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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261616, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pragmatic challenges remain in the monitoring and return to play (RTP) decisions following suspected Sports Related Concussion (SRC). Reliance on traditional approaches (pen and paper) means players readiness for RTP is often based on self-reported symptom recognition as a marker for full physiological recovery. Non-digital approaches also limit opportunity for robust data analysis which may hinder understanding of the interconnected nature and relationships in deficit recovery. Digital approaches may provide more objectivity to measure and monitor impairments in SRC. Crucially, there is dearth of protocols for SRC assessment and digital devices have yet to be tested concurrently (multimodal) in SRC rugby union assessment. Here we propose a multimodal protocol for digital assessment in SRC, which could be used to enhance traditional sports concussion assessment approaches. METHODS: We aim to use a repeated measures observational study utilising a battery of multimodal assessment tools (symptom, cognitive, visual, motor). We aim to recruit 200 rugby players (male n≈100 and female n≈100) from University Rugby Union teams and local amateur rugby clubs in the North East of England. The multimodal battery assessment used in this study will compare metrics between digital methods and against traditional assessment. CONCLUSION: This paper outlines a protocol for a multimodal approach for the use of digital technologies to augment traditional approaches to SRC, which may better inform RTP in rugby union. Findings may shed light on new ways of working with digital tools in SRC. Multimodal approaches may enhance understanding of the interconnected nature of impairments and provide insightful, more objective assessment and RTP in SRC. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04938570. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=NCT04938570&term=&cntry=&state=&city=&dist=.


Subject(s)
Athletic Injuries/diagnosis , Brain Concussion/diagnosis , Wearable Electronic Devices , Adult , Eye-Tracking Technology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Young Adult
2.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 50(6): 535-540, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574687

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Geriatric assessment as an integrative part of assessment is a composite of a large number of scales. Sometimes it is difficult to transfer all of them. The Norton Scale Score (NSS) assesses the degree of risk to develop bedsores. In previous studies, a correlation between Norton Scale and function was found. A correlation between Norton Scale and cognitive assessments was not evaluated yet. The aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between Norton Scale Score and cognitive impairment. This association can further facilitate geriatric assessment in frail older patients, especially in older patients with communicative difficulties. METHODS: We have performed an observational cohort study which included hip fractured older patients consecutively admitted to the rehabilitation ward of the Shmuel Harofe Geriatric Medical Center. The collected data included demographic data and data on chronic illnesses. Results of cognitive status assessment (Mini-Mental State Examination - MMSE) and Norton Scale assessment were received from the computerized patients' charts. We evaluated the association between these 2 scales. RESULTS: The study included 224 consecutive hip fracture patients with a mean age of 81.78 ± 7.19 years. Norton scores at admission, age, education, and previous stroke emerged as the only statistically significant parameters differing between those with cognitive decline and those without it. After adjusting for confounding variables, lower Norton scores at admission (OR 1.303, CI: 1.097-1.548, p = 0.003) were associated with an increased risk finding for cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between Norton Scale Scores and cognitive impairment. Norton score parameters, under certain circumstances, such as speech and other communication difficulties, can be used as a proxy measure for MMSE to indicate cognitive impairment. These findings can be even more helpful in the present time of "COVID-19," when we have to evaluate older patients with facial masks and other defensive suits.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Hip Fractures , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Hip Fractures/psychology , Humans , Mental Status and Dementia Tests
3.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 33(11): 1135-1144, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Appropriate screening is integral to the early diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's Dementia (AD). The Paired Associates Learning (PAL) task is a digital cognitive task that is free of cultural, language, and educational biases. This study examined the association between the PAL task performance and global cognition and the usefulness of the PAL task as a screening tool for AD. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Academic hospital. METHODS: Twenty-five participants with AD and 22 healthy comparators (HC) were included. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery PAL task and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were used to assess cognition. We assessed the relationship between the PAL task and MoCA performance using Pearson correlation and linear regression. We also examined the PAL task's ability to distinguish between AD and HC participants using Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. MEASUREMENTS: MoCA Total Score had a strong positive correlation with PAL Stages Completed score (r = 0.8, p < 0.001), and a strong negative correlation with PAL Total Errors (adjusted) score (r = -0.9, p < 0.001). Further, PAL Total Errors (adjusted) score predicted the MoCA Total Score (F (4, 46) = 37.2, p < 0.001). On ROC analysis, PAL Total Errors (adjusted) score cut-off of 54 errors had 92% sensitivity and 86% specificity to detect AD. CONCLUSIONS: Performance on the PAL task is highly associated with global cognition. Further, the PAL task can differentiate patients with AD from HCs with high sensitivity and specificity. Thus, the PAL task may hold potential usage as an easy-to-administer screening tool for AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Neuropsychological Tests , ROC Curve
4.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 94: 96-98, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540890

