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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25951, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191012

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: During outbreaks of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many countries adopted quarantine to slow the spread of the virus of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Quarantine will cause isolation from families, friends, and the public, which consequently leads to serious psychological pressure with potentially long-lasting effects on the quarantined population. Experience of specific practices to improve the psychological status of the mandatory quarantined population was limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of mandatory quarantine, and evaluate the effect of psychological intervention on the quarantined population.We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess and manage the psychological status of a mandatory quarantined population in Beijing, China. A total of 638 individuals completed 2 questionnaires and were enrolled in this study, of which 372 participants accepted designed psychological intervention while other 266 participants refused it. The SCL-90 questionnaire was used to evaluate the psychological status and its change before and after the intervention. The differences of SCL-90 factor scores between participants and the national norm group were assessed by 2 samples t test. While the SCL-90 factor scores before and after intervention were compared with 2 paired samples t test.Compared with the Chinese norms of SCL-90, the participants had higher SCL-90 factor scores in most items of the SCL-90 inventory. The SCL-90 factor scores of participants with psychological intervention significantly decreased in somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. In contrast, most factor scores of the SCL-90 inventory changed little without statistical significance in participants without psychological intervention.Psychological problems should be emphasized in the quarantined individuals and professional psychological intervention was a feasible approach to improve the psychological status of the mandatory quarantined population in the epidemic of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
2.
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 287-293, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the declaration of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak as pandemic, health workers have shown an incredible commitment to their patients, sometimes in apocalyptic conditions. We explored ways to deal with the coronavirus stressor and psychological outcomes among physicians and nurses. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 124 healthcare workers in General Hospital Nasice (Croatia) were invited to participate in a study by performing within the period of March 26 to April 6 2020 questionnaire collected information on socio-demographic characteristics and living conditions that may be risk factors for covid-19 concern, Short form health survey-36, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOC; consisting of 8 subscales: Confrontive Coping, Distancing, Self-Controlling, Seeking Social Support, Accepting Responsibility, Escape-Avoidance, Planful Problem Solving, Positive Reappraisal). RESULTS: 11% healthworkers reports moderate to very-severe depression, 17% moderate to extremely-severe anxiety and 10% for moderate to extremely-severe stress. 67% of medical staff are worried. No statistically significant differences in the scales of depression, anxiety, and stress were found between nurses and physicians, but differences were found on Escape-Avoidance and Positive Reappraisal subscales. Nurses use significantly more avoiding coping style and positive reappraisal than doctors. Seeking social support is more pronounced in those over 40 years old, while those under 40 use more avoidable stress management techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring and ensuring the mental health of coronavirus care staff is crucial for global health. The education of medical staff in the field of stress management is a conditio sine qua non of the issue of an adequate relationship with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Surveys , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Croatia/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
4.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 262-265, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100756

ABSTRACT

Catastrophic Pandemics have been adversely impacted the globe throughout human history. As a consequence psychiatrist, psychologist and mental health practitioners performed their role to mitigate the adverse impacts through its scientific and clinical lenses. It was observed that due to advance nature of COVI-19 pandemic, more advance approach of psychological aid is required. This work gives an overview of the multi-dimensional and trans-disciplinary techniques, which can be helpful to cope up with the crises that emerged from the threat of COVID-19 Outbreak for victims, survivors, health care practitioners and community.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological , COVID-19 , Humans
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 251-255, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100754

ABSTRACT

Transmission of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has now rapidly spread around the world, which has alarming implications for individuals and communities, in particular for public mental health. Significant progress has been made in the prevention and control of the COVID-19 pandemic in China, but the psychological crisis caused by the epidemic is still not over and may continue to exist. The public mental health in the post-COVID-19 era should not be ignored. This article provides early warning for the public's mental health in the post-COVID-19 era by listing the characteristics and duration of the public mental health crisis following the SARS outbreak. In addition, based on the current situation, specific methods and measures are proposed in order to provide effective reference for the prevention and control of psychological crisis caused by the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 245-250, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100753

