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1.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2285-2289, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826502

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered multipotent progenitors with the capacity to differentiate into mesoderm-like cells in many species. The immunosuppressive properties of MSCs are important for downregulating inflammatory responses. Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) is the etiological agent of a poult mortality syndrome that affects intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, poult MSCs were isolated, characterized, and infected with TCoV after in vitro culture. The poult-derived MSCs showed fibroblast-like morphology and the ability to undergo differentiation into mesodermal-derived cells and to support virus replication. Infection with TCoV resulted in cytopathic effects and the loss of cell viability. TCoV antigens and new viral progeny were detected at high levels, as were transcripts of the pro-inflammatory factors INFγ, IL-6, and IL-8. These findings suggest that the cytokine storm phenomenon is not restricted to one genus of the family Coronaviridae and that MSCs cannot always balance the process.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Turkey/physiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cell Survival , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , Turkeys , Up-Regulation
2.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(3): 142, 2022 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707928

ABSTRACT

As a result of cross-species transmission in December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) became a serious endangerment to human health and the causal agent of a global pandemic. Although the number of infected people has decreased due to effective management, novel methods to treat critical COVID-19 patients are still urgently required. This review describes the origins, pathogenesis, and clinical features of COVID-19 and the potential uses of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in therapeutic treatments for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients. MSCs have previously been shown to have positive effects in the treatment of lung diseases, such as acute lung injury, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung cancer, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. MSC mechanisms of action involve differentiation potentials, immune regulation, secretion of anti-inflammatory factors, migration and homing, anti-apoptotic properties, antiviral effects, and extracellular vesicles. Currently, 74 clinical trials are investigating the use of MSCs (predominately from the umbilical cord, bone marrow, and adipose tissue) to treat COVID-19. Although most of these trials are still in their early stages, the preliminary data are promising. However, long-term safety evaluations are still lacking, and large-scale and controlled trials are required for more conclusive judgments regarding MSC-based therapies. The main challenges and prospective directions for the use of MSCs in clinical applications are discussed herein. In summary, while the clinical use of MSCs to treat COVID-19 is still in the preliminary stages of investigation, promising results indicate that they could potentially be utilized in future treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Humans
3.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667054

ABSTRACT

The novel pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are currently utilized in clinics for pulmonary inflammatory diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury. Given that MSCs offer a promising treatment against COVID-19, they are being used against COVID-19 in more than 70 clinical trials with promising findings. Genetically engineered MSCs offer promising therapeutic options in pulmonary diseases. However, their potential has not been explored yet. In this review, we provide perspectives on the functionally modified MSCs that can be developed and harnessed for COVID-19 therapy. Options to manage the SARS-CoV-2 infection and its variants using various bioengineering tools to increase the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Bioengineering/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(1): 228-234, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532813

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has become a serious public health emergency. The virus targets cells by binding the ACE2 receptor. After infection, the virus triggers in some humans an immune storm containing the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines followed by multiple organ failure. Several vaccines are enrolled, but an effective treatment is still missing. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown to secrete immunomodulatory factors that suppress this cytokine storm. Therefore, MSCs have been suggested as a potential treatment option for COVID-19. We report here that the ACE2 expression is minimal or nonexistent in MSC derived from three different human tissue sources (adipose tissue, umbilical cord Wharton`s jelly and bone marrow). In contrast, TMPRSS2 that is implicated in SARS-CoV-2 entry has been detected in all MSC samples. These results are of particular importance for future MSC-based cell therapies to treat severe cases after COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Umbilical Cord/cytology , Umbilical Cord/metabolism
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524026

ABSTRACT

The rapid mutation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is now a major concern with no effective drugs and treatments. The severity of the disease is linked to the induction of a cytokine storm that promotes extensive inflammation in the lung, leading to many acute lung injuries, pulmonary edema, and eventually death. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might prove to be a treatment option as they have immunomodulation and regenerative properties. Clinical trials utilizing MSCs in treating acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have provided a basis in treating post-COVID-19 patients. In this review, we discussed the effects of MSCs as an immunomodulator to reduce the severity and death in patients with COVID-19, including the usage of MSCs as an alternative regenerative therapy in post-COVID-19 patients. This review also includes the current clinical trials in utilizing MSCs and their potential future utilization for long-COVID treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Immunomodulation/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Regeneration/physiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512380