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Management of PD has largely been affected by COVID-19. Due to the restrictions posed by COVID-19, there has been a shift from in-person to online forms of assessment. This presents a challenge as not all motor symptoms can be assessed virtually. Two of the four cardinal symptoms of PD (rigidity and postural instability) cannot be assessed virtually using the gold-standard Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III). As a result, an accurate total motor severity score can not be computed from the remaining subsections. Recently, one study stated that in order for accurate scores to be calculated, only three sections could be absent. Virtually, six sections are unable to be evaluated with online assessments. This inability to compute a total motor severity score may result in poor disease management. Thus, in this study a regression equation was developed to predict total motor severity scores from partial scores. METHODS: Total motor severity scores (UPDRS-III) from N = 234 individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's were retrospectively analyzed. In order to conduct a linear regression analysis predictor and outcome variables were created. The variables were then used for the linear regression. The equation was then tested on an independent data set N = 1168. RESULTS: The regression analysis resulted in the equation to predict total motor symptom severity of PD. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the developed equation will be very useful for outreach in rural communities, as well as the continued remote management of PD during COVID-19 and beyond.


Subject(s)
Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Neurologic Examination , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19 , Humans , Linear Models , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Statistics as Topic
6.
Neurol Sci ; 43(1): 81-84, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathic features, COVID-19 patients may show cognitive sequelae that negatively affect functional outcomes. However, although cognitive screening has been recommended in recovered individuals, little is known about which instruments are suitable to this scope by also accounting for clinical status. This study thus aimed at comparatively assessing the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in detecting cognitive deficits in post-COVID-19 patients premorbidly/contextually being or not at risk for cognitive deficits (RCD + ; RCD-). METHODS: Data from N = 100 COVID-19-recovered individuals having been administered both the MMSE and the MoCA were retrospectively analyzed separately for each group. RCD ± classification was performed by taking into consideration both previous and disease-related conditions. Equivalent scores (ESs) were adopted to examine classification performances of the two screeners. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable as for most background and cognitive measures. MMSE or MoCA adjusted scores were mostly unrelated to disease-related features. The two screeners yielded similar estimates of below-cut-off performances-RCD + : MMSE: 20%, MoCA: 23.6%; RCD-: MMSE: 2.2%, MoCA: 4.4%. However, agreement rates dropped when also addressing borderline, "low-end" normal, and normal ability categories-with the MoCA attributing lower levels than the MMSE (RCD + : Cohen's k = .47; RCD-: Cohen's k = .17). DISCUSSION: Although both the MMSE and the MoCA proved to be equally able to detect severe cognitive sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection in both RCD + and RCD- patients, the MoCA appeared to be able to reveal sub-clinical defects and more sharply discriminate between different levels of ability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Neuropsychological Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Neurol Sci ; 43(1): 51-58, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465874

