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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 963445, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141996

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung disease. It may occur during the pancytopenia phase following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). ARDS is rare following HCT. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have strong anti-inflammatory effect and first home to the lung following intravenous infusion. MSCs are safe to infuse and have almost no side effects. During the Covid-19 pandemic many patients died from ARDS. Subsequently MSCs were evaluated as a therapy for Covid-19 induced ARDS. We report three patients, who were treated with MSCs for ARDS following HCT. Two were treated with MSCs derived from the bone marrow (BM). The third patient was treated with MSCs obtained from the placenta, so-called decidua stromal cells (DSCs). In the first patient, the pulmonary infiltrates cleared after infusion of BM-MSCs, but he died from multiorgan failure. The second patient treated with BM-MSCs died of aspergillus infection. The patient treated with DSCs had a dramatic response and survived. He is alive after 7 years with a Karnofsky score of 100%. We also reviewed experimental and clinical studies using MSCs or DSCs for ARDS. Several positive reports are using MSCs for sepsis and ARDS in experimental animals. In man, two prospective randomized placebo-controlled studies used adipose and BM-MSCs, respectively. No difference in outcome was seen compared to placebo. Some pilot studies used MSCs for Covid-19 ARDS. Positive results were achieved using umbilical cord and DSCs however, optimal source of MSCs remains to be elucidated using randomized trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Male , Animals , Female , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Prospective Studies , Pandemics , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects
2.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 11(11): 1103-1112, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051544

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe COVID-19 experience cytokine storm, an uncontrolled upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which if unresolved leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), organ damage, and death. Treatments with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) [Viswanathan S, Shi Y, Galipeau J, et al. Mesenchymal stem versus stromal cells: International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy Mesenchymal Stromal Cell committee position statement on nomenclature. Cytotherapy. 2019;21:1019-1024] appear to be effective in reducing morbidity and mortality. MSC respond to pro-inflammatory cytokines by releasing anti-inflammatory factors and mobilizing immune cells. We analyzed 82 COVID-19 clinical trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov to determine MSC dosing, routes of administration, and outcome measures. Nearly all trials described the use of intravenous delivery with most doses ranging between 50 and 125 million MSC/treatment, which overlaps with a minimal effective dose range that we described previously. We also searched the literature to analyze clinical trial reports that used MSC to treat COVID-19. MSC were found to improve survival and oxygenation, increase discharge from intensive care units and hospitals, and reduce levels of pro-inflammatory markers. We report on a 91-year-old man with severe COVID-19 who responded rapidly to MSC treatment with transient reductions in several pro-inflammatory markers and delayed improvement in oxygenation. The results suggest that frequent monitoring of pro-inflammatory markers for severe COVID-19 will provide improved treatment guidelines by determining relationships between cytokine storms and ARDS. We propose that markers for cytokine storm are leading indicators for ARDS and that measurement of cytokines will indicate earlier treatment with MSC than is performed now for ARDS in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Male , Humans , Aged, 80 and over , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Cytokines
3.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 365, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High morbidity and mortality rates of the COVID-19 pandemic have made it a global health priority. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most important causes of death in COVID-19 patients. Mesenchymal stem cells have been the subject of many clinical trials for the treatment of ARDS because of their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative potentials. The aim of this phase I clinical trial was the safety assessment of allogeneic placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PL-MSCs) intravenous injection in patients with ARDS induced by COVID-19. METHODS: We enrolled 20 patients suffering from ARDS caused by COVID-19 who had been admitted to the intensive care unit. PL-MSCs were isolated and propagated using a xeno-free/GMP compliant protocol. Each patient in the treatment group (N = 10) received standard treatment and a single dose of 1 × 106 cells/kg PL-MSCs intravenously. The control groups (N = 10) only received the standard treatment. Clinical signs and laboratory tests were evaluated in all participants at the baseline and during 28 days follow-ups. RESULTS: No adverse events were observed in the PL-MSC group. Mean length of hospitalization, serum oxygen saturation, and other clinical and laboratory parameters were not significantly different in the two groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that intravenous administration of PL-MSCs in patients with COVID-19 related ARDS is safe and feasible. Further studies whit higher cell doses and repeated injections are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment modality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT); IRCT20200621047859N4. Registered 1 March 2021, https://en.irct.ir/trial/52947 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Iran , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957348