ABSTRACT

Heparin and its derivatives are saving thousands of human lives annually, by successfully preventing and treating thromboembolic events. Although the mode of action during anticoagulation is well studied, their influence on cell behavior is not fully understood as is the risk of bleeding and other side effects. New applications in regenerative medicine have evolved supporting production of cell-based therapeutics or as a substrate for creating functionalized matrices in biotechnology. The currently resurgent interest in heparins is related to the expected combined anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-viral action against COVID-19. Based on a concise summary of key biochemical and clinical data, this review summarizes the impact for manufacturing and application of cell therapeutics and highlights the need for discriminating the different heparins.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/chemistry , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Heparin/analogs & derivatives , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Cell Adhesion , Hemorrhage/etiology , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Regenerative Medicine , Thromboembolism/drug therapy
7.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502368

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devasting condition with no reliable treatment. Spina bifida is the most common cause of congenital SCI. Cell-based therapies using mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCS) have been largely utilized in SCI. Several clinical trials for acquired SCI use adult tissue-derived MSC sources, including bone-marrow, adipose, and umbilical cord tissues. The first stem/stromal cell clinical trial for spina bifida is currently underway (NCT04652908). The trial uses early gestational placental-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (PMSCs) during the fetal repair of myelomeningocele. PMSCs have been shown to exhibit unique neuroprotective, angiogenic, and antioxidant properties, all which are promising applications for SCI. This review will summarize the unique properties and current applications of PMSCs and discuss their therapeutic role for acquired SCI.


Subject(s)
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Placenta/cytology , Spinal Cord Injuries/congenital , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Bioengineering , Clinical Trials as Topic , Female , Humans , Pregnancy
8.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 948-961, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498509

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The primary pathogenesis is over-activation of the immune system. SARS-CoV-2 continues to mutate and spread rapidly and no effective treatment options are yet available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to induce anti-inflammatory macrophages, regulatory T cells and dendritic cells. There are a rapidly increasing number of clinical investigations of cell-based therapy approaches for COVID-19. Objective: To summarize the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2, and systematically formulated the immunomodulation of COVID-19 by MSCs and their exosomes, as well as research progress. Method: Searching PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and Chictr.cn for eligible studies to be published or registered by May 2021. Main keywords and search strategies were as follows: ((Mesenchymal stem cells) OR (MSCs)) AND (COVID-19). Results: MSCs regulate the immune system to prevent cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and to promote endogenous repair by releasing various paracrine factors and exosomes. Conclusions: MSC therapy is thus a promising candidate for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/transplantation , Immunomodulation/immunology , Lung Injury/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Exosomes/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Lung Injury/physiopathology , Lung Injury/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Regeneration/immunology , Regeneration/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 9636897211049814, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484237

ABSTRACT

During the past 18 months as the world dealt with the COVID-19 pandemic, articles published in Cell Transplantation (CT) voiced unique perspectives on the disease which have since been supported by additional research. Intrigued by the variability in COVID-19 severity, CT authors explored the influence of variants in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) genes, as well as the role of androgen receptors on disease development. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were offered up as a potential COVID-19 therapy because of their immune modulating characteristics and successful use in other acute respiratory diseases. Two CT author groups gave proof of principle when hospitalized COVID-19 patients were infused with MSC after no other interventions seemed to work. MSC treatment reduced disease severity and shortened hospitalization stays. Lastly, CT authors speculated why we are still in the midst of a pandemic and the consequences of disillusioned comfort as we face new emerging variants that may undermine all we have accomplished thus far.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biomedical Research , Cell Transplantation , Cytokines/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Immune System , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Publications , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472414

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are rising in global prevalence and cause significant morbidity for patients. Current treatments are limited to slowing instead of stabilising or reversing disease progression. In this review, we describe mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their constituents, extracellular vesicles (EVs) as being a novel therapeutic for CKD. MSC-derived EVs (MSC-EVs) are membrane-enclosed particles, including exosomes, which carry genetic information that mimics the phenotype of their cell of origin. MSC-EVs deliver their cargo of mRNA, miRNA, cytokines, and growth factors to target cells as a form of paracrine communication. This genetically reprograms pathophysiological pathways, which are upregulated in renal failure. Since the method of exosome preparation significantly affects the quality and function of MSC-exosomes, this review compares the methodologies for isolating exosomes from MSCs and their role in tissue regeneration. More specifically, it summarises the therapeutic efficacy of MSC-EVs in 60 preclinical animal models of AKI and CKD and the cargo of biomolecules they deliver. MSC-EVs promote tubular proliferation and angiogenesis, and inhibit apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and fibrosis, to alleviate AKI and CKD. By reprogramming these pathophysiological pathways, MSC-EVs can slow or even reverse the progression of AKI to CKD, and therefore offer potential to transform clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Biological Therapy , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/transplantation , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Biological Therapy/methods , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Self Renewal , Chemical Fractionation , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Protective Agents , Renal Insufficiency/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
11.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444118

