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1.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 9636897211054481, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511642

ABSTRACT

Biological and cellular interleukin-6 (IL-6)-related therapies have been used to treat severe COVID-19 pneumonia with hyperinflammatory syndrome and acute respiratory failure, which prompted further exploration of the role of IL-6 in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were responders cocultured with hUCMSCs or exogenous IL-6. A PBMC suppression assay was used to analyze the anti-inflammatory effects via MTT assay. The IL-6 concentration in the supernatant was measured using ELISA. The correlation between the anti-inflammatory effect of hUCMSCs and IL-6 levels and the relevant roles of IL-6 and IL-6 mRNA expression was analyzed using the MetaCore functional network constructed from gene microarray data. The location of IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression was further evaluated. We reported that hUCMSCs did not initially exert any inhibitory effect on PHA-stimulated proliferation; however, a potent inhibitory effect on PHA-stimulated proliferation was observed, and the IL-6 concentration reached approximately 1000 ng/mL after 72 hours. Exogenous 1000 ng/mL IL-6 inhibited PHA-stimulated inflammation but less so than hUCMSCs. The inhibitory effects of hUCMSCs on PHA-stimulated PBMCs disappeared after adding an IL-6 neutralizing antibody or pretreatment with tocilizumab (TCZ), an IL-6R antagonist. hUCMSCs exert excellent anti-inflammatory effects by inducing higher IL-6 levels, which is different from TCZ. High concentration of IL-6 cytokine secretion plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effect of hUCMSC therapy. Initial hUCMSC therapy, followed by TCZ, seems to optimize the therapeutic potential to treat COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Combined Modality Therapy , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Phytohemagglutinins/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Umbilical Cord/cytology
2.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 948-961, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498509

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The primary pathogenesis is over-activation of the immune system. SARS-CoV-2 continues to mutate and spread rapidly and no effective treatment options are yet available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to induce anti-inflammatory macrophages, regulatory T cells and dendritic cells. There are a rapidly increasing number of clinical investigations of cell-based therapy approaches for COVID-19. Objective: To summarize the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2, and systematically formulated the immunomodulation of COVID-19 by MSCs and their exosomes, as well as research progress. Method: Searching PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and Chictr.cn for eligible studies to be published or registered by May 2021. Main keywords and search strategies were as follows: ((Mesenchymal stem cells) OR (MSCs)) AND (COVID-19). Results: MSCs regulate the immune system to prevent cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and to promote endogenous repair by releasing various paracrine factors and exosomes. Conclusions: MSC therapy is thus a promising candidate for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/transplantation , Immunomodulation/immunology , Lung Injury/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Exosomes/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Lung Injury/physiopathology , Lung Injury/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Regeneration/immunology , Regeneration/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 10(11): 1482-1490, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490914

ABSTRACT

As our life expectancy increases, specific medical conditions appear, and new challenges are met in terms of global health. Frailty has become a medical and scientific concept to define pathologies where inflammation, depressed immune system, cellular senescence, and molecular aging converge. But more importantly, frailty is the ultimate cause of death that limits our life span and deteriorates health in an increasing proportion of the world population. The difficulty of tackling this problem is the combination of factors that influence frailty appearance, such as stem cells exhaustion, inflammation, loss of regeneration capability, and impaired immunomodulation. To date, multiple research fields have found mechanisms participating in this health condition, but to make progress, science will need to investigate frailty with an interdisciplinary approach. This article summarizes the current efforts to understand frailty from their processes mediated by inflammation, aging, and stem cells to provide a new perspective that unifies the efforts in producing advanced therapies against medical conditions in the context of frailty. We believe this approach against frailty is particularly relevant to COVID-19, since people in a state of frailty die more frequently due to the hyperinflammatory process associated with this infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Inflammation/complications , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Aging/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Frailty/etiology , Frailty/therapy , Humans , Immunomodulation/physiology , Inflammation/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Regeneration/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/physiology
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 738697, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477824

ABSTRACT

The severe respiratory consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have prompted the urgent need for novel therapies. Cell-based therapies, primarily using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), have demonstrated safety and potential efficacy in the treatment of critical illness, particularly sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there are limited preclinical data for MSCs in COVID-19. Recent studies have shown that MSCs could decrease inflammation, improve lung permeability, enhance microbe and alveolar fluid clearance, and promote lung epithelial and endothelial repair. In addition, MSC-based therapy has shown promising effects in preclinical studies and phase 1 clinical trials in sepsis and ARDS. Here, we review recent advances related to MSC-based therapy in the context of sepsis and ARDS and evaluate the potential value of MSCs as a therapeutic strategy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/therapy
5.
Stem Cells Dev ; 30(19): 947-969, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462261

