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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262550, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is continuing unabated in Japan, as of October 2021. We aimed to compare first-year university students' psychological distress before the pandemic in 2019, during the pandemic in 2020, and one year after the onset of the pandemic, in 2021. METHODS: The study conducted online surveys over three years from April to May each year. Participants were 400 first-year students in 2019, 766 in 2020, and 738 in 2021. We examined differences in scores on the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-Japanese version (CCAPS-Japanese) between the three years using a one-way analysis of variance, and differences in the CCAPS-Japanese critical items using chi-squared test and residual analysis. RESULTS: The average scores on the Depression and Generalized Anxiety subscale in 2021 were significantly higher than those in 2020, but remained the same as in 2019. The Academic Distress subscale score in 2020 was the worst compared to 2019 and 2021. Meanwhile, the number of students who experienced severe suicidal ideation increased year by year from 2019 to 2021. CONCLUSION: The mean mental health of first-year university students worsened after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, and recovered to the pre-pandemic level over the next two years. However, the number of high-risk students with suicidal ideation continued to increase. A system is required for early detection and support for students at high risk of mental health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Students/psychology , Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Depression/pathology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Suicidal Ideation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632675

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, US populations have experienced elevated rates of financial and psychological distress that could lead to increases in suicide rates. Rapid ongoing mental health monitoring is critical for early intervention, especially in regions most affected by the pandemic, yet traditional surveillance data are available only after long lags. Novel information on real-time population isolation and concerns stemming from the pandemic's social and economic impacts, via cellular mobility tracking and online search data, are potentially important interim surveillance resources. Using these measures, we employed transfer function model time-series analyses to estimate associations between daily mobility indicators (proportion of cellular devices completely at home and time spent at home) and Google Health Trends search volumes for terms pertaining to economic stress, mental health, and suicide during 2020 and 2021 both nationally and in New York City. During the first pandemic wave in early-spring 2020, over 50% of devices remained completely at home and searches for economic stressors exceeded 60,000 per 10 million. We found large concurrent associations across analyses between declining mobility and increasing searches for economic stressor terms (national proportion of devices at home: cross-correlation coefficient (CC) = 0.6 (p-value <0.001)). Nationally, we also found strong associations between declining mobility and increasing mental health and suicide-related searches (time at home: mood/anxiety CC = 0.53 (<0.001), social stressor CC = 0.51 (<0.001), suicide seeking CC = 0.37 (0.006)). Our findings suggest that pandemic-related isolation coincided with acute economic distress and may be a risk factor for poor mental health and suicidal behavior. These emergent relationships warrant ongoing attention and causal assessment given the potential for long-term psychological impact and suicide death. As US populations continue to face stress, Google search data can be used to identify possible warning signs from real-time changes in distributions of population thought patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cell Phone/statistics & numerical data , Search Engine/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Suicide/psychology , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , New York City , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Search Engine/trends , Stress, Psychological , Time Factors , United States
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262562, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631073