ABSTRACT

The PD-L1/PD-1 immune checkpoint axis is the strongest T cell exhaustion inducer. As immune dysfunction occurs during obesity, we analyzed the impact of obesity on PD-L1/PD-1 expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) in mice and in human white adipocytes. We found that PD-L1 was overexpressed in WAT of diet-induced obese mice and was associated with increased expression of PD-1 in visceral but not subcutaneous WAT. Human in vitro cocultures with adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) and mononuclear cells demonstrated that the presence of ASC harvested from obese WAT (i) enhanced PD-L1 expression as compared with ASC from lean WAT, (ii) decreased Th1 cell cytokine secretion, and (iii) resulted in decreased cytolytic activity towards adipocytes. Moreover, (iv) the implication of PD-L1 in obese ASC-mediated T cell dysfunction was demonstrated through PD-L1 blockade. Finally, (v) conditioned media gathered from these cocultures enhanced PD-L1 expression in freshly differentiated adipocytes, depending on IFNγ. Altogether, our results suggest that PD-L1 is overexpressed in the WAT of obese individuals during IFNγ secretion, leading to T cell dysfunction and notably reduced cytolytic activity. Such a mechanism could shed light on why adipose-tissue-infiltrating viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, can worsen disease in obese individuals.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism , B7-H1 Antigen/biosynthesis , Gene Expression Regulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Obesity/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Differentiation , Coculture Techniques , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/cytology
12.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444117

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells present in virtually all tissues; they have a potent self-renewal capacity and can differentiate into multiple cell types. They also affect the ambient tissue by the paracrine secretion of numerous factors in vivo, including the induction of other stem cells' differentiation. In vitro, the culture media supernatant is named secretome and contains soluble molecules and extracellular vesicles that retain potent biological function in tissue regeneration. MSCs are considered safe for human treatment; their use does not involve ethical issues, as embryonic stem cells do not require genetic manipulation as induced pluripotent stem cells, and after intravenous injection, they are mainly found in the lugs. Therefore, these cells are currently being tested in various preclinical and clinical trials for several diseases, including COVID-19. Several affected COVID-19 patients develop induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with an uncontrolled inflammatory response. This condition causes extensive damage to the lungs and may leave serious post-COVID-19 sequelae. As the disease may cause systemic alterations, such as thromboembolism and compromised renal and cardiac function, the intravenous injection of MSCs may be a therapeutic alternative against multiple pathological manifestations. In this work, we reviewed the literature about MSCs biology, focusing on their function in pulmonary regeneration and their use in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Lung/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Regeneration/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Differentiation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Culture Media , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Inflammation , Mice , Mice, SCID , Phenotype , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/immunology , Thromboembolism/therapy
13.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther ; 16(4): 465-480, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435707

ABSTRACT

The cause of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) known as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, formerly designated 2019-nCoV) was first discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. It then spread rapidly worldwide. Investigation for the discovery of drugs to cure this disease continues. The currently accepted treatments are supportive, but there is no specific disease curing intervention found yet. Since mid-February, therapies involving Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSCs) have been proposed for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. In light of these recent developments, this review will focus on: i) the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 action and the subsequent pathology in COVID-19, ii) the proposed mechanism( s) of outcome-improving action of MSCs or MSC-derived extracellular vesicles in COVID-19 pneumonia, iii) registered MSC-based clinical trials and interventions for the treatment of COVID-19, iv) published case studies/series/trials reporting the use of MSC-based treatments in COVID-19 cases, and finally v) the need for authority regulations and clinical guidelines for MSCbased treatment strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/standards , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 39(8): 945-954, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427069

ABSTRACT

New coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as a pandemic disaster, has drawn the attention of researchers in various fields to discover suitable therapeutic approaches for the management of COVID-19 patients. Currently, there are many worries about the rapid spread of COVID-19; there is no approved treatment for this infectious disease, despite many efforts to develop therapeutic procedures for COVID-19. Emerging evidence shows that mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) therapy can be a suitable option for the management of COVID-19. These cells have many biological features (including the potential of differentiation, high safety and effectiveness, secretion of trophic factors and immunoregulatory features) that make them suitable for the treatment of various diseases. However, some studies have questioned the positive role of MSC therapy in the treatment of COVID-19. Accordingly, in this paper, we will focus on the therapeutic impacts of MSCs and their critical role in cytokine storm of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Communication , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
15.
Life Sci ; 284: 119901, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370629

