major public health concern and are particularly prevalent in people experiencing disadvantage or marginalisation. Primary care is the first point of contact for people with CMDs. Pharmaceutical interventions, such as antidepressants, are commonly used in the treatment of CMDs; however, there is concern that these treatments are over-prescribed and ineffective for treating mental distress related to social conditions. Non-pharmaceutical primary care interventions, such as psychological therapies and "social prescribing", provide alternatives for CMDs. Little is known, however, about which such interventions reduce social inequalities in CMD-related outcomes, and which may, unintentionally, increase them. The aim of this protocol (PROSPERO registration number CRD42021281166) is to describe how we will undertake a systematic review to assess the effects of non-pharmaceutical primary care interventions on CMD-related outcomes and social inequalities. A systematic review of quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods primary studies will be undertaken and reported according to the PRISMA-Equity guidance. The following databases will be searched: Assia, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycInfo and Scopus. Retrieved records will be screened according to pre-defined eligibility criteria and synthesised using a narrative approach, with meta-analysis if feasible. The findings of this review will guide efforts to commission more equitable mental health services.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Mental Health , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Primary Health Care , Qualitative Research , Socioeconomic Factors , Systematic Reviews as Topic
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