ABSTRACT

Higher education students' mental health has been a growing concern in recent years even before the COVID-19 pandemic. The stresses and restrictions associated with the pandemic have put university students at greater risk of developing mental health issues, which may significantly impair their academic success, social interactions and their future career and personal opportunities. This paper aimed to understand the mental health status of University students at an early stage in the pandemic and to investigate factors associated with higher levels of distress. An online survey including demographics, lifestyle/living situations, brief mental well-being history, questions relating to COVID-19 and standardised measures of depression, anxiety, resilience and quality of life was completed by 1173 students at one University in the North of England. We found high levels of anxiety and depression, with more than 50% experiencing levels above the clinical cut offs, and females scoring significantly higher than males. The survey also suggested relatively low levels of resilience which we attribute to restrictions and isolation which reduced the opportunities to engage in helpful coping strategies and activities rather than enduring personality characteristics. Higher levels of distress were associated with lower levels of exercising, higher levels of tobacco use, and a number of life events associated with the pandemic and lockdown, such as cancelled events, worsening in personal relationships and financial concerns. We discuss the importance of longer-term monitoring and mental health support for university students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Students/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Depression/pathology , Exercise , Female , Humans , Internet , Life Style , Linear Models , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Universities , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262136, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the emergency department (ED) has evolved into the de-facto site of care for a variety of substance use disorder (SUD) presentations, trends in ED utilization are an essential public health surveillance tool. Changes in ED visit patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic may reflect changes in access to outpatient treatment, changes in SUD incidence, or the unintended effects of public policy to mitigate COVID-19. We use a national emergency medicine registry to describe and characterize trends in ED visitation for SUDs since 2019. METHODS: We included all ED visits identified in a national emergency medicine clinical quality registry, which included 174 sites across 33 states with data from January 2019 through June 2021. We defined SUD using ED visit diagnosis codes including: opioid overdose and opioid use disorder (OUD), alcohol use disorders (AUD), and other SUD. To characterize changes in ED utilization, we plotted the 3-week moving average ratio of visit counts in 2020 and 2021 as compared to visit counts in 2019. FINDINGS: While overall ED visits declined in the early pandemic period and had not returned to 2019 baseline by June 2021, ED visit counts for SUD demonstrated smaller declines in March and April of 2020, so that the proportion of overall ED visits that were for SUD increased. Furthermore, in the second half of 2020, ED visits for SUD returned to baseline, and increased above baseline for OUD ever since May 2020. CONCLUSIONS: We observe distinct patterns in ED visitation for SUDs over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly for OUD for which ED visitation barely declined and now exceeds previous baselines. These trends likely demonstrate the essential role of hospital-based EDs in providing 24/7/365 care for people with SUDs and mental health conditions. Allocation of resources must be directed towards the ED as a de-facto safety net for populations in crisis.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data
5.
Virol J ; 19(1): 3, 2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a communicable disease caused by a virus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Pandemics are associated with the high level of mental stress. In many countries, general people reported the high level of depression, anxiety, psychological distress, post-traumatic stress disorder during recent a pandemic. This study aims to investigate the mental health status of people who survived through this alarming situation of COVID-19. METHODS: In this study, seventy individuals (either gender) between the age of 18-60 years, who contracted COVID-19 previously and then recovered as indicated by negative PCR results, were included. Data was collected by using three tools: impact of event scale (IES-R), patient health questionnaire-9(PHQ-9) and corona anxiety scale (CAS). People with other systemic/mental disorders, ongoing malignancies, upper/lower motor disorders and inability to give consent were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 26.29 + 11.79. All the 70 responders suffered from COVID-19. Among these 23 (32.9%) were asymptomatic and 47(67.1%) had common symptoms related to COVID-19 53 (75.7%) responders also had symptoms post-recovery. Most of the people who suffered COVID-19 had mild depression. Twenty-nine participants (41.4%) reported the highest impact of this traumatic event on their mental health. After suffering from COVID-19, 74.3% reported no anxiety as measured through corona anxiety scale (CAS). CONCLUSION: High level of post-traumatic stress was seen among participants who recovered from COVID-19, especially those patients who were symptomatic. Mild depression and anxiety were also noted among them.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Survivors/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Status , Humans , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7964-7970, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608921

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop mental health nursing strategies for the inbound quarantined population based on the results of a survey study and frontline nursing experiences. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A mixed research method was selected, we collected data by questionnaires from 128 quarantined people, and by semi-structured interviews from 5 registered nurses. Generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were used in the quantitative research to identify the prevalence of psychological issues and risk factors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the qualitative study to conclude nursing experiences from RNs. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia were 34%, 41%, and 18% respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that social support, urban residence, and chronic disease were associated with mental health problems in certain aspects. Three themes were emerged from the analysis of RNs interviews: personality, chronic diseases, and social support. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of mental health issues in the inbound quarantined population was the same as the general population in the initial stage of COVID-19 outbreak, and significantly lower than people who lived in high-risk areas. Living in urban areas, with chronic diseases, and obtaining less social support are the risk factors. Finally, four nursing strategies were proposed by the research team for mental health well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/organization & administration , Psychiatric Nursing/organization & administration , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Professional Role , Quarantine/standards , Risk Factors , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/prevention & control , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Social Support/psychology , Social Support/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
7.
Nature ; 601(7891): 26, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605871
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(52): e28070, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595330

