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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 780900, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662580

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells present in virtually all tissues; they have potent self-renewal capacity and differentiate into multiple cell types. For many reasons, these cells are a promising therapeutic alternative to treat patients with severe COVID-19 and pulmonary post-COVID sequelae. These cells are not only essential for tissue regeneration; they can also alter the pulmonary environment through the paracrine secretion of several mediators. They can control or promote inflammation, induce other stem cells differentiation, restrain the virus load, and much more. In this work, we performed single-cell RNA-seq data analysis of MSCs in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from control individuals and COVID-19 patients with mild and severe clinical conditions. When we compared samples from mild cases with control individuals, most genes transcriptionally upregulated in COVID-19 were involved in cell proliferation. However, a new set of genes with distinct biological functions was upregulated when we compared severely affected with mild COVID-19 patients. In this analysis, the cells upregulated genes related to cell dispersion/migration and induced the γ-activated sequence (GAS) genes, probably triggered by IFNGR1 and IFNGR2. Then, IRF-1 was upregulated, one of the GAS target genes, leading to the interferon-stimulated response (ISR) and the overexpression of many signature target genes. The MSCs also upregulated genes involved in the mesenchymal-epithelial transition, virus control, cell chemotaxis, and used the cytoplasmic RNA danger sensors RIG-1, MDA5, and PKR. In a non-comparative analysis, we observed that MSCs from severe cases do not express many NF-κB upstream receptors, such as Toll-like (TLRs) TLR-3, -7, and -8; tumor necrosis factor (TNFR1 or TNFR2), RANK, CD40, and IL-1R1. Indeed, many NF-κB inhibitors were upregulated, including PPP2CB, OPTN, NFKBIA, and FHL2, suggesting that MSCs do not play a role in the "cytokine storm" observed. Therefore, lung MSCs in COVID-19 sense immune danger and act protectively in concert with the pulmonary environment, confirming their therapeutic potential in cell-based therapy for COVID-19. The transcription of MSCs senescence markers is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Inflammation/immunology , Lung/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Regeneration/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Cell Movement/immunology , Cytoplasm/immunology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Up-Regulation/immunology , Young Adult
2.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(2): 250-253, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544492

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are characterized by tolerogenic potential and therefore, are used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation to improve the transplant functions, as well as for the therapy and prevention of cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients and some other conditions. However, MSC can exhibit proinflammatory activity, which causes risks for their clinical use. We studied the cytokine profile of bone marrow MSC culture and demonstrate intensive production of IL-6, IL-8, and chemokine MCP-1, which participate in the pathogenesis of cytokine storm and GVHD. At the same time, no anti-inflammatory IL-4 and IL-10 were detected. To reduce the risks of MSC application in the GVHD therapeutic protocols, further studies of the conditions promoting generation of MSC with tolerogenic potential and approved clinical standards of MSC use are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/analysis , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Bone Marrow Cells/immunology , Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Chemokine CCL2/analysis , Graft vs Host Disease/immunology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/analysis , Interleukin-8/analysis , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transplantation, Homologous/adverse effects
3.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 948-961, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498509

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The primary pathogenesis is over-activation of the immune system. SARS-CoV-2 continues to mutate and spread rapidly and no effective treatment options are yet available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to induce anti-inflammatory macrophages, regulatory T cells and dendritic cells. There are a rapidly increasing number of clinical investigations of cell-based therapy approaches for COVID-19. Objective: To summarize the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2, and systematically formulated the immunomodulation of COVID-19 by MSCs and their exosomes, as well as research progress. Method: Searching PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and Chictr.cn for eligible studies to be published or registered by May 2021. Main keywords and search strategies were as follows: ((Mesenchymal stem cells) OR (MSCs)) AND (COVID-19). Results: MSCs regulate the immune system to prevent cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and to promote endogenous repair by releasing various paracrine factors and exosomes. Conclusions: MSC therapy is thus a promising candidate for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/transplantation , Immunomodulation/immunology , Lung Injury/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Exosomes/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Lung Injury/physiopathology , Lung Injury/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Regeneration/immunology , Regeneration/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 738697, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477824

ABSTRACT

The severe respiratory consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have prompted the urgent need for novel therapies. Cell-based therapies, primarily using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), have demonstrated safety and potential efficacy in the treatment of critical illness, particularly sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there are limited preclinical data for MSCs in COVID-19. Recent studies have shown that MSCs could decrease inflammation, improve lung permeability, enhance microbe and alveolar fluid clearance, and promote lung epithelial and endothelial repair. In addition, MSC-based therapy has shown promising effects in preclinical studies and phase 1 clinical trials in sepsis and ARDS. Here, we review recent advances related to MSC-based therapy in the context of sepsis and ARDS and evaluate the potential value of MSCs as a therapeutic strategy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/therapy
5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt B): 108217, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446737