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is considered one of the most promising treatments in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the safety and effectiveness of MSCs in the treatment of COVID-19-associated pneumonia patients need to be systematically reviewed and analyzed. Two independent researchers searched for relevant studies published between October 2019 and April 2021 in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, WAN FANG, and CNKI databases. All relevant randomized controlled trials, clinically controlled studies, retrospective studies, case reports, letters (with valid data), and case series were included in this meta-analysis. A fixed-effects model and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to analyze the results. A total of 22 studies involving 371 patients were included in the present study. Allogeneic MSCs from umbilical cord, adipose tissue, menstrual blood, placental tissue, Wharton's jelly, or unreported sources were administered in 247 participants. Combined results revealed that MSC therapy significantly reduced the incidence of adverse events [AEs; odds ratio (OR) = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.22-0.84, P = 0.01] and mortality (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.06-0.49, P < 0.01), and the difference compared with control group was statistically significant. No serious MSC treatment-related AEs were reported. Lung function, radiographic outcomes, and inflammation- and immunity-related biomarker levels all showed improving trends. Therefore, MSC therapy is an effective and safe method for the treatment of COVID-19-associated pneumonia and shows advantages in reducing AEs and mortality. However, a standard and effective MSC treatment program must be developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Allografts , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Humans
6.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444117

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells present in virtually all tissues; they have a potent self-renewal capacity and can differentiate into multiple cell types. They also affect the ambient tissue by the paracrine secretion of numerous factors in vivo, including the induction of other stem cells' differentiation. In vitro, the culture media supernatant is named secretome and contains soluble molecules and extracellular vesicles that retain potent biological function in tissue regeneration. MSCs are considered safe for human treatment; their use does not involve ethical issues, as embryonic stem cells do not require genetic manipulation as induced pluripotent stem cells, and after intravenous injection, they are mainly found in the lugs. Therefore, these cells are currently being tested in various preclinical and clinical trials for several diseases, including COVID-19. Several affected COVID-19 patients develop induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with an uncontrolled inflammatory response. This condition causes extensive damage to the lungs and may leave serious post-COVID-19 sequelae. As the disease may cause systemic alterations, such as thromboembolism and compromised renal and cardiac function, the intravenous injection of MSCs may be a therapeutic alternative against multiple pathological manifestations. In this work, we reviewed the literature about MSCs biology, focusing on their function in pulmonary regeneration and their use in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Lung/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Regeneration/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Differentiation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Culture Media , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Inflammation , Mice , Mice, SCID , Phenotype , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/immunology , Thromboembolism/therapy
7.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther ; 16(4): 465-480, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435707

ABSTRACT

The cause of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) known as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, formerly designated 2019-nCoV) was first discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. It then spread rapidly worldwide. Investigation for the discovery of drugs to cure this disease continues. The currently accepted treatments are supportive, but there is no specific disease curing intervention found yet. Since mid-February, therapies involving Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSCs) have been proposed for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. In light of these recent developments, this review will focus on: i) the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 action and the subsequent pathology in COVID-19, ii) the proposed mechanism( s) of outcome-improving action of MSCs or MSC-derived extracellular vesicles in COVID-19 pneumonia, iii) registered MSC-based clinical trials and interventions for the treatment of COVID-19, iv) published case studies/series/trials reporting the use of MSC-based treatments in COVID-19 cases, and finally v) the need for authority regulations and clinical guidelines for MSCbased treatment strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/standards , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther ; 16(4): 406-413, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435705