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To investigate the mental health status of obstetric nurses and its influencing factors during the novel coronavirus epidemic period, so as to provide theoretical reference for hospital decision-makers and managers.From February 25 to March 20, 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey through online questionnaire, and selected obstetric nurses from Jilin and Heilongjiang Provinces as the research objects by convenience sampling.Three hundred eighteen valid questionnaires were collected; the results of Symptom Checklist 90 showed that the scores of "obsessive-compulsive", "depression", "anxiety", "hostility", "phobia", and "psychosis" were higher than the Chinese norm (P < .01). There were 107 people whose total score of Symptom Checklist 90 was more than 160, and 83 people whose number of positive items was more than 43. Logistic regression results showed that married, temporary employment, lack of support and communication from family and relatives, onerous task, and unbearable responsibility were independent risk factors for mental disorder.There is a great psychological burden for obstetric nurses during the epidemic period. Decision makers should focus on necessary psychological intervention for those that are married, temporarily employed, and those lacking family supports including communication. At the same time, managers should distribute tasks reasonably to avoid psychological burdens caused by overwork.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nurse Midwives/psychology , Obstetric Nursing , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Status , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580546

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has negatively impacted many households' financial well-being, food security, and mental health status. This paper investigates the role financial resources play in understanding the relationship between food security and mental health among U.S. households using data from a survey in June 2020. Results show job loss and savings draw down to pay for household bills had a significant relationship with both lower food security and greater numbers of poor mental health days during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Income/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Food Security/economics , Humans , Male , Mental Health/economics , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25363, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on both the physical and mental health of individuals worldwide. Evidence regarding the association between mental health problems and information exposure among Thai citizens during the COVID-19 outbreak is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the relationship between information exposure and mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand. METHODS: Between April 21 and May 4, 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional, nationwide online survey of the general population in Thailand. We categorized the duration of exposure to COVID-19-related information as follows: <1 h/day (reference group), 1-2 h/day, and ≥3 h/day. Mental health outcomes were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, the Perceived Stress Scale-10, and the Insomnia Severity Index for symptoms of depression, anxiety, perceived stress, and insomnia, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between information exposure and the risk of developing the aforementioned symptoms. An ancillary analysis using multivariable multinomial logistic regression models was also conducted to assess the possible dose-response relationship across the severity strata of mental health problems. RESULTS: Of the 4322 eligible participants, 4004 (92.6%) completed the online survey. Of them, 1481 (37.0%), 1644 (41.1%), and 879 (22.0%) participants were exposed to COVID-19-related information for less than 1 hour per day, 1 to 2 hours per day, or 3 or more hours per day, respectively. The major source of information related to the COVID-19 pandemic was social media (95.3%), followed by traditional media (68.7%) and family members (34.9%). Those exposed to information for 3 or more hours per day had a higher risk of developing symptoms of depression (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.03-1.76; P=.03), anxiety (adjusted OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.43-2.46; P<.001), and insomnia (adjusted OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.17-1.97; P=.001) than people exposed to information for less than 1 hour per day. Meanwhile, people exposed to information for 1 to 2 hours per day were only at risk of developing symptoms of anxiety (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.69; P=.008). However, no association was found between information exposure and the risk of perceived stress. In the ancillary analysis, a dose-response relationship was observed between information exposure of 3 or more hours per day and the severity of mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that social media is the main source of COVID-19-related information. Moreover, people who are exposed to information for 3 or more hours per day are more likely to develop psychological problems, including depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Longitudinal studies investigating the long-term effects of COVID-19-related information exposure on mental health are warranted.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Internet Use/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Social Media/supply & distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thailand/epidemiology
12.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1013-E1020, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Qualitative research is lacking on the mental well-being of adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to explore the feelings and emotions adolescents experienced during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and the coping strategies they identified and employed to manage those emotions. METHODS: Participants living in Canada aged 13-19 years were recruited through social media platforms and youth-serving organizations. Qualitative data were gathered from 2 open-ended questions included in a youth-informed cross-sectional online survey: "What feelings and emotions have you experienced around the pandemic?" and "What coping strategies have you used during the pandemic?" We collected data from June 2020 to September 2020. A summative content analysis was undertaken to analyze survey responses inductively. RESULTS: A total of 1164 open-ended responses from Canadian adolescents (n = 851; mean age 15.6, standard deviation 1.7, yr) were analyzed. We identified 3 major themes within the category of feelings and emotions associated with the pandemic: sociospatial and temporal disconnections, emotional toll of the pandemic and positives amid the pandemic. Within the category of coping strategies used during the pandemic, 2 major themes were identified: connecting online and outdoors, and leisure and health-promoting activities. INTERPRETATION: Although the emotional toll of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic is evident, participants in our study adopted various positive coping strategies to mitigate their distress, including physical activity, safe peer interactions and hobbies. The results have important implications for public health policy and practice during pandemic times, emphasizing the importance of accessible mental health resources for those experiencing psychological distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emotions , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Med Arch ; 75(4): 307-312, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512962