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new type of coronavirus causing coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) that was first observed in Wuhan, China, in Dec. 2019. An inflammatory immune response targeting children appeared during the pandemic, which was associated with COVID-19 named multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Characteristics of MIS-C include the classic inflammation findings, multi-organ dysfunction, and fever as the cardinal feature. Up to now, no specific therapy has been identified for MIS-C. Currently, considerable progress has been obtained in the MIS-C treatment by cell therapy, specially Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Unique properties have been reported for MSCs, such as various resources for purification of cell, high proliferation, self-renewal, non-invasive procedure, tissue regenerator, multidirectional differentiation, and immunosuppression. As indicated by a recent clinical research, MSCs have the ability of reducing disease inflammation and severity in children with MIS-C. In the present review study, the benefits and characteristics of MSCs and exosomes are discussed for treating patients with MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Immunotherapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology
7.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther ; 16(4): 406-413, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435705

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis of the 21st Century. There are currently no approved vaccines and no particular anti-viral treatment for coronavirus disease. As COVID-19 has a broad range of illnesses, it is necessary to find a safe and effective therapeutic method for COVID-19. An attractive approach for treating COVID-19 is cell therapy. Cell therapy aims to inject new and healthy stem cells into a patient's body, to repair the damaged cells and tissues. Stem cell therapy is one of the most studied and important approaches in the treatment of COVID-19 these days. The significant clinical outcome was observed by the adoptive transfer of stem cells, specifically mesenchymal stem cells. This study reviews the characteristics of stem cells and clinical trials that have used stem cells in treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/virology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods
8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 339, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402052

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has placed a global public burden on health authorities. Although the virological characteristics and pathogenesis of COVID-19 has been largely clarified, there is currently no specific therapeutic measure. In severe cases, acute SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to immune disorders and damage to both the adaptive and innate immune responses. Having roles in immune regulation and regeneration, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) serving as a therapeutic option may regulate the over-activated inflammatory response and promote recovery of lung damage. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, a series of MSC-therapy clinical trials has been conducted. The findings indicate that MSC treatment not only significantly reduces lung damage, but also improves patient recovery with safety and good immune tolerance. Herein, we summarize the recent progress in MSC therapy for COVID-19 and highlight the challenges in the field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Lung Injury/therapy , Lung/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lung Injury/immunology , Lung Injury/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/pathology
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 726909, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359195

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used in preclinical and clinical trials for various diseases and have shown great potential in the treatment of sepsis and coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Inflammatory factors play vital roles in the pathogenesis of diseases. The interaction between inflammatory factors is extremely complex. Once the dynamics of inflammatory factors are unbalanced, inflammatory responses and cytokine storm syndrome develop, leading to disease exacerbation and even death. Stem cells have become ideal candidates for the treatment of such diseases due to their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms by which stem cells affect inflammation and immune regulation are still unclear. This article discusses the therapeutic mechanism and potential value of MSCs in the treatment of sepsis and the novel COVID-19, outlines how MSCs mediate innate and acquired immunity at both the cellular and molecular levels, and described the anti-inflammatory mechanisms and related molecular pathways. Finally, we review the safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy in these two diseases at the preclinical and clinical levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 716407, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359193

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new strain of coronavirus and the causative agent of the current global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There are currently no FDA-approved antiviral drugs for COVID-19 and there is an urgent need to develop treatment strategies that can effectively suppress SARS-CoV-2 infection. Numerous approaches have been researched so far, with one of them being the emerging exosome-based therapies. Exosomes are nano-sized, lipid bilayer-enclosed structures, share structural similarities with viruses secreted from all types of cells, including those lining the respiratory tract. Importantly, the interplay between exosomes and viruses could be potentially exploited for antiviral drug and vaccine development. Exosomes are produced by virus-infected cells and play crucial roles in mediating communication between infected and uninfected cells. SARS-CoV-2 modulates the production and composition of exosomes, and can exploit exosome formation, secretion, and release pathways to promote infection, transmission, and intercellular spread. Exosomes have been exploited for therapeutic benefits in patients afflicted with various diseases including COVID-19. Furthermore, the administration of exosomes loaded with immunomodulatory cargo in combination with antiviral drugs represents a novel intervention for the treatment of diseases such as COVID-19. In particular, exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used as cell-free therapeutic agents. Mesenchymal stem cell derived exosomes reduces the cytokine storm and reverse the inhibition of host anti-viral defenses associated with COVID-19 and also enhances mitochondrial function repair lung injuries. We discuss the role of exosomes in relation to transmission, infection, diagnosis, treatment, therapeutics, drug delivery, and vaccines, and present some future perspectives regarding their use for combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Carriers/therapeutic use , Exosomes/metabolism , Immunomodulation/immunology , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/transmission , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
Hum Cell ; 34(6): 1585-1600, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316345