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been a major public health challenge worldwide. Owing to the emergence of novel viral variants, the risks of reinfections and vaccine breakthrough infections has increased considerably despite a mass of vaccination. The formation of cytokine storm, which subsequently leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome, is the major cause of mortality in patients with COVID-19. Based on results of preclinical animal models and clinical trials of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, the immunomodulatory, tissue repair, and antiviral properties of MSCs highlight their potential to treat COVID-19. This review article summarizes the potential mechanisms and outcomes of MSC therapy in COVID-19, along with the pathogenesis of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The properties of MSCs and lessons from preclinical animal models of acute lung injury are mentioned ahead. Important issues related to the use of MSCs in COVID-19 are discussed finally.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Acute Lung Injury/therapy , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Immunomodulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Models, Animal , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Cytotherapy ; 24(8): 755-766, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914577

ABSTRACT

Currently, treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, particularly those afflicted with severe pneumonia, is challenging, as no effective pharmacotherapy for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) exists. Severe pneumonia is recognized as a clinical syndrome characterized by hyper-induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, which can induce organ damage, followed by edema, dysfunction of air exchange, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute cardiac injury, secondary infection and increased mortality. Owing to the immunoregulatory and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), we aimed to outline current insights into the clinical application of MSCs in COVID-19 patients. Based on results from preliminary clinical investigations, it can be predicted that MSC therapy for patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 is safe and effective, although multiple clinical trials with a protracted follow-up will be necessary to determine the long-term effects of the treatment on COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 283, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the devastating complication of the new COVID-19 pandemic, directly correlated with releasing large amounts of inflammatory cytokines. Due to their immunoregulatory features, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) provide a promising approach against this disease. In this regard, this study was designed as a single-center, open-label, phase 1 clinical trial with a control group to examine the safety and explore the possible potency of three injections of umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) in mild-moderate COVID-19-induced ARDS patients. METHODS: Twenty confirmed COVID-19 patients with mild-to-moderate ARDS degree entered the study and were divided into two groups: control group (standard care) and intervention group (standard care + UC-MSCs). The patients received three intravenous infusions of UC-MSCs (1 × [Formula: see text] cells/kg BW per injection) every other day. Respiratory markers, CRP levels and specific serum cytokines were assessed four times (days of 0, 5, 10 and 17) during the 17-day follow-up period. RESULTS: During the study, there were no serious adverse effects after cell transplantations. Besides, significant improvement in SPO2/FIO2 ratio and serum CRP levels was observed. On the other hand, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in serum cytokine levels of IL-6, IFN-g, TNF-α, IL-17 A and a significant increase in serum cytokine levels of TGF-B, IL-1B and IL-10 were observed. Also, no significant changes were observed in CT scan images of patients during the study period. CONCLUSION: Our obtained results demonstrated that multiple intravenous transplantations of allogenic UC-MSCs in non-severe COVID-19-induced ARDS patients are a safe procedure. In addition, this intervention is a hopeful approach to decline cytokine storm and recover respiratory functions. Indeed, more clinical trials with larger sample sizes are required to confirm these results. Trial registration This clinical trial was registered with the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (ID: IRCT20160809029275N1 at 2020.05.30).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Control Groups , Cytokines , Humans , Iran , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
7.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 18(6): 2152-2163, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scientists have been facing numerous challenges in the development of an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia. Several studies have suggested that improving patient immunity and reducing lung injury induced by SARS-CoV-2 may be effective for treating patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A pilot trial of nebulization therapy with exosomes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was performed on seven patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Exosomes secreted from MSCs were collected and purified using multiple ultrafiltration steps. All patients were treated with nebulization of MSC-derived exosomes, and primary safety and efficacy outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Our clinical study demonstrated that nebulization of MSC-derived exosomes is a novel method that might be utilized in the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia. Nebulization of MSC-derived exosomes did not induce acute allergic or secondary allergic reactions but did promote the absorption of pulmonary lesions and reduce the duration of hospitalization for mild cases of COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Nebulization of MSC-derived exosomes is a safe, effective, and simple method, and their application at the beginning of treatment may be more beneficial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2000030261. Registered on 26 February 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Umbilical Cord
8.
Cytotherapy ; 24(8): 835-840, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AIMS: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) resulting from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a massive release of inflammatory cytokines and high mortality. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have anti-inflammatory properties and have shown activity in treating acute lung injury. Here the authors report a case series of 11 patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS (CARDS) requiring mechanical ventilation who were treated with remestemcel-L, an allogeneic MSC product, under individual patient emergency investigational new drug applications. METHODS: Patients were eligible if they were mechanically ventilated for less than 72 h prior to the first infusion. Patients with pre-existing lung disease requiring supplemental oxygen or severe liver or kidney injury were excluded. Each patient received two infusions of remestemcel-L at a dose of 2 million cells/kg per infusion given 48-120 h apart. RESULTS: Remestemcel-L infusions were well tolerated in all 11 patients. At the end of the 28-day follow-up period, 10 (91%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 59-100%) patients were extubated, nine (82%, 95% CI, 48-97%) patients remained liberated from mechanical ventilation and were discharged from the intensive care unit and two (18%, 95 CI%, 2-52%) patients died. The median time to extubation was 10 days. Eight (73%, 95% CI, 34-100%) patients were discharged from the hospital. C-reactive protein levels significantly declined within 5 days of MSC infusion. CONCLUSIONS: The authors demonstrate in this case series that remestemcel-L infusions to treat moderate to severe CARDS were safe and well tolerated and resulted in improved clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Biological Products , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
9.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(9): 2483-2504, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832115