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous pandemic and catastrophic events significantly changed the life of every human being, bringing him/her into a state of stress and the need to quickly adapt to new ways of daily activity. COVID-19 has a negative impact on all elements of health: social, physical and mental. Pharmacotherapy, as well as protective measures (isolation, wearing masks and maintaining physical distance) did not give the expected results. Vaccination has not yet led to herd immunity, so it is still jeopardizing every aspect of human health (1, 2). Non-pharmacological methods, such as stress and sleep control, physical activity and contact with nature are of great importance since they can significantly contribute to staying healthy during a pandemic. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of non-pharmacological measures such as stress and sleep control (with different measures against the negative effects of anxiety and depression on mental state) and the possible positive impact of "forest bathing" on improving the immune response to the virus and its consequences. Methods: Available evidence-based studies on ways to com- bat stress and the effect of the proposed measures on human mental health and the im- mune system were analyzed. From the mentioned studies, recommended measures have been registered, which refer to stress and sleep control, diet and eating habits, contact with nature ("forest bathing", gardening), virtual communication and meditation (mindfulness practice). Results and Discussion: The combined results of these studies indicate that COVID-19 has a chronic course and complications that significantly affect the physical, mental and emotional state of the patient. Proven positive effects of non-pharmacological measures can be applied in the daily practice of primary health care in the comprehensive fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: Non-pharmacological measures such as stress and sleep control, spending time in nature, healthy diet, and physical activity may improve the immune response to COVID-19. These measures, with their positive effects on all aspects of health, can make a major contribution to controlling and improving the quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Holistic Health , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Naturopathy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Quality of Life
14.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 107, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerges in China, which spreads rapidly and becomes a public health emergency of international concern. Chinese government has promptly taken quarantine measures to block the transmission of the COVID-19, which may cause deleterious consequences on everyone's behaviors and psychological health. Few studies have examined the associations between behavioral and mental health in different endemic areas. This study aimed to describe screen time (ST), physical activity (PA), and depressive symptoms, as well as their associations among Chinese college students according to different epidemic areas. METHODS: The study design is cross-sectional using online survey, from 4 to 12 February 2020, 14,789 college students accomplished this online study, participants who did not complete the questionnaire were excluded, and finally this study included 11,787 college students from China. RESULTS: The average age of participants was 20.51 ± 1.88 years. 57.1% of the college students were male. In total, 25.9% of college students reported depression symptoms. ST > 4 h/day was positively correlated with depressive symptoms (ß = 0.48, 95%CI 0.37-0.59). COVID-19ST > 1 h/day was positively correlated with depressive symptoms (ß = 0.54, 95%CI 0.43-0.65), compared with COVID-19ST ≤ 0.5 h/day. Compared with PA ≥ 3 day/week, PA < 3 day/week was positively associated with depression symptoms (ß = 0.01, 95%CI 0.008-0.012). Compared with low ST and high PA, there was an interaction association between high ST and low PA on depression (ß = 0.31, 95%CI 0.26-0.36). Compared with low COVID-19ST and high PA, there was an interaction association between high COVID-19ST and low PA on depression (ß = 0.37, 95%CI 0.32-0.43). There were also current residence areas differences. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified that high ST or low PA was positively associated with depressive symptoms independently, and there was also an interactive effect between ST and PA on depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Exercise , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Screen Time , Students/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Time Factors , Universities , Young Adult
15.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E957-E965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the harms associated with tobacco use, continuing the provision of smoking cessation treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic is critical. The aim of this study was to examine pandemic-related changes in enrolment, total treatment use and participant characteristics in a large, publicly funded smoking cessation program in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of patients who enrolled in the program between Jan. 1, 2018, and Dec. 7, 2020. We used descriptive statistics to examine changes in treatment use. To test for differences in sociodemographic and health variables, we used segmented mixed-effects regression with a break point on Mar. 17, 2020, when Ontario declared a state of emergency. We tested 25 variables, using Holm's correction for multiplicity. RESULTS: We analyzed 60 373 enrolments. In the month after the break point, enrolments fell 69% and total visits fell 42% relative to previous years. After Mar. 17, 2020, those who enrolled were less likely to report employment in the previous week (absolute expected difference -12.