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis of the 21st Century. There are currently no approved vaccines and no particular anti-viral treatment for coronavirus disease. As COVID-19 has a broad range of illnesses, it is necessary to find a safe and effective therapeutic method for COVID-19. An attractive approach for treating COVID-19 is cell therapy. Cell therapy aims to inject new and healthy stem cells into a patient's body, to repair the damaged cells and tissues. Stem cell therapy is one of the most studied and important approaches in the treatment of COVID-19 these days. The significant clinical outcome was observed by the adoptive transfer of stem cells, specifically mesenchymal stem cells. This study reviews the characteristics of stem cells and clinical trials that have used stem cells in treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/virology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods
9.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 249, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have significant immunomodulatory and tissue repair capabilities, mediated partly by conditioned media or through secreted extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs). Infection with SARS-CoV-2 can cause mild to life-threatening illness due to activated immune responses that may be dampened by MSCs or their secretome. Many clinical studies of MSCs have been launched since the beginning of the global pandemic, however, few have been completed and most lack power to assess efficacy. Repeated systematic searches and meta-analyses are needed to understand, in real time, the extent of potential benefit in different patient populations as the evidence emerges. METHODS: This living systematic review will be maintained to provide up-to-date information as the pandemic evolves. A systematic literature search of Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases will be performed. All clinical studies (e.g., randomized, pseudorandomized and non-randomized controlled trials, uncontrolled trials, and case series) employing MSCs or their secretome as a therapeutic intervention for COVID-19 will be included. Patients must have confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Study screening and data extraction will be performed in duplicate. Information concerning interventions, patient populations, methods of MSC isolation and characterization, primary and secondary clinical and/or laboratory outcomes, and adverse events will be extracted. Key clinical outcomes will be pooled through random-effects meta-analysis to determine the efficacy of MSCs and their secreted products for COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Our systematic review and subsequent updates will inform the scientific, medical, and health policy communities as the pandemic evolves to guide decisions on the appropriate use of MSC-related products to treat COVID-19. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD 42021225431.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 339, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402052

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has placed a global public burden on health authorities. Although the virological characteristics and pathogenesis of COVID-19 has been largely clarified, there is currently no specific therapeutic measure. In severe cases, acute SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to immune disorders and damage to both the adaptive and innate immune responses. Having roles in immune regulation and regeneration, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) serving as a therapeutic option may regulate the over-activated inflammatory response and promote recovery of lung damage. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, a series of MSC-therapy clinical trials has been conducted. The findings indicate that MSC treatment not only significantly reduces lung damage, but also improves patient recovery with safety and good immune tolerance. Herein, we summarize the recent progress in MSC therapy for COVID-19 and highlight the challenges in the field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Lung Injury/therapy , Lung/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lung Injury/immunology , Lung Injury/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/pathology
11.
Life Sci ; 284: 119901, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370629

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a serious viral infection that struck the world in December 2019 starting from Wuhan in China, spreading subsequently to all over the world. The disease has baffled scientists and doctors worldwide in terms of its presentation, behaviour, and treatment options till now. A low mortality rate is the only relief we get so far from COVID-19 in terms of numbers. Treatment options have gradually streamlined to steroids and very few FDA approved antiviral as well as plasma therapy and supportive treatment. Monoclonal antibodies are used to tide over any impending cytokine storm but are not equally effective in all patients. Ventilation support is invariably required for moderate to severe disease varying from a simple High Flow non-rebreathing mask to BiPAP (Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure) and HFNO (High-Flow Nasal Oxygen) extending to full-fledge ventilation via a Mechanical Ventilator. Because of the non-availability of satisfactory treatment so far, many researchers from different biomedical fields are looking for alternative therapeutic strategies to manage the pandemic. One such therapeutic approach showing a ray of hope to combat COVID-19 infection is Mesenchymal stem cell therapy. Mesenchymal cells have immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory as well as regenerative properties and various preliminary studies have shown that MSCs can reverse the lung damage and overcome the cytokine storm incited by COVID-19 infection. Also, it has improved the recovery rate of critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation. In this review, we will discuss the possibility and relevance of MSCs in COVID-19 treatment and preview of various MSCs clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunity
12.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 470, 2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365384

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic interstitial disease of the lung with poor prognosis and without effective treatment currently. Data from previous coronavirus infections, such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, as well as current clinical evidence from the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), support that SARS-CoV-2 infection may lead to PF, seriously impacting patient prognosis and quality of life. Therefore, effective prevention and treatment of PF will improve patient prognosis and reduce the overall social and economic burdens. Stem cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have many great advantages, including migration to damaged lung tissue and secretion of various paracrine factors, thereby regulating the permeability of endothelial and epithelial cells, reducing inflammatory response, promoting tissue repair and inhibiting bacterial growth. Clinical trials of MSCs for the treatment of acute lung injury, PF and severe and critically ill COVID-19 are ongoing. The purpose of this study is to systematically review preclinical studies, explored the effectiveness of MSCs in the treatment of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis and analyze the potential mechanism, combined with clinical trials of current MSCs for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and COVID-19, so as to provide support for clinical research and transformation of MSCs. Searching PubMed and Embase (- 2021.4) identified a total of 36 preclinical studies of MSCs as treatment of BLM-induced acute lung injury and PF in rodent models. Most of the studies showed the MSCs treatment to reduce BLM-induced lung tissue inflammatory response, inflammatory cell infiltration, inflammatory cytokine expression, extracellular matrix production and collagen deposition, and to improve Ashcroft score. The results of present studies indicate that MSCs may serve as a potential therapeutic modality for the treatment of PF, including viral-induced PF and IPF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Bleomycin/adverse effects , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Quality of Life
13.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 469, 2021 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365383