ABSTRACT

As the number of confirmed cases and resulting death toll of the COVID-19 pandemic continue to increase around the globe - especially with the emergence of new mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in addition to the known alpha, beta, gamma, delta and omicron variants - tremendous efforts continue to be dedicated to the development of interventive therapeutics to mitigate infective symptoms or post-viral sequelae in individuals for which vaccines are not accessible, viable or effective in the prevention of illness. Many of these investigations aim to target the associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, or ARDS, which induces damage to lung epithelia and other physiologic systems and is associated with progression in severe cases. Recently, stem cell-based therapies have demonstrated preliminary efficacy against ARDS based on a number of preclinical and preliminary human safety studies, and based on promising outcomes are now being evaluated in phase II clinical trials for ARDS. A number of candidate stem cell therapies have been found to exhibit low immunogenicity, coupled with inherent tropism to injury sites. In recent studies, these have demonstrated the ability to modulate suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine signals such as those characterizing COVID-19-associated ARDS. Present translational studies are aiming to optimize the safety, efficacy and delivery to fully validate stem cell-based strategies targeting COVID-19 associated ARDS for viable clinical application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
EBioMedicine ; 77: 103920, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788048

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has caused a global pandemic since late 2019 that resulted in more than 360 million population infection. Among them, less than 7% of infected individuals develop severe or critical illness. Mass vaccination has been carried out, but reinfection and vaccine breakthrough cases still occur. Besides supportive and antiviral medications, much attention has been paid in immunotherapies that aim at reducing pathological changes in the lungs. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is used as an option because of their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative properties. As of January 16, 2022, when ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for "Mesenchymal stem cells and COVID-19," over 80 clinical trials were registered. MSC therapy was found to be safe and some effective in preclinical and clinical studies. Here, we summarize the major pathological characteristics of COVID-19 and provide scientific and rational evidence for the safety and possible effectiveness of MSCs in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 134, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to their immunomodulatory properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed to have therapeutic potential to improve clinical outcomes in COVID-19. However, the safety and efficacy profile of MSC infusion therapy in patients with non-severe COVID-19 infection has not been completely established; there is, in particular, a substantial void in the literature on dose-dependent studies of MSC infusion in patients with low clinical risk COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This phase 1 double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial examines the safety, feasibility, and tolerability of 2 doses (high and low) of DW-MSC in patients with low clinical risk COVID-19. A total of 9 patients were enrolled in this study and randomized into low-dose (TL), high-dose (TH), and placebo (C) groups. Subjects in the TL and TH groups received single intravenous infusions of 5.0 × 107 cells and 1.0 × 108 cells, respectively. The main outcome was the occurrence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE) during the 28-day study period. Vital signs and various inflammatory markers were also monitored weekly during the observation period. RESULTS: There were no apparent differences in clinical characteristics between study groups (TL, TH, and C) at baseline. All patients did not show the progression of severity during the study period. During the course of the study, 6 episodes of TEAE were observed in 5 subjects; however, none of the TEAEs were severe. During the follow-up period, 8 subjects recovered and were discharged from the hospital without complications. A subject exhibited abnormal liver function biomarkers at the end of the study period. Changes in inflammatory markers throughout the clinical course were not vastly different across study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical trial has provided reliable results regarding the safety of MSCs in low clinical risk COVID-19 subjects treated with MSCs. However, further confirmation of the therapeutic efficacy aspects of MSC will require large-scale randomized controlled trials in subjects with varying severity profiles for COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04535856. Registered 2 September 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04535856.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , COVID-19/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753510