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -15.0% to -9.8%); were more likely to be occasional (1.3%, 95% CI 0.6% to 1.9%) or noncurrent smokers (1.7%, 95% CI 0.8% to 2.6%); were less likely to have set a target quit date (-4.8%, 95% CI -7.0% to -2.6%); and were more likely to have a physical health (6.6%, 95% CI 4.0% to 9.2%), mental health (4.6%, 95% CI 1.9% to 7.2%) or substance use diagnosis (3.5%, 95% CI 1.3% to 5.6%). INTERPRETATION: Sharp decreases in new enrolments and subsequent visits to smoking cessation programs were seen when pandemic restrictions were implemented in Ontario, but the characteristics of the people who accessed the programs did not change markedly. Incorporating an equity perspective is essential when new models of care for smoking cessation are developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Smoking Prevention/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking Cessation/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use/prevention & control
16.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 37, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has seriously affected people's mental health and changed their behaviors. Previous studies for mental state and behavior promotion only targeted limited people or were not suitable for daily activity restrictions. Therefore, we decided to explore the effect of health education videos on people's mental state and health-related behaviors. METHODS: Based on WeChat, QQ, and other social media, we conducted an online survey by snowball sampling. Spearman's non-parametric method was used to analyze the correlation related to mental health problems and health-related behaviors. Besides, we used binary logistic regression analyses to examine mental health problems and health-related behaviors' predictors. We performed SPSS macro PROCESS (model 4 and model 6) to analyze mediation relationships between exposure to health education videos and depression/anxiety/health-related behaviors. These models were regarded as exploratory. RESULTS: Binary logistic regression analyses indicated that people who watched the health education videos were more likely to wear masks (OR 1.15, p < 0.001), disinfect (OR 1.26, p < 0.001), and take temperature (OR 1.37, p < 0.001). With higher level of posttraumatic growth (PTG) or perceived social support (PSS), people had lower percentage of depression (For PSS, OR 0.98, p < 0.001; For PTG, OR 0.98, p < 0.01) and anxiety (For PSS, OR 0.98, p < 0.001; For PTG, OR 0.98, p = 0.01) and better health behaviors. The serial multiple-mediation model supported the positive indirect effects of exposure to health education videos on the depression and three health-related behaviors through PSS and PTG (Depression: B[SE] = - 0.0046 [0.0021], 95% CI - 0.0098, - 0.0012; Mask-wearing: B[SE] = 0.0051 [0.0023], 95% CI 0.0015, 0.0010; Disinfection: B[SE] = 0.0059 [0.0024], 95% CI 0.0024, 0.0012; Temperature-taking: B[SE] = 0.0067 [0.0026], 95% CI 0.0023, 0.0013). CONCLUSION: Exposure to health education videos can improve people's self-perceived social support and inner growth and help them cope with the adverse impact of public health emergencies with better mental health and health-related behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Behavior , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , China , Female , Health Education/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Social Support , Young Adult
17.
Aust J Rural Health ; 29(5): 753-767, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health and well-being of rural paramedics, police, community nursing and child protection staff. METHOD: An online survey was distributed to investigate the sources of stress and support across individual, task and organisational domains. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The survey was completed by 1542 paramedics, police, community nurses and child protection workers from all states and territories of Australia. This study describes the data for the 632 rural participants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main measures of well-being were the Public Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), the Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD7), the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), workplace engagement, intention to quit and COVID-19-related stress. RESULTS: The mean depression and anxiety scores were 8.2 (PHQ9) and 6.8 (GAD7). This is 2-3 times that found in the general community. Over half (56.1%) of respondents showed high emotional exhaustion (burnout). The emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment mean scores were 28.5, 9.3 and 34.2, respectively. The strongest associations with burnout and psychological distress were workload, provision of practical support, training and organisational communication. A significant proportion of respondents were seriously considering quitting (27.4%) or looking for a new job with a different employer (28.5%) in the next 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has increased the workload and stress on rural front-line community staff. The major sources of stress were related to organisations' responses to COVID-19 and not COVID-19 per se. The data suggest the most effective mental health interventions are practical and preventive, such as firstly ensuring fair and reasonable workloads.