ABSTRACT

Psychological, emotional, and behavioral domains could be altered in COVID-19 patients and measurement of variables within these domains seems to be mandatory. Neuropsychological assessment could detect possible cognitive impairment caused by COVID-19 and the choice of appropriate tools is an important question. Aim of this exploratory study was to verify the effectiveness of an assessment model for patients with COVID-19. Twelve patients were enrolled and tested with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Anxiety and Depression Short Scale (AD-R), and the Neuropsychiatry Inventory (NPI), at the time of their entrance (T0) and discharge (T1) from a rehabilitative unit. Moreover, a follow-up evaluation after 3 months (T2) has been conducted on eight patients. Results showed that at baseline (T0), 58.3% of the patients reported a score below cut-off at MMSE and 50% at MoCA. Although a significant amelioration was found only in NPI scores, a qualitative improvement has been detected at all tests, except for MoCA scores, in the T0-T1 trend analysis. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant variation in AD-R depression score, considering the three-assessment time (T0, T1, and T2). The evaluation and tracking over time of the impact of COVID-19 on cognitive, psychological, and behavioral domains has relevant implications for rehabilitation and long-term assistance needs planning. The choice of assessment tools should consider patients vulnerability and match the best compromise among briefness, sensitivity, and specificity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Neuropsychological Tests , Preliminary Data , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Neurol Sci ; 43(2): 1395-1403, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333078

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of COVID-19 disease in the elderly can accelerate normal degenerative process of cognitive functions. Interactive cognitive-motor training (CMT) is an intervention that integrates cognitive and motor tasks to promote individuals' physical and psychological health. The present study aimed to examine the effect of CMT on reconstructing cognitive health components in older men, who have recently recovered from COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a quasi-experimental repeated measure (without control group). Participants were 42 elderly men (65-80 years) who recovered from the COVID-19 disease that individually participated in a 4-week CMT program twice a week. The cognitive health components of the participants were assessed by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-2) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at 3 stages before the beginning of the intervention (baseline assessment); 2 weeks after the intervention (short-term follow-up); and 3 months after the intervention (long-term follow-up). RESULTS: The results showed that the scores of depression, anxiety, physical symptoms, and social performance components and the overall GHQ score improved significantly in short-term follow-up (P < 0.05) and also in long-term follow-up compared to baseline assessment (P < 0.05). It was also found that attention and calculation, recall, lingual skill, and action performance components and the overall score of MMSE were also improved at three stages of assessments. Other components did not differ among stages. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using CMT for reconstructing cognitive health components in older adults, recovered from the COVID-19, and supports CMT as a viable intervention practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Attention , Cognition , Humans , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Brain ; 144(4): 1263-1276, 2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313840

ABSTRACT

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, neurological symptoms increasingly moved into the focus of interest. In this prospective cohort study, we assessed neurological and cognitive symptoms in hospitalized coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients and aimed to determine their neuronal correlates. Patients with reverse transcription-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection who required inpatient treatment primarily because of non-neurological complications were screened between 20 April 2020 and 12 May 2020. Patients (age > 18 years) were included in our cohort when presenting with at least one new neurological symptom (defined as impaired gustation and/or olfaction, performance < 26 points on a Montreal Cognitive Assessment and/or pathological findings on clinical neurological examination). Patients with ≥2 new symptoms were eligible for further diagnostics using comprehensive neuropsychological tests, cerebral MRI and 18fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET as soon as infectivity was no longer present. Exclusion criteria were: premorbid diagnosis of cognitive impairment, neurodegenerative diseases or intensive care unit treatment. Of 41 COVID-19 inpatients screened, 29 patients (65.2 ± 14.4 years; 38% female) in the subacute stage of disease were included in the register. Most frequently, gustation and olfaction were disturbed in 29/29 and 25/29 patients, respectively. Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance was impaired in 18/26 patients (mean score 21.8/30) with emphasis on frontoparietal cognitive functions. This was confirmed by detailed neuropsychological testing in 15 patients. 18FDG PET revealed pathological results in 10/15 patients with predominant frontoparietal hypometabolism. This pattern was confirmed by comparison with a control sample using voxel-wise principal components analysis, which showed a high correlation (R2 = 0.62) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance. Post-mortem examination of one patient revealed white matter microglia activation but no signs of neuroinflammation. Neocortical dysfunction accompanied by cognitive decline was detected in a relevant fraction of patients with subacute COVID-19 initially requiring inpatient treatment. This is of major rehabilitative and socioeconomic relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
11.
COPD ; 18(4): 443-448, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284829