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a kind of multipotent stem cells with self-renewal ability and multi-differentiation ability, have become the "practical stem cells" for the treatment of diseases. MSCs have immunomodulatory properties and can be used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Crohn's disease. MSCs also can be used in cancer and aging. At present, many clinical experiments are using MSCs. MSCs can reduce the occurrence of inflammation and apoptosis of tissue cells, and promote the proliferation of endogenous tissue and organ cells, so as to achieve the effect of repairing tissue and organs. MSCs presumably also play an important role in Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Animals , Apoptosis , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Cell Proliferation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/trends , Crohn Disease/therapy , Humans , Immunomodulation , Inflammation , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Mice , Neoplasms/therapy
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 659621, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285289

ABSTRACT

Methods for suppressing the host immune system over the long term and improving transplantation tolerance remain a primary issue in organ transplantation. Cell therapy is an emerging therapeutic strategy for immunomodulation after transplantation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells with wide differentiation potential and immunosuppressive properties, which are mostly used in regenerative medicine and immunomodulation. In addition, emerging research suggests that MSC-derived exosomes have the same therapeutic effects as MSCs in many diseases, while avoiding many of the risks associated with cell transplantation. Their unique immunomodulatory properties are particularly important in the immune system-overactive graft environment. In this paper, we review the effects of MSC-derived exosomes in the immune regulation mechanism after organ transplantation and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) from various perspectives, including immunosuppression, influencing factors, anti-inflammatory properties, mediation of tissue repair and regeneration, and the induction of immune tolerance. At present, the great potential of MSC-derived exosomes in immunotherapy has attracted a great deal of attention. Furthermore, we discuss the latest insights on MSC-derived exosomes in organ transplantation and GvHD, especially its commercial production concepts, which aim to provide new strategies for improving the prognosis of organ transplantation patients.


Subject(s)
Exosomes/immunology , Immunomodulation/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Organ Transplantation/methods , Transplantation Tolerance/immunology , Adult , Exosomes/metabolism , Graft vs Host Disease/immunology , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Regenerative Medicine/methods
13.
OMICS ; 25(6): 342-357, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266096

ABSTRACT

Early cell biology reports demonstrated the presence of cells with stem-like properties in bone marrow, with both hematopoietic and mesenchymal lineages. Over the years, various investigations have purified and characterized mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) from different human tissues as cells with multilineage differentiation potential under the appropriate conditions. Due to their appealing characteristics and versatile potentials, MSCs are leveraged in many applications in medicine such as oncology, bioprinting, and as recent as therapeutics discovery and innovation for COVID-19. To date, studies indicate that MSCs have varied differentiation capabilities into different cell types, and demonstrate immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory properties. Different microenvironments or niche for MSCs and their resulting heterogeneity may influence attendant cellular behavior and differentiation capacity. The potential clinical applications of MSCs and exosomes derived from these cells have led to an avalanche of research reports on their properties and hundreds of clinical trials being undertaken. There is ample reason to think, as discussed in this expert review that the future looks bright and promising for MSC research, with many clinical trials under way to ascertain their clinical utility. This review provides a synthesis of the latest advances and trends in MSC research to allow for broad and critically informed use of MSCs. Early observations of the presence of these cells in the bone marrow and their remarkable differentiation capabilities and immunomodulation are also presented.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Immunomodulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Regenerative Medicine , Stem Cell Niche , Tissue Engineering
14.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 10(9): 1288-1303, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233233

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cell therapy (MSCT) for immune and inflammatory diseases continues to be popular based on progressive accumulation of preclinical mechanistic evidence. This has led to further expansion in clinical indications from graft rejection, autoimmune diseases, and osteoarthritis, to inflammatory liver and pulmonary diseases including COVID-19. A clear trend is the shift from using autologous to allogeneic MSCs, which can be immediately available as off-the-shelf products. In addition, new products such as cell-free exosomes and human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived MSCs are exciting developments to further prevalent use. Increasing numbers of trials have now published results in which safety of MSCT has been largely demonstrated. While reports of therapeutic endpoints are still emerging, efficacy can be seen for specific indications-including graft-vs-host-disease, strongly Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases, and osteoarthritis-which are more robustly supported by mechanistic preclinical evidence. In this review, we update and discuss outcomes in current MSCT clinical trials for immune and inflammatory disease, as well as new innovation and emerging trends in the field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Graft vs Host Disease/therapy , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/classification
15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107694, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209540