ABSTRACT

Deep emotion traumas in societies around the globe are overcome by extreme human catastrophes such as natural disasters, social crises, war conflicts and infectious virus induced pandemic diseases, etc., can lead to enormous stress-related disorders. The current ongoing pandemic known as COVID-19 caused by novel Corona virus first appeared in Wuhan, city of China and then rapidly spread in the whole world. It has affected various frontiers of lives and caused numerous psychiatric problems like nervousness, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), fear and uncertainty, panic attacks, depression, obsessive compulsory disorder, xenophobia and racism, etc. Globally COVID-19 has persuaded public mental health crisis. Furthermore, inadequate resources of public mental health services in several countries are discussed in this review, which will be further straighten by the upcoming increase in demand for mental health services due to the COVID-19 pandemic. All mental health sciences including Psychiatry can play a very important role in the comfort of COVID-19 infected individuals and their relatives, healthcare providers and society. We need to learn more about psychological and psychiatric features of COVID-19 from the perceptions of public and global mental health in order to cope up the present deteriorating situation caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Internationality , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Humans
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2014053, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094114

ABSTRACT

Importance: People exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a series of imperative containment measures could be psychologically stressed, yet the burden of and factors associated with mental health symptoms remain unclear. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with mental health symptoms in the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This large-sample, cross-sectional, population-based, online survey study was conducted from February 28, 2020, to March 11, 2020. It involved all 34 province-level regions in China and included participants aged 18 years and older. Data analysis was performed from March to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and acute stress among the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Insomnia Severity Index, and Acute Stress Disorder Scale. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore demographic and COVID-19-related risk factors. Results: Of 71 227 individuals who clicked on the survey link, 56 932 submitted the questionnaires, for a participation rate of 79.9%. After excluding the invalid questionnaires, 56 679 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.97 [8.22] years; 27 149 men [47.9%]) were included in the study; 39 468 respondents (69.6%) were aged 18 to 39 years. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the rates of mental health symptoms among the survey respondents were 27.9% (95% CI, 27.5%-28.2%) for depression, 31.6% (95% CI, 31.2%-32.0%) for anxiety, 29.2% (95% CI, 28.8%-29.6%) for insomnia, and 24.4% (95% CI, 24.0%-24.7%) for acute stress. Participants with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 and their family members or friends had a high risk for symptoms of depression (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 3.27 [95% CI, 1.84-5.80] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.26-1.85] for family or friends), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 2.48 [95% CI, 1.43-4.31] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.27-1.84] for family or friends), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 3.06 [95% CI, 1.73-5.43] for patients; 1.62 [95% CI, 1.35-1.96] for family or friends), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 3.50 [95% CI, 2.02-6.07] for patients; 1.77 [95% CI, 1.46-2.15] for family or friends). Moreover, people with occupational exposure risks and residents in Hubei province had increased odds of symptoms of depression (adjusted ORs, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.77-2.17] for occupational exposure; 1.42 [95% CI, 1.19-1.68] for Hubei residence), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.75-2.13] for occupational exposure; 1.54 [95% CI, 1.30-1.82] for Hubei residence), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.45-1.77] for occupational exposure; 1.20 [95% CI, 1.01-1.42] for Hubei residence), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.79-2.20] for occupational exposure; 1.49 [95% CI, 1.25-1.79] for Hubei residence). Both centralized quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.10-1.61] for depression; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.22-1.75] for anxiety; 1.63 [95% CI, 1.36-1.95] for insomnia; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.21-1.77] for acute stress) and home quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.25-1.36] for depression; 1.28 [95% CI, 1.23-1.34] for anxiety; 1.24 [95% CI, 1.19-1.30] for insomnia; 1.29 [95% CI, 1.24-1.35] for acute stress) were associated with the 4 negative mental health outcomes. Being at work was associated with lower risks of depression (adjusted OR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.79-0.91]), anxiety (adjusted OR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.99]), and insomnia (adjusted OR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.81-0.94]). Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this survey indicate that mental health symptoms may have been common during the COVID-19 outbreak among the general population in China, especially among infected individuals, people with suspected infection, and people who might have contact with patients with COVID-19. Some measures, such as quarantine and delays in returning to work, were also associated with mental health among the public. These findings identify populations at risk for mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and may help in implementing mental health intervention policies in other countries and regions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Coronavirus Infections , Depression , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Status Schedule/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Quarantine/psychology , Return to Work/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology
8.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(3)2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066783