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2020, many governments have been imposing confinement and physical distancing measures. No data exist on the effects of lockdowns on the health status of patients affected by chronic pathologies, specifically those with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Our study aims to establish variations across the psychological and cognitive profile of patients during the isolation period in Italy, in a cohort of patients affected by COPD, between February and May 2020. Forty patients with established COPD were comprehensively evaluated by geriatric multidimensional assessment before the spread of the epidemic in Italy, and submitted to a second evaluation during the subsequent lockdown. We assessed functional ability, basic and instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL and IADL), cognition and mood status. We compared the scores obtained at baseline against those obtained during the pandemic, and used mean differences for correlation with major clinical and functional indexes. The score differences from MMSE, ADL and IADL were statistically significant. Such differences were correlated to the presence of a caregiver and to the total number of family members living together. Remarkably, the loneliness dimension, more than the restrictions themselves, seemed to represent the major determinant of altered health status and depressed psycho-cognitive profile in our population. Also remarkably, we detected no correlation between the score variation and the respiratory function indexes of disease severity. The isolation measures adopted during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic have triggered the classic clinical string associated to geriatric isolation, which leads to a deterioration of cognitive functions, independence and frailty levels in a population affected by a chronic degenerative disease, such as COPD. If considered from a multidimensional geriatric point of view, the individual benefit of isolation measures could be small or non-existent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognition/physiology , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health , Physical Distancing , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/psychology , Activities of Daily Living , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Health Status , Humans , Italy , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Int J Rehabil Res ; 44(3): 285-288, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280160

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized as a sequela of COVID-19. It is unknown how cognition changes and relates to functional gain during inpatient rehabilitation. We administered the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) at admission to 77 patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation for COVID-19 in a large US academic medical center. Forty-five patients were administered the MoCA at discharge. Functional gain was assessed by change in the quality indicator for self-care (QI-SC). In the full sample, 80.5% of patients exhibited cognitive impairment on admission, which was associated with prior delirium. Among 45 patients with retest data, there were significant improvements in MoCA and QI-SC. QI-SC score gain was higher in patients who made clinically meaningful changes on the MoCA, an association that persisted after accounting for age and delirium history. Cognitive impairment is frequent among COVID-19 patients, but improves over time and is associated with functional gain during inpatient rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cognition/physiology , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2741-2744, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the ongoing D-CARE pragmatic trial of two models of dementia care management needed to transition to all data collection by telephone. METHODS: For the first 1069 D-CARE participants, we determined the feasibility of administering a short 3-item version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to persons with dementia by telephone and examined the correlation with the full 12-item version. RESULTS: The 3-item version could be administered by telephone in approximately 6 min and was highly correlated with the full MoCA (r = 0.78, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This brief version of the MoCA was feasible to collect by telephone and could be used as an alternative to the full MoCA, particularly if the purpose of cognitive assessment is characterization of study participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Patient Care Management , Telemedicine/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/psychology , Dementia/therapy , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Interviews as Topic/methods , Male , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/trends , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(6): 1429-1440, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Virtual (i.e., telephone or videoconference) care was broadly implemented because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our objectives were to compare the diagnostic accuracy of virtual to in-person cognitive assessments and tests and barriers to virtual cognitive assessment implementation. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CDSR, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, and gray literature (inception to April 1, 2020). PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Studies describing the accuracy or reliability of virtual compared with in-person cognitive assessments (i.e., reference standard) for diagnosing dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), identifying virtual cognitive test cutoffs suggestive of dementia or MCI, or describing correlations between virtual and in-person cognitive test scores in adults. MEASUREMENTS: Reviewer pairs independently conducted study screening, data abstraction, and risk of bias appraisal. RESULTS: Our systematic review included 121 studies (15,832 patients). Two studies demonstrated that virtual cognitive assessments could diagnose dementia with good reliability compared with in-person cognitive assessments: weighted kappa 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.62) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.4-0.9), respectively. Videoconference-based cognitive assessments were 100% sensitive and specific for diagnosing dementia compared with in-person cognitive assessments in a third study. No studies compared telephone with in-person cognitive assessment accuracy. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS; maximum score 41) and modified TICS (maximum score 50) were the only virtual cognitive tests compared with in-person cognitive assessments in >2 studies with extractable data for meta-analysis. The optimal TICS cutoff suggestive of dementia ranged from 22 to 33, but it was 28 or 30 when testing was conducted in English (10 studies; 1673 patients). Optimal modified TICS cutoffs suggestive of MCI ranged from 28 to 31 (3 studies; 525 patients). Sensory impairment was the most often voiced condition affecting assessment. CONCLUSION: Although there is substantial evidence supporting virtual cognitive assessment and testing, we identified critical gaps in diagnostic certainty.