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common clinical problem, leading to significant morbidity and mortality, and no effective pharmacotherapy exists. The problem of ARDS causing mortality became more apparent during the COVID-19 pandemic. Biotherapeutic products containing multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MMSC) secretome may provide a new therapeutic paradigm for human healthcare due to their immunomodulating and regenerative abilities. The content and regenerative capacity of the secretome depends on cell origin and type of cultivation (two- or three-dimensional (2D/3D)). In this study, we investigated the proteomic profile of the secretome from 2D- and 3D-cultured placental MMSC and lung fibroblasts (LFBs) and the effect of inhalation of freeze-dried secretome on survival, lung inflammation, lung tissue regeneration, fibrin deposition in a lethal ALI model in mice. We found that three inhaled administrations of freeze-dried secretome from 2D- and 3D-cultured placental MMSC and LFB protected mice from death, restored the histological structure of damaged lungs, and decreased fibrin deposition. At the same time, 3D MMSC secretome exhibited a more pronounced trend in lung recovery than 2D MMSC and LFB-derived secretome in some measures. Taking together, these studies show that inhalation of cell secretome may also be considered as a potential therapy for the management of ARDS in patients suffering from severe pneumonia, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), however, their effectiveness requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/therapy , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Culture Techniques , Female , Fibrin , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mice , Pandemics , Placenta , Pregnancy , Proteomics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 122, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a multisystem disease that presents acute and persistent symptoms, the postacute sequelae (PASC). Long-term symptoms may be due to consequences from organ or tissue injury caused by SARS-CoV-2, associated clotting or inflammatory processes during acute COVID-19. Various strategies are being chosen by clinicians to prevent severe cases of COVID-19; however, a single treatment would not be efficient in treating such a complex disease. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are known for their immunomodulatory properties and regeneration ability; therefore, they are a promising tool for treating disorders involving immune dysregulation and extensive tissue damage, as is the case with COVID-19. This study aimed to assess the safety and explore the long-term efficacy of three intravenous doses of UC-MSCs (umbilical cord MSCs) as an adjunctive therapy in the recovery and postacute sequelae reduction caused by COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is one of the few reports that presents the longest follow-up after MSC treatment in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This was a phase I/II, prospective, single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventeen patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who require intensive care surveillance and invasive mechanical ventilation-critically ill patients-were included. The patient infusion was three doses of 5 × 105 cells/kg UC-MSCs, with a dosing interval of 48 h (n = 11) or placebo (n = 6). The evaluations consisted of a clinical assessment, viral load, laboratory testing, including blood count, serologic, biochemical, cell subpopulation, cytokines and CT scan. RESULTS: The results revealed that in the UC-MSC group, there was a reduction in the levels of ferritin, IL-6 and MCP1-CCL2 on the fourteen day. In the second month, a decrease in the levels of reactive C-protein, D-dimer and neutrophils and an increase in the numbers of TCD3, TCD4 and NK lymphocytes were observed. A decrease in extension of lung damage was observed at the fourth month. The improvement in all these parameters was maintained until the end of patient follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: UC-MSCs infusion is safe and can play an important role as an adjunctive therapy, both in the early stages, preventing severe complications and in the chronic phase with postacute sequelae reduction in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Trial registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC), UTN code-U1111-1254-9819. Registered 31 October 2020-Retrospectively registered, https://ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-3fz9yr.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Cytotherapy ; 24(6): 639-649, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) and their secreted products are a promising therapy for COVID-19 given their immunomodulatory and tissue repair capabilities. Many small studies were launched at the onset of the pandemic, and repeated meta-analysis is critical to obtain timely and sufficient statistical power to determine efficacy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All English-language published studies identified in our systematic search (up to February 3, 2021) examining the use of MSC-derived products to treat patients with COVID-19 were identified. Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed for all studies. Nine studies were identified (189 patients), four of which were controlled (93 patients). Three of the controlled studies reported on mortality (primary analysis) and were pooled through random-effects meta-analysis. MSCs decreased the risk of death at study endpoint compared with controls (risk ratio, 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 0.74; P = .02; I2 = 0%), although follow-up differed. Among secondary outcomes, interleukin-6 levels were most commonly reported and were decreased compared with controls (standardized mean difference, -0.69; 95% CI, -1.15 to -0.22; P = .004; I2 = 0%) (n = 3 studies). Other outcomes were not reported consistently, and pooled estimates of effect were not performed. Substantial heterogeneity was observed between studies in terms of study design. Adherence to published ISCT criteria for MSC characterization was low. In two of nine studies, RoB analysis revealed a low to moderate risk of bias in controlled studies, and uncontrolled case series were of good (3 studies) or fair (2 studies) quality. CONCLUSION: Use of MSCs to treat COVID-19 appears promising; however, few studies were identified, and potential risk of bias was detected in all studies. More controlled studies that report uniform clinical outcomes and use MSC products that meet standard ISCT criteria should be performed. Future iterations of our systematic search should refine estimates of efficacy and clarify potential adverse effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(3): 142, 2022 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707928