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: By forcing closure of schools, curtailing outpatient services, and imposing strict social distancing, the COVID-19 pandemic has abruptly affected the daily life of millions worldwide, with still unclear consequences for mental health. This study aimed to evaluate if and how child and adolescent psychiatric visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs) changed during the pandemic lockdown, which started in Italy on February 24, 2020. METHODS: We examined all ED visits by patients under 18 years of age in the 7 weeks prior to February 24, 2020, and in the subsequent 8 weeks of COVID-19 lockdown at two urban university hospitals, in Turin and Rome, Italy. ED visits during the corresponding periods of 2019 served as a comparison using Poisson regression modeling. The clinician's decision to hospitalize or discharge home the patient after the ED visit was examined as an index of clinical severity. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 lockdown, there was a 72.0% decrease in the number of all pediatric ED visits (3,395) compared with the corresponding period in 2019 (12,128), with a 46.2% decrease in psychiatric visits (50 vs 93). The mean age of psychiatric patients was higher in the COVID-19 period (15.7 vs 14.1 years). No significant changes were found in hospitalization rate or in the prevalence distribution of the primary reason for the psychiatric ED visit (suicidality, anxiety/mood disorders, agitation). CONCLUSIONS: In the first 8 weeks of the COVID-19-induced social lockdown, the number of child and adolescent psychiatric ED visits significantly decreased, with an increase in patient age. This decrease does not appear to be explained by severity-driven self-selection and might be due to a reduction in psychiatric emergencies or to the implementation of alternative ways of managing acute psychopathology.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Services, Psychiatric , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders , Physical Distancing , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Education, Distance , Emergency Services, Psychiatric/organization & administration , Emergency Services, Psychiatric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e173, 2020 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016492

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The United Nations warned of COVID-19-related mental health crisis; however, it is unknown whether there is an increase in the prevalence of mental disorders as existing studies lack a reliable baseline analysis or they did not use a diagnostic measure. We aimed to analyse trends in the prevalence of mental disorders prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data from repeated cross-sectional surveys on a representative sample of non-institutionalised Czech adults (18+ years) from both November 2017 (n = 3306; 54% females) and May 2020 (n = 3021; 52% females). We used Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as the main screening instrument. We calculated descriptive statistics and compared the prevalence of current mood and anxiety disorders, suicide risk and alcohol-related disorders at baseline and right after the first peak of COVID-19 when related lockdown was still in place in CZ. In addition, using logistic regression, we assessed the association between COVID-19-related worries and the presence of mental disorders. RESULTS: The prevalence of those experiencing symptoms of at least one current mental disorder rose from a baseline of 20.02 (95% CI = 18.64; 21.39) in 2017 to 29.63 (95% CI = 27.9; 31.37) in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The prevalence of both major depressive disorder (3.96, 95% CI = 3.28; 4.62 v. 11.77, 95% CI = 10.56; 12.99); and suicide risk (3.88, 95% CI = 3.21; 4.52 v. 11.88, 95% CI = 10.64; 13.07) tripled and current anxiety disorders almost doubled (7.79, 95% CI = 6.87; 8.7 v. 12.84, 95% CI = 11.6; 14.05). The prevalence of alcohol use disorders in 2020 was approximately the same as in 2017 (10.84, 95% CI = 9.78; 11.89 v. 9.88, 95% CI = 8.74; 10.98); however, there was a significant increase in weekly binge drinking behaviours (4.07% v. 6.39%). Strong worries about both, health or economic consequences of COVID-19, were associated with an increased odds of having a mental disorder (1.63, 95% CI = 1.4; 1.89 and 1.42, 95% CI = 1.23; 1.63 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence matching concerns that COVID-19-related mental health problems pose a major threat to populations, particularly considering the barriers in service provision posed during lockdown. This finding emphasises an urgent need to scale up mental health promotion and prevention globally.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , Alcohol-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Alcohol-Related Disorders/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(7): e37142, 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lives of people globally for over 2 years. Changes in lifestyles due to the pandemic may cause psychosocial stressors for individuals and could lead to mental health problems. To provide high-quality mental health support, health care organizations need to identify COVID-19-specific stressors and monitor the trends in the prevalence of those stressors. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to apply natural language processing (NLP) techniques to social media data to identify the psychosocial stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic and to analyze the trend in the prevalence of these stressors at different stages of the pandemic. METHODS: We obtained a data set of 9266 Reddit posts from the subreddit \rCOVID19_support, from February 14, 2020, to July 19, 2021. We used the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) topic model to identify the topics that were mentioned on the subreddit and analyzed the trends in the prevalence of the topics. Lexicons were created for each of the topics and were used to identify the topics of each post. The prevalences of topics identified by the LDA and lexicon approaches were compared. RESULTS: The LDA model identified 6 topics from the data set: (1) "fear of coronavirus," (2) "problems related to social relationships," (3) "mental health symptoms," (4) "family problems," (5) "educational and occupational problems," and (6) "uncertainty on the development of pandemic." According to the results, there was a significant decline in the number of posts about the "fear of coronavirus" after vaccine distribution started. This suggests that the distribution of vaccines may have reduced the perceived risks of coronavirus. The prevalence of discussions on the uncertainty about the pandemic did not decline with the increase in the vaccinated population. In April 2021, when the Delta variant became prevalent in the United States, there was a significant increase in the number of posts about the uncertainty of pandemic development but no obvious effects on the topic of fear of the coronavirus. CONCLUSIONS: We created a dashboard to visualize the trend in the prevalence of topics about COVID-19-related stressors being discussed on a social media platform (Reddit). Our results provide insights into the prevalence of pandemic-related stressors during different stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. The NLP techniques leveraged in this study could also be applied to analyze event-specific stressors in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Latent Class Analysis , Natural Language Processing , Pandemics , Social Media , Stress, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
11.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 387-396, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify the prevalence of the adverse mental health outcomes in medical staff working in the hospital settings during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and explore the relative distribution of anxiety and depressive symptoms. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG DATA, and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals were searched for articles published from January 1, 2019, to April 19, 2020. The prevalence estimates of adverse mental health symptoms in medical staff were pooled using the random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 35 articles and data of 25,343 medical staff were used in the final analysis. The pooled prevalence estimates in medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic were as follows (ordered from high to low): fear-related symptoms, 67% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 61%-73%); high levels of perceived stress, 56% (95% CI = 32%-79%), anxiety symptoms, 41% (95% CI = 35%-47%); insomnia, 41% (95% CI = 33%-50%); posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 38% (95% CI = 34%-43%); depressive symptoms, 27% (95% CI = 20%-34%); and somatic symptoms, 16% (95% CI = 3%-36%). The subgroup analysis revealed that the prevalence estimates of fear-related symptoms were consistently high. CONCLUSIONS: Medical staff during the COVID-19 epidemic have a high prevalence of adverse mental health symptoms. Data-based strategies are needed to optimize mental health of medical staff and other health care professionals during times of high demand such as the COVID-19 and other epidemics.PROSPERO Registration: CRD42020182433.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics
12.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 322-327, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931973