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. The virus causes an exaggerated immune response, resulting in a cytokine storm and acute respiratory distress syndrome, the leading cause of COVID-19-related mortality and morbidity. So far, no therapies have succeeded in circumventing the exacerbated immune response or cytokine storm associated with COVID-19. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), through their immunomodulatory and regenerative activities, mostly mediated by their paracrine effect and extracellular vesicle production, have therapeutic potential in many autoimmune, inflammatory, and degenerative diseases. In this paper, we review clinical studies on the use of MSCs for COVID-19 treatment, including the salutary effects of MSCs on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and the immunomodulation of the cytokine storm. Ongoing clinical trial designs, cell sources, dose and administration, and populations are summarized, and the paracrine mode of benefit is discussed. We also offer suggestions for optimizing MSC-based therapies, including genetic engineering, strategies for cell surface modification, nanotechnology applications, and combination therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 726909, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359195

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used in preclinical and clinical trials for various diseases and have shown great potential in the treatment of sepsis and coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Inflammatory factors play vital roles in the pathogenesis of diseases. The interaction between inflammatory factors is extremely complex. Once the dynamics of inflammatory factors are unbalanced, inflammatory responses and cytokine storm syndrome develop, leading to disease exacerbation and even death. Stem cells have become ideal candidates for the treatment of such diseases due to their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms by which stem cells affect inflammation and immune regulation are still unclear. This article discusses the therapeutic mechanism and potential value of MSCs in the treatment of sepsis and the novel COVID-19, outlines how MSCs mediate innate and acquired immunity at both the cellular and molecular levels, and described the anti-inflammatory mechanisms and related molecular pathways. Finally, we review the safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy in these two diseases at the preclinical and clinical levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341694

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has strongly revived the pressing need to incorporate new therapeutic alternatives to deal with medical situations that result in a dramatic breakdown in the body's normal homeostasis [...].


Subject(s)
Acute Disease/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Treatment/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Regenerative Medicine/methods , Acute Disease/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Trials as Topic , Emergency Service, Hospital , Emergency Treatment/trends , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Regenerative Medicine/trends , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335093

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represents a current challenge for medicine due to its incidence, morbidity and mortality and, also, the absence of an optimal treatment. The COVID-19 outbreak only increased the urgent demand for an affordable, safe and effective treatment for this process. Early clinical trials suggest the therapeutic usefulness of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS. MSC-based therapies show antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, regenerative, angiogenic, antifibrotic, anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic actions, which can thwart the physiopathological mechanisms engaged in ARDS. In addition, MSC secretome and their derived products, especially exosomes, may reproduce the therapeutic effects of MSC in lung injury. This last strategy of treatment could avoid several safety issues potentially associated with the transplantation of living and proliferative cell populations and may be formulated in different forms. However, the following diverse limitations must be addressed: (i) selection of the optimal MSC, bearing in mind both the heterogeneity among donors and across different histological origins, (ii) massive obtention of these biological products through genetic manipulations of the most appropriate MSC, (iii) bioreactors that allow their growth in 3D, (iv) ideal culture conditions and (v) adequate functional testing of these obtaining biological products before their clinical application.