Subject(s)
Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Neuropsychological Tests/standards , Humans , Mental Status and Dementia Tests/standards , Telecommunications , Telemedicine
15.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 50(1): 68-73, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hyposmia is frequently reported as an initial symptom in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: As hyposmia accompanies cognitive impairment in several neurological disorders, we aimed to study whether hyposmia represents a clinical biomarker for both neurological involvement and cognitive impairment in mild CO-VID-19. We aimed to study whether olfactory dysfunction (OD) represents a clinical biomarker for both neurological involvement and cognitive impairment in mild COVID-19. METHODS: Formal olfactory testing using the Sniffin'Sticks® Screening test, neuropsychological assessment using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and detailed neurological examination were performed in 7 COVID-19 patients with mild disease course and no history of olfactory or cognitive impairment, and 7 controls matched for age, sex, and education. Controls were initially admitted to a dedicated COVID-19 screening ward but tested negative by real-time PCR. RESULTS: The number of correctly identified odors was significantly lower in COVID-19 than in controls (6 ± 3, vs. 10 ± 1 p = 0.028, r = 0.58). Total MoCA score was significantly lower in COVID-19 patients than in controls (20 ± 5 vs. 26 ± 3, p = 0.042, r = 0.54). Cognitive performance indicated by MoCA was associated with number of correctly identified odors in COVID-19 patients and controls (COVID-19: p = 0.018, 95% CI = 9-19; controls: p = 0.18, r = 0.63, 95% CI = 13-18.5 r = 0.64). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: OD is associated with cognitive impairment in controls and mild COVID-19. OD may represent a potentially useful clinical biomarker for subtle and even subclinical neurological involvement in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anosmia/pathology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Brain ; 144(4): 1263-1276, 2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169654

ABSTRACT

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, neurological symptoms increasingly moved into the focus of interest. In this prospective cohort study, we assessed neurological and cognitive symptoms in hospitalized coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients and aimed to determine their neuronal correlates. Patients with reverse transcription-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection who required inpatient treatment primarily because of non-neurological complications were screened between 20 April 2020 and 12 May 2020. Patients (age > 18 years) were included in our cohort when presenting with at least one new neurological symptom (defined as impaired gustation and/or olfaction, performance < 26 points on a Montreal Cognitive Assessment and/or pathological findings on clinical neurological examination). Patients with ≥2 new symptoms were eligible for further diagnostics using comprehensive neuropsychological tests, cerebral MRI and 18fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET as soon as infectivity was no longer present. Exclusion criteria were: premorbid diagnosis of cognitive impairment, neurodegenerative diseases or intensive care unit treatment. Of 41 COVID-19 inpatients screened, 29 patients (65.2 ± 14.4 years; 38% female) in the subacute stage of disease were included in the register. Most frequently, gustation and olfaction were disturbed in 29/29 and 25/29 patients, respectively. Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance was impaired in 18/26 patients (mean score 21.8/30) with emphasis on frontoparietal cognitive functions. This was confirmed by detailed neuropsychological testing in 15 patients. 18FDG PET revealed pathological results in 10/15 patients with predominant frontoparietal hypometabolism. This pattern was confirmed by comparison with a control sample using voxel-wise principal components analysis, which showed a high correlation (R2 = 0.62) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance. Post-mortem examination of one patient revealed white matter microglia activation but no signs of neuroinflammation. Neocortical dysfunction accompanied by cognitive decline was detected in a relevant fraction of patients with subacute COVID-19 initially requiring inpatient treatment. This is of major rehabilitative and socioeconomic relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
17.
J Clin Neurosci ; 88: 39-46, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157516