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a serious viral infection that struck the world in December 2019 starting from Wuhan in China, spreading subsequently to all over the world. The disease has baffled scientists and doctors worldwide in terms of its presentation, behaviour, and treatment options till now. A low mortality rate is the only relief we get so far from COVID-19 in terms of numbers. Treatment options have gradually streamlined to steroids and very few FDA approved antiviral as well as plasma therapy and supportive treatment. Monoclonal antibodies are used to tide over any impending cytokine storm but are not equally effective in all patients. Ventilation support is invariably required for moderate to severe disease varying from a simple High Flow non-rebreathing mask to BiPAP (Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure) and HFNO (High-Flow Nasal Oxygen) extending to full-fledge ventilation via a Mechanical Ventilator. Because of the non-availability of satisfactory treatment so far, many researchers from different biomedical fields are looking for alternative therapeutic strategies to manage the pandemic. One such therapeutic approach showing a ray of hope to combat COVID-19 infection is Mesenchymal stem cell therapy. Mesenchymal cells have immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory as well as regenerative properties and various preliminary studies have shown that MSCs can reverse the lung damage and overcome the cytokine storm incited by COVID-19 infection. Also, it has improved the recovery rate of critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation. In this review, we will discuss the possibility and relevance of MSCs in COVID-19 treatment and preview of various MSCs clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunity
16.
Biomolecules ; 10(10)2020 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295752

ABSTRACT

Acute and chronic skin wounds due to burns, pressure injuries, and trauma represent a substantial challenge to healthcare delivery with particular impacts on geriatric, paraplegic, and quadriplegic demographics worldwide. Nevertheless, the current standard of care relies extensively on preventive measures to mitigate pressure injury, surgical debridement, skin flap procedures, and negative pressure wound vacuum measures. This article highlights the potential of adipose-, blood-, and cellulose-derived products (cells, decellularized matrices and scaffolds, and exosome and secretome factors) as a means to address this unmet medical need. The current status of this research area is evaluated and discussed in the context of promising avenues for future discovery.


Subject(s)
Burns/therapy , Exosomes/transplantation , Hydrogels/therapeutic use , Wound Healing/genetics , Burns/pathology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/trends , Cellulose/therapeutic use , Exosomes/genetics , Humans , Hydrogels/chemistry , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Skin/growth & development , Skin/injuries , Skin/metabolism
17.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 9636897211024942, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285159

ABSTRACT

The aim of this clinical trial was to control the cytokine storm by administering mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to critically-ill COVID-19 patients, to evaluate the healing effect, and to systematically investigate how the treatment works. Patients with moderate and critical COVID-19 clinical manifestations were separated as Group 1 (moderate cases, n = 10, treated conventionally), Group 2 (critical cases, n = 10, treated conventionally), and Group 3 (critical cases, n = 10, treated conventionally plus MSCs transplantation therapy of three consecutive doses on treatment days 0, 3, and 6, (as 3 × 106 cells/kg, intravenously). The treatment mechanism of action was investigated with evaluation markers of the cytokine storm, via biochemical parameters, levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, analyses of tissue regeneration via the levels of growth factors, apoptosis markers, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases, and granzyme-B, and by the assessment of the immunomodulatory effects via total oxidant/antioxidant status markers and the levels of lymphocyte subsets. In the assessment of the overall mortality rates of all the cases, six patients in Group-2 and three patients in Group-3 died, and there was no loss in Group-1. Proinflammatory cytokines IFNγ, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-2, IL-12, anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10, IL-13, IL-1ra, and growth factors TGF-ß, VEGF, KGF, and NGF levels were found to be significant in Group-3. When Group-2 and Group-3 were compared, serum ferritin, fibrinogen and CRP levels in Group-3 had significantly decreased. CD45 +, CD3 +, CD4 +, CD8 +, CD19 +, HLA-DR +, and CD16 + / CD56 + levels were evaluated. In the statistical comparison of the groups, significance was only determined in respect of neutrophils. The results demonstrated the positive systematic and cellular effects of MSCs application on critically ill COVID-19 patients in a versatile way. This effect plays an important role in curing and reducing mortality in critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Leukocyte Common Antigens/metabolism , Lymphocytes/cytology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
18.
Eur J Pediatr Surg ; 31(4): 326-334, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279928