Subject(s)
Allied Health Personnel/psychology , Burnout, Professional , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/psychology , Police/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workload
18.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(5): 477-484, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443167

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The paper aims to provide an overview of the psychological and behavioural impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, with a focus on variations in behavioural response in different geographical areas due to the existence of different social-cultural contexts. RECENT FINDINGS: Whilst anxiety, depression and economic stressors are common findings worldwide, specific behavioural responses are heavily influenced by government stances, misinformation, conspiratorialism and competing demands of resource scarcity. This has led to very different understandings of the pandemic even in geographically close areas, and more so when comparing disparate regions such as Africa, South America and Europe. The paper also comments on the absence of robust evidence regarding increases of suicidality and violence on a global level, whilst noting evidence certainly exists in specific regions. SUMMARY: The psychological and behavioural impact of COVID is heavily influenced by the local lens. Beyond a very broad brush approaches, expected behaviours from one area cannot easily be extrapolated to others. Where possible, clinicians should be guided by local data, ideally placing expectations of responses in a cultural context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological , Anxiety , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Am J Public Health ; 111(9): 1610-1619, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435675

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To describe disparities in depression, anxiety, and problem drinking by sexual orientation, sexual behavior, and gender identity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. Data were collected May 21 to July 15, 2020, from 3245 adults living in 5 major US metropolitan areas (Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; New Orleans, Louisiana; New York, New York; and Los Angeles, California). Participants were characterized as cisgender straight or LGBTQ+ (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people, and men who have sex with men, and women who have sex with women not identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender). Results. Cisgender straight participants had the lowest levels of depression, anxiety, and problem drinking compared with all other sexual orientation, sexual behavior, and gender identity groups, and, in general, LGBTQ+ participants were more likely to report that these health problems were "more than usual" during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions. LGBTQ+ communities experienced worse mental health and problem drinking than their cisgender straight counterparts during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future research should assess the impact of the pandemic on health inequities. Policymakers should consider resources to support LGBTQ+ mental health and substance use prevention in COVID-19 recovery efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
20.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604219, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430753

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Children's mental health and wellbeing declined during the first COVID-19 lockdown (Spring 2020), particularly among those from disadvantaged settings. We compared mental health and wellbeing of school-aged children observed pre-pandemic in 2018 and after the first lockdown was lifted and schools reopened in Fall 2020. Methods: In 2018, we surveyed 476 grade 4-6 students (9-12 years old) from 11 schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities in Northern Canada that participate in a school-based health promotion program targeting healthy lifestyle behaviours and mental wellbeing. In November-December 2020, we surveyed 467 grade 4-6 students in the same schools. The 12 questions in the mental health and wellbeing domain were grouped based on correlation and examined using multivariable logistic regression. Results: There were no notable changes pre-pandemic vs. post-lockdown in responses to each of the 12 questions or any of the sub-groupings. Conclusion: Supporting schools to implement health promotion programs may help mitigate the impact of the pandemic on children's mental health and wellbeing. The findings align with recent calls for schools to remain open as long as possible during the pandemic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health , Communicable Disease Control , Mental Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Poverty Areas , Schools/organization & administration , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
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