ABSTRACT

As a result of cross-species transmission in December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) became a serious endangerment to human health and the causal agent of a global pandemic. Although the number of infected people has decreased due to effective management, novel methods to treat critical COVID-19 patients are still urgently required. This review describes the origins, pathogenesis, and clinical features of COVID-19 and the potential uses of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in therapeutic treatments for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients. MSCs have previously been shown to have positive effects in the treatment of lung diseases, such as acute lung injury, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung cancer, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. MSC mechanisms of action involve differentiation potentials, immune regulation, secretion of anti-inflammatory factors, migration and homing, anti-apoptotic properties, antiviral effects, and extracellular vesicles. Currently, 74 clinical trials are investigating the use of MSCs (predominately from the umbilical cord, bone marrow, and adipose tissue) to treat COVID-19. Although most of these trials are still in their early stages, the preliminary data are promising. However, long-term safety evaluations are still lacking, and large-scale and controlled trials are required for more conclusive judgments regarding MSC-based therapies. The main challenges and prospective directions for the use of MSCs in clinical applications are discussed herein. In summary, while the clinical use of MSCs to treat COVID-19 is still in the preliminary stages of investigation, promising results indicate that they could potentially be utilized in future treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Humans
16.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667054

ABSTRACT

The novel pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are currently utilized in clinics for pulmonary inflammatory diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury. Given that MSCs offer a promising treatment against COVID-19, they are being used against COVID-19 in more than 70 clinical trials with promising findings. Genetically engineered MSCs offer promising therapeutic options in pulmonary diseases. However, their potential has not been explored yet. In this review, we provide perspectives on the functionally modified MSCs that can be developed and harnessed for COVID-19 therapy. Options to manage the SARS-CoV-2 infection and its variants using various bioengineering tools to increase the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Bioengineering/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(1): 228-234, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532813