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the mental health and psychological responses in Wuhan, a severely affected area, and other areas of China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on February 10-20, 2020. A set of online questionnaires was used to measure mental health and responses. A total of 1397 participants from Wuhan (age, 36.4 ± 10.7 years; male, 36.1%) and 2794 age- and sex-matched participants from other areas of China (age, 35.9 ± 9.9 years; male, 39.0%) were recruited. RESULTS: Compared with their counterparts, participants from Wuhan had a significantly higher prevalence of any mental health problems (46.6% versus 32.2%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.65-2.17), anxiety (15.2% versus 6.2%; adjusted OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.14-3.29), depression (18.3% versus 9.7%; adjusted OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.74-2.54), suicidal ideation (10.5% versus 7.1%; adjusted OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.28-2.02), and insomnia (38.6% versus 27.6%; adjusted OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.48-1.96). Participants from Wuhan had a slightly higher rate of help-seeking behavior (7.1% versus 4.2%; adjusted OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.12-2.77) but similar rate of treatment (3.5% versus 2.7%; adjusted OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.68-2.24) for mental problems than did their counterparts. In addition, compared with their counterparts, participants from Wuhan gave higher proportions of responses regarding "fearful" (52% versus 36%, p < .001), "discrimination against COVID-19 cases" (64% versus 58%, p = .006), "strictly comply with preventive behaviors" (98.7% versus 96%, p = .003), and "fewer living and medical supplies" (<2 weeks: 62% versus 57%, p = .015). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 epidemic has raised enormous challenges regarding public mental health and psychological responses, especially in the highly affected Wuhan area. The present findings provide important information for developing appropriate strategies for the prevention and management of mental health problems during COVID-19 and other epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Epidemics , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Suicidal Ideation , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Psychiatr Serv ; 73(11): 1202-1209, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861753