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), continues to be a major health concern. In search for novel treatment strategies against COVID-19, exosomes have attracted the attention of scientists and pharmaceutical companies worldwide. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles, secreted by all types of cells, and considered as key mediators of intercellular communication and stem-cell paracrine signaling. Herein, we reviewed the most recent literature about the role of exosomes as potential agents for treatment, prevention, diagnosis, and pathogenesis of COVID-19. Several studies and ongoing clinical trials have been investigating the anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and reparative effects of exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells for COVID-19-related acute lung injury. Other studies reported that exosomes play a key role in convalescent plasma therapy for COVID-19, and that they could be of use for the treatment of COVID-19 Kawasaki's-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome and as drug delivery nanocarriers for antiviral therapy. Harnessing some advantageous aspects of exosome biology, such as their endogenous origin, capability of crossing biological barriers, high stability in circulation, and low toxicity and immunogenicity, several companies have been testing exosome-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. As they carry cargos that mimic the status of parent cells, exosomes can be isolated from a variety of sources, including plasma, and employed as biomarkers of COVID-19. Lastly, there is growing evidence supporting the role of exosomes in COVID-19 infection, spread, reactivation, and reinfection. The lessons learned using exosomes for COVID-19 will help determine their efficacy and applicability in other clinical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Drug Carriers , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology
19.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252302, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278172

ABSTRACT

A potent therapy for the infectious coronavirus disease COVID-19 is urgently required with, at the time of writing, research in this area still ongoing. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro anti-viral activities of combinations of certain commercially available drugs that have recently formed part of COVID-19 therapy. Dual combinatory drugs, namely; Lopinavir-Ritonavir (LOPIRITO)-Clarithromycin (CLA), LOPIRITO-Azithromycin (AZI), LOPIRITO-Doxycycline (DOXY), Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ)-AZI, HCQ-DOXY, Favipiravir (FAVI)-AZI, HCQ-FAVI, and HCQ-LOPIRITO, were prepared. These drugs were mixed at specific ratios and evaluated for their safe use based on the cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) values of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. The anti-viral efficacy of these combinations in relation to Vero cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus isolated from a patient in Universitas Airlangga hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia and evaluated for IC50 24, 48, and 72 hours after viral inoculation was subsequently determined. Observation of the viral load in qRT-PCR was undertaken, the results of which indicated the absence of high levels of cytotoxicity in any samples and that dual combinatory drugs produced lower cytotoxicity than single drugs. In addition, these combinations demonstrated considerable effectiveness in reducing the copy number of the virus at 48 and 72 hours, while even at 24 hours, post-drug incubation resulted in low IC50 values. Most combination drugs reduced pro-inflammatory markers, i.e. IL-6 and TNF-α, while increasing the anti-inflammatory response of IL-10. According to these results, the descending order of effective dual combinatory drugs is one of LOPIRITO-AZI>LOPIRITO-DOXY>HCQ-AZI>HCQ-FAVI>LOPIRITO-CLA>HCQ-DOX. It can be suggested that dual combinatory drugs, e.g. LOPIRITO-AZI, can potentially be used in the treatment of COVID-19 infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Combinations , Hospitalization , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Indonesia , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Inpatients , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects
20.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 10(9): 1279-1287, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260571

ABSTRACT

One of the main causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is cytokine storm, although the exact cause is still unknown. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) influence proinflammatory T-helper 2 (Th2 ) cells to shift to an anti-inflammatory agent. To investigate efficacy of UC-MSC administration as adjuvant therapy in critically ill patients with COVID-19, we conducted a double-blind, multicentered, randomized controlled trial at four COVID-19 referral hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia. This study included 40 randomly allocated critically ill patients with COVID-19; 20 patients received an intravenous infusion of 1 × 106 /kg body weight UC-MSCs in 100 ml saline (0.9%) solution (SS) and 20 patients received 100 ml 0.9% SS as the control group. All patients received standard therapy. The primary outcome was measured by survival rate and/or length of ventilator usage. The secondary outcome was measured by clinical and laboratory improvement, with serious adverse events. Our study showed the survival rate in the UC-MSCs group was 2.5 times higher than that in the control group (P = .047), which is 10 patients and 4 patients in the UC-MSCs and control groups, respectively. In patients with comorbidities, UC-MSC administration increased the survival rate by 4.5 times compared with controls. The length of stay in the intensive care unit and ventilator usage were not statistically significant, and no adverse events were reported. The application of infusion UC-MSCs significantly decreased interleukin 6 in the recovered patients (P = .023). Therefore, application of intravenous UC-MSCs as adjuvant treatment for critically ill patients with COVID-19 increases the survival rate by modulating the immune system toward an anti-inflammatory state.


Subject(s)
Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Umbilical Cord/cytology , COVID-19 , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
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