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has become a serious public health emergency. The virus targets cells by binding the ACE2 receptor. After infection, the virus triggers in some humans an immune storm containing the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines followed by multiple organ failure. Several vaccines are enrolled, but an effective treatment is still missing. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown to secrete immunomodulatory factors that suppress this cytokine storm. Therefore, MSCs have been suggested as a potential treatment option for COVID-19. We report here that the ACE2 expression is minimal or nonexistent in MSC derived from three different human tissue sources (adipose tissue, umbilical cord Wharton`s jelly and bone marrow). In contrast, TMPRSS2 that is implicated in SARS-CoV-2 entry has been detected in all MSC samples. These results are of particular importance for future MSC-based cell therapies to treat severe cases after COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Umbilical Cord/cytology , Umbilical Cord/metabolism
18.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 948-961, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498509

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The primary pathogenesis is over-activation of the immune system. SARS-CoV-2 continues to mutate and spread rapidly and no effective treatment options are yet available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to induce anti-inflammatory macrophages, regulatory T cells and dendritic cells. There are a rapidly increasing number of clinical investigations of cell-based therapy approaches for COVID-19. Objective: To summarize the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2, and systematically formulated the immunomodulation of COVID-19 by MSCs and their exosomes, as well as research progress. Method: Searching PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and Chictr.cn for eligible studies to be published or registered by May 2021. Main keywords and search strategies were as follows: ((Mesenchymal stem cells) OR (MSCs)) AND (COVID-19). Results: MSCs regulate the immune system to prevent cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and to promote endogenous repair by releasing various paracrine factors and exosomes. Conclusions: MSC therapy is thus a promising candidate for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/transplantation , Immunomodulation/immunology , Lung Injury/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Exosomes/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Lung Injury/physiopathology , Lung Injury/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Regeneration/immunology , Regeneration/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
19.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 10(11): 1482-1490, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490914

ABSTRACT

As our life expectancy increases, specific medical conditions appear, and new challenges are met in terms of global health. Frailty has become a medical and scientific concept to define pathologies where inflammation, depressed immune system, cellular senescence, and molecular aging converge. But more importantly, frailty is the ultimate cause of death that limits our life span and deteriorates health in an increasing proportion of the world population. The difficulty of tackling this problem is the combination of factors that influence frailty appearance, such as stem cells exhaustion, inflammation, loss of regeneration capability, and impaired immunomodulation. To date, multiple research fields have found mechanisms participating in this health condition, but to make progress, science will need to investigate frailty with an interdisciplinary approach. This article summarizes the current efforts to understand frailty from their processes mediated by inflammation, aging, and stem cells to provide a new perspective that unifies the efforts in producing advanced therapies against medical conditions in the context of frailty. We believe this approach against frailty is particularly relevant to COVID-19, since people in a state of frailty die more frequently due to the hyperinflammatory process associated with this infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Inflammation/complications , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Aging/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Frailty/etiology , Frailty/therapy , Humans , Immunomodulation/physiology , Inflammation/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Regeneration/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/physiology
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 738697, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477824

ABSTRACT

The severe respiratory consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have prompted the urgent need for novel therapies. Cell-based therapies, primarily using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), have demonstrated safety and potential efficacy in the treatment of critical illness, particularly sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there are limited preclinical data for MSCs in COVID-19. Recent studies have shown that MSCs could decrease inflammation, improve lung permeability, enhance microbe and alveolar fluid clearance, and promote lung epithelial and endothelial repair. In addition, MSC-based therapy has shown promising effects in preclinical studies and phase 1 clinical trials in sepsis and ARDS. Here, we review recent advances related to MSC-based therapy in the context of sepsis and ARDS and evaluate the potential value of MSCs as a therapeutic strategy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/therapy
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