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to examine changes in child emergency department (ED) discharges and hospitalizations for primary general medical (GM) and primary psychiatric disorders; prevalence of psychiatric disorders among acute care encounters; and change in acute mental health (MH) care encounters by disorder type and, within these categories, by child sociodemographic characteristics before and after statewide COVID-19­related school closure orders. Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study used the Pediatric Health Information System database to assess percent changes in ED discharges and hospitalizations (N=2,658,474 total encounters) among children ages 3­17 years in 44 U.S. children's hospitals in 2020 compared with 2019, by using matched data for 36- and 12-calendar-week intervals. Results: Decline in MH ED discharges accounted for about half of the decline in ED discharges and hospitalizations for primary GM disorders (−24.8% vs. −49.1%), and MH hospitalizations declined 3.4 times less (−8.0% vs. −26.8%) in 2020. Suicide attempt or self-injury and depressive disorders accounted for >50% of acute MH care encounters before and after the statewide school closures. The increase in both ED discharges and hospitalizations for suicide attempt or self-injury was 5.1 percentage points (p<0.001). By fall 2020, MH hospitalizations for suicide attempt or self-injury rose by 41.7%, with a 43.8% and 49.2% rise among adolescents and girls, respectively. Conclusions: Suicide or self-injury and depressive disorders drove acute MH care encounters in 44 U.S. children's hospitals after COVID-19­related school closures. Research is needed to identify continuing risk indicators (e.g., sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric disorder types, and social determinants of health) of acute child MH care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Facilities and Services Utilization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Mental Health Services , Schools , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methodological heterogeneity of studies and geographical variation limit conclusions about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of youth. This study aimed to explore the health-related quality of life and mental health of children and adolescents in the second year of the pandemic in South Tyrol, Italy. METHODS: An online survey representative for the age and gender of the children and adolescents in South Tyrol was conducted among 5159 families with children and adolescents aged 7-19 years, between 28 May and 16 June 2021. The survey collecting parental ratings and self-rated questionnaires from children and adolescents aged 11-19 years included instruments to measure health-related quality of life (KIDSCREEN-10), mental health problems (SDQ), anxiety (SCARED), and depression (CES-DC). The results were compared with data from corresponding studies conducted in Germany. RESULTS: Decreased health-related quality of life and increased conduct problems, peer-related mental health problems, anxiety, and depressive and psychosomatic symptoms in children and adolescents observed in the second year of the pandemic in Germany were confirmed in the second year in South Tyrol. Children and adolescents with low socioeconomic status, a migration background, and limited living space were significantly affected. Female sex and older age were associated with increased psychosocial problems and a positive family climate supported the mental health of children and adolescents during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Confirmation of findings of decreased health-related quality of life and increased emotional problems after the first year of the pandemic supports the ongoing call for low-threshold health promotion, prevention, and early intervention programs to support children and adolescents who have been severely affected by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Quality of Life , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
J Aging Health ; 34(6-8): 939-950, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794142

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study examines disparities in older adults' mental health and well-being during the pandemic by sexual minority status. Methods: This study analyzed data on older adults from the Health and Retirement Study's COVID-19 Module (N = 3142 for heterosexuals and N = 75 for sexual minorities). Weighted regressions linked concern about COVID-19, depression, pandemic emotional stress, and changes in loneliness, in-person contacts, income, and work to sexual minority status, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Compared to heterosexuals, sexual minority older adults had more concern about the pandemic and emotional stress and showed a decrease in in-person contact during the pandemic-these differences were not explained by sociodemographic characteristics. Sexual minority older adults were also more likely to have changes in income and work during the pandemic, but these differences were explained by sociodemographic characteristics. Discussion: Sexual minority older adults have experienced worse mental health outcomes than heterosexuals during the COVID-19 pandemic, which merits intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Mental Health , Pandemics , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Heterosexuality/psychology , Heterosexuality/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data
17.
Am J Public Health ; 112(3): 509-517, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770832

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To describe national- and county-level trends and variation in a novel measure of hope. Methods. Using data from the Gallup National Health and Well-Being Index (n = 2 766 728), we summarized the difference between anticipated life satisfaction (ALS) and current life satisfaction (CLS), measured by the Cantril Self-Anchoring Scale, for each year from 2008 to 2020 and by county over two 5-year periods in the United States. Results. Across all years, there was a significant positive trend in the difference between ALS and CLS for the nation (P = .024), which remained positive but not significant when we excluded 2020. Maintenance of ALS with a decrease in CLS drove the 2020 increase. From 2008-2012 to 2013-2017, 14.5% of counties with 300 or more responses (n = 599) experienced an increase in the difference of more than 1 SD, whereas 13.9% experienced a more than 1 SD decrease. Fifty-two counties experienced decreases in ALS and CLS. Conclusions. Responding to trends in the gap between ALS and CLS at national and local levels is essential for the collective well-being of our nation, especially as we navigate and emerge from crisis.