Subject(s)
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Acute Lung Injury/complications , Acute Lung Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/transplantation , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/chemistry , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology
17.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 425, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329119

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the rapid global spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has caused healthcare systems to collapse and led to hundreds of thousands of deaths. The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 is not only limited to local pneumonia but also represents multiple organ involvement, with potential for systemic complications. One year after the pandemic, pathophysiological knowledge has evolved, and many therapeutic advances have occurred, but mortality rates are still elevated in severe/critical COVID-19 cases. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can exert immunomodulatory, antiviral, and pro-regenerative paracrine/endocrine actions and are therefore promising candidates for MSC-based therapies. In this review, we discuss the rationale for MSC-based therapies based on currently available preclinical and clinical evidence of safety, potential efficacy, and mechanisms of action. Finally, we present a critical analysis of the risks, limitations, challenges, and opportunities that place MSC-based products as a therapeutic strategy that may complement the current arsenal against COVID-19 and reduce the pandemic's unmet medical needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Pandemics
18.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(5): 1917-1925, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328652

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Treatment for COVID-19 is still urgent need for the critically ill and severe cases. UC-MSC administration has a therapeutic benefit for severe COVID-19 patients even in the recovery period. In this paper, we aimed to present our clinical experience with UC-MSC treatment in severe and critical severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this study we evaluated the clinical outcome of severe/critically severe 210 COVID-19 patients treated with UC-MSCs, 1-2 × 106 per kilogram to 210 patients from 15/10/2020 until 25/04/2021. RESULTS: Out of 99 critically severe intubated patients we have observed good clinical progress/discharged from ICU in 52 (52.5%) patients. Where as 86 (77.5%) of 111 severe unintubated patients discharged from ICU. Intubated 47 (47.5%) patients and unintubated 25 (22.5%) patients pass away. Significantly higher survival was observed in patients who underwent UC-MSCs before intubation (OR = 1.475, 95% CI = 1.193-1.824 p < 0.001). It was observed that the SaO2 parameter tended to improve after UC-MSC therapy compared to all groups. But SaO2 parameter between intubated and unintubated groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05), while in discharged cases SaO2 parameter was statistically significant (p = 0.01). Besides, there was a statistically significant relation with intubation status, age (OR = 3.868, 95% CI = 0.574-7.152 p = 0.02) and weigh (OR = 6.768, 95% CI = 3.423-10.112 p < 0.001) thus presented an elevated risk for COVID-19. The linear regression analysis confirmed that the high weight was associated with the risk of intubation in COVID-19 (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: According to our results and from recent studies, UC-MSC treatment is safe with high potential to be used as an added therapeutic treatment for severe COVID-19 patients. Our experience showed that UC-MSC therapy may restore oxygenation and downregulate cytokine storm in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. We advice wider randomised studies to discover the detailed therapeutic pathophysiology of the MSCs on COVID-19 patients. MSCs transplantation improves the damaging effects of the cytokine storm through immunomodulation and improving tissue and organ repair. Severe patients who were unintubated were in the Phase I, while critical patients who were intubated were in the Phase II. The figure is created via biorender application, ( BioRender.com ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Allografts , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Turkey
19.
Hum Cell ; 34(6): 1585-1600, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316345

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a kind of multipotent stem cells with self-renewal ability and multi-differentiation ability, have become the "practical stem cells" for the treatment of diseases. MSCs have immunomodulatory properties and can be used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Crohn's disease. MSCs also can be used in cancer and aging. At present, many clinical experiments are using MSCs. MSCs can reduce the occurrence of inflammation and apoptosis of tissue cells, and promote the proliferation of endogenous tissue and organ cells, so as to achieve the effect of repairing tissue and organs. MSCs presumably also play an important role in Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Animals , Apoptosis , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Cell Proliferation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/trends , Crohn Disease/therapy , Humans , Immunomodulation , Inflammation , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Mice , Neoplasms/therapy
20.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 404, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314278

ABSTRACT

The recent COronaVIrus Disease (COVID)-19 pandemic has placed an unprecedented burden on the drug development opportunity to prevent the onset of multi-organ failure.Emerging experimental reports have highlighted the beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration against COVID-19. MSCs and their derived exosomes may attenuate SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammatory response through managing the immune cell function and cytokine expression. Although these are promising results, the exposure of MSCs to chemical compounds with pharmacological activities may further improve their homing, survival, and paracrine machinery.Nicorandil (N-[2-hydroxyethyl]-nicotinamide nitrate), an established adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, is recently hypothesized to modulate inflammation as well as cell injury and death in COVID-19-affected lungs through inhibiting reactive oxygen species levels and apoptosis. Since it also exerts protective effects against hypoxia-induced MSC apoptosis, we assumed that transplanted MSCs combined to long-term nicorandil administration may survive longer in a severely inflamed microenvironment and have more beneficial effects in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection than MSCs alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure , Nicorandil/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
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