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a global concern, and the psychological impact cannot be overlooked. Our purpose was to evaluate the anxiety and depression in spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) patients during the pandemic and to analyse the influencing factors. We conducted an online questionnaire survey among 307 SCA patients from China and selected 319 healthy people matched by sex and age as the control group. The questionnaire included general information, the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), and the self-rating depression scale (SDS). The relevant factors included COVID-19 risk factors, age, sex, body mass index (BMI), educational background, disease course, score on the scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA), Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). The proportion of SCA patients with anxiety was 34.9%, and the proportion with depression was 56.7%. The SAS and SDS scores of the SCA patients were significantly higher than those of the control group (SAS: 45.8 ± 10.1 vs. 40.6 ± 8.9, P < 0.01; SDS: 55.1 ± 12.2 vs. 43.6 ± 11.9, P < 0.01). In SCA3, the risk of exposure to COVID-19, educational level, disease course and the severity of ataxia may be factors affecting patients' mental health. More attention should be paid to the mental health of SCA patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Pandemics , Spinocerebellar Ataxias/complications , Spinocerebellar Ataxias/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Body Mass Index , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Self Report , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246590, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069629

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 complications can include neurological, psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial impairments. Little is known on the consequences of SARS-COV-2 on cognitive functions of patients in the sub-acute phase of the disease. We aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on cognitive functions of patients admitted to the COVID-19 Rehabilitation Unit of the San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 87 patients admitted to the COVID-19 Rehabilitation Unit from March 27th to June 20th 2020 were included. Patients underwent Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Data were divided in 4 groups according to the respiratory assistance in the acute phase: Group1 (orotracheal intubation), Group2 (non-invasive ventilation using Biphasic Positive Airway Pressure), Group3 (Venturi Masks), Group4 (no oxygen therapy). Follow-ups were performed at one month after home-discharge. RESULTS: Out of the 87 patients (62 Male, mean age 67.23 ± 12.89 years), 80% had neuropsychological deficits (MoCA and MMSE) and 40% showed mild-to-moderate depression. Group1 had higher scores than Group3 for visuospatial/executive functions (p = 0.016), naming (p = 0.024), short- and long-term memory (p = 0.010, p = 0.005), abstraction (p = 0.024), and orientation (p = 0.034). Group1 was younger than Groups2 and 3. Cognitive impairments correlated with patients' age. Only 18 patients presented with anosmia. Their data did not differ from the other patients. FIM (<100) did not differ between groups. Patients partly recovered at one-month follow-up and 43% showed signs of post-traumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSION: Patients with severe functional impairments had important cognitive and emotional deficits which might have been influenced by the choice of ventilatory therapy, but mostly appeared to be related to aging, independently of FIM scores. These findings should be integrated for correct neuropsychiatric assistance of COVID-19 patients in the subacute phase of the disease, and show the need for long-term psychological support and treatment of post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Cognition Disorders/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
19.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(1): 155-158, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996630

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report the cognitive features of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) entering the postacute phase, to understand whether COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome itself could result in long-term cognitive deficits, and to determine whether neuropsychological treatment after the acute stage might represent a specific rehabilitation need. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: We assessed the general cognitive functioning through tablet-supported video calls in 9 of 12 consecutive patients (N=9) admitted to the hospital at least 30 days earlier for acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID-19. Three patients were excluded based on the exclusion criteria. None of the patients presented cognitive symptoms before hospitalization. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: General cognitive functioning, measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test. RESULTS: A general cognitive decay was observed in 3 patients (33.3%) who had a pathologic score on the MMSE, with a specific decline in attention, memory, language, and praxis abilities. The cognitive malfunctioning appears to be linearly associated with the length of stay (in d) in the intensive care unit (ICU). The longer the amount of time spent in the ICU, the lower the MMSE score, indicating a lower global cognitive functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that some patients with COVID-19 might also benefit from neuropsychological rehabilitation, given their possible global cognitive decay. The link between neuropsychological functioning and the length of stay in the ICU suggests that neurocognitive rehabilitative treatments should be directed explicitly toward patients who treated in the ICU, rather than toward every patient who experienced acute respiratory distress syndrome owing to COVID-19. However, given the limitation of a case series study, those hypotheses should be tested with future studies with larger samples and a longer follow-up period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/rehabilitation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Subacute Care/methods , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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