Subject(s)
Personal Satisfaction , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Hope , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United States , Young Adult
18.
Can J Psychiatry ; 66(7): 634-644, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in profound global impact, with older adults at greater risk of serious physical health outcomes. It is essential to also understand generational differences in psychosocial impacts to identify appropriate prevention and intervention targets. Across generational groups, this study examined: (1) rates of precautions and adaptive and maladaptive health behaviors, (2) differences in levels of anxiety, and (3) rates of COVID-related concerns during Wave 1 of COVID-19 in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed data from 2 Canadian population-based data sets: the Canadian Perspective Survey Series: Impact of COVID-19 survey (N = 4,627; March 29 to April 3, 2020), and Crowdsourcing: Impacts of COVID-19 on Canadians-Your Mental Health (N = 45,989; April 24 to May 11, 2020). MEASURES: We categorized generational age group. Participants self-reported changes in behaviors and COVID-related concerns, and a validated measure assessed anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: There are generational differences in behavioral responses to the pandemic. Adaptive health habits (e.g., exercise) were comparable across groups, while changes in maladaptive health habits (e.g., substance use) were highest among younger age groups, particularly Millennials (15 to 34 years old). COVID-related precautions were also highest among the younger generations, with Generation X (35 to 54 years old) exhibiting the highest rate of precautionary behavior. Results also revealed that the highest rate of clinically significant anxiety is among Millennials (36.0%; severe anxiety = 15.7%), and the younger generations have the highest rates of COVID-related concerns. CONCLUSION: These early data are essential in understanding at-risk groups given the unpredictable nature of the pandemic and its potential long-term implications.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19 , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(52): e28070, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722689

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To investigate the mental health status of obstetric nurses and its influencing factors during the novel coronavirus epidemic period, so as to provide theoretical reference for hospital decision-makers and managers.From February 25 to March 20, 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey through online questionnaire, and selected obstetric nurses from Jilin and Heilongjiang Provinces as the research objects by convenience sampling.Three hundred eighteen valid questionnaires were collected; the results of Symptom Checklist 90 showed that the scores of "obsessive-compulsive", "depression", "anxiety", "hostility", "phobia", and "psychosis" were higher than the Chinese norm (P < .01). There were 107 people whose total score of Symptom Checklist 90 was more than 160, and 83 people whose number of positive items was more than 43. Logistic regression results showed that married, temporary employment, lack of support and communication from family and relatives, onerous task, and unbearable responsibility were independent risk factors for mental disorder.There is a great psychological burden for obstetric nurses during the epidemic period. Decision makers should focus on necessary psychological intervention for those that are married, temporarily employed, and those lacking family supports including communication. At the same time, managers should distribute tasks reasonably to avoid psychological burdens caused by overwork.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nurse Midwives/psychology , Obstetric Nursing , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Status , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715338

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to numerous restrictions in daily life that had a significant impact on the well-being and mental health of the population. Among others, children and adolescents were particularly affected, being a vulnerable group at risk. The aim of this study was to assess the emotional situation of children and adolescents during different phases of the pandemic and to identify modifying factors. Data from the serial cross-sectional COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring (COSMO) survey in Germany were used for this study. The survey waves 12 (19th/20th May 2020) and 21 (15th/16th September 2020) were investigated as examples of two different pandemic phases. The psychosocial and emotional situation and well-being of children were measured with the emotional subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) assessed by parents. Descriptive analyses and logistic regressions were calculated. In total, a third of the participating parents in wave 12 and in wave 21 reported having children and adolescents with emotional symptoms. Especially children with younger parents seemed to be more affected by emotional symptoms. Sociodemographic aspects, such as household language, showed a significant association with reported emotional symptoms in children (Wave 12: OR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.20-4.09). Reported prevalences of emotional symptoms in children did not differ between the pandemic phases. In conclusion, the pandemic had negative influences on the emotional symptoms of children and adolescents in COVID-19 pandemic waves in 2020, indicating a forecasted reoccurrence and need for preventive measures for upcoming waves and other pandemics in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Pandemics , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emotions , Germany/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Humans , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
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