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China. Rapidly escalated into a worldwide pandemic, it has caused an unprecedented and devastating situation on the global public health and society economy. The severity of recent coronavirus disease, abbreviated to COVID-19, seems to be mostly associated with the patients' immune response. In this vein, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been suggested as a worth-considering option against COVID-19 as their therapeutic properties are mainly displayed in immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects. Indeed, administration of MSCs can attenuate cytokine storm and enhance alveolar fluid clearance, endothelial recovery, and anti-fibrotic regeneration. Despite advantages attributed to MSCs application in lung injuries, there are still several issues __foremost probability of malignant transformation and incidence of MSCs-related coagulopathy__ which should be resolved for the successful application of MSC therapy in COVID-19. In the present study, we review the historical evidence of successful use of MSCs and MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We also take a look at MSCs mechanisms of action in the treatment of viral infections, and then through studying both the dark and bright sides of this approach, we provide a thorough discussion if MSC therapy might be a promising therapeutic approach in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology
16.
Life Sci ; 278: 119510, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185153

ABSTRACT

Currently, the world has been devastated by an unprecedented pandemic in this century. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been causing disorders, dysfunction and morphophysiological alterations in multiple organs as the disease evolves. There is a great scientific community effort to obtain a therapy capable of reaching the multiple affected organs in order to contribute for tissue repair and regeneration. In this regard, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as potential candidates concerning the promotion of beneficial actions at different stages of COVID-19. MSCs are promising due to the observed therapeutic effects in respiratory preclinical models, as well as in cardiac, vascular, renal and nervous system models. Their immunomodulatory properties and secretion of paracrine mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and extracellular vesicles allow for long range tissue modulation and, particularly, blood-brain barrier crossing. This review focuses on SARS-CoV-2 impact to lungs, kidneys, heart, vasculature and central nervous system while discussing promising MSC's therapeutic mechanisms in each tissue. In addition, MSC's therapeutic effects in high-risk groups for COVID-19, such as obese, diabetic and hypertensive patients are also explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Immunomodulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143461

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 infection. The COVID-19 pandemic represents one of the worst global threats in the 21st century since World War II. This pandemic has led to a worldwide economic recession and crisis due to lockdown. Biomedical researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and premier institutes throughout the world are claiming that new clinical trials are in progress. During the severe phase of this disease, mechanical ventilators are used to assist in the management of outcomes; however, their use can lead to the development of pneumonia. In this context, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes can serve as an immunomodulation treatment for COVID-19 patients. Exosomes possess anti-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic, and immunomodulatory properties that can be explored in an effort to improve the outcomes of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Currently, only one ongoing clinical trial (NCT04276987) is specifically exploring the use of MSC-derived exosomes as a therapy to treat SARS-CoV-2-associated pneumonia. The purpose of this review is to provide insights of using exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells in management of the co-morbidities associated with SARS-CoV-2-infected persons in direction of improving their health outcome. There is limited knowledge of using exosomes in SARS-CoV-2; the clinicians and researchers should exploit exosomes as therapeutic regime.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Immunomodulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytokines/pharmacology , Exosomes/chemistry , Exosomes/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/therapy , Inflammation/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
18.
Immunology ; 163(4): 416-430, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142903

ABSTRACT

The sudden outbreak of SARS-CoV-2-infected disease (COVID-19), initiated from Wuhan, China, has rapidly grown into a global pandemic. Emerging evidence has implicated extracellular vesicles (EVs), a key intercellular communicator, in the pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19. In the pathogenesis of COVID-19, cells that express ACE2 and CD9 can transfer these viral receptors to other cells via EVs, making recipient cells more susceptible for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Once infected, cells release EVs packaged with viral particles that further facilitate viral spreading and immune evasion, aggravating COVID-19 and its complications. In contrast, EVs derived from stem cells, especially mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, alleviate severe inflammation (cytokine storm) and repair damaged lung cells in COVID-19 by delivery of anti-inflammatory molecules. These therapeutic beneficial EVs can also be engineered into drug delivery platforms or vaccines to fight against COVID-19. Therefore, EVs from diverse sources exhibit distinct effects in regulating viral infection, immune response, and tissue damage/repair, functioning as a double-edged sword in COVID-19. Here, we summarize the recent progress in understanding the pathological roles of EVs in COVID-19. A comprehensive discussion of the therapeutic effects/potentials of EVs is also provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Extracellular Vesicles/virology , Lung/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virion/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Carriers , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/transplantation , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virion/immunology
19.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 192, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140512

ABSTRACT

Over recent years, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) and their potential biomedical applications have received much attention from the global scientific community in an increasing manner. Firstly, MSCs were successfully isolated from human bone marrow (BM), but in the next steps, they were also extracted from other sources, mostly from the umbilical cord (UC) and adipose tissue (AT). The International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) has suggested minimum criteria to identify and characterize MSCs as follows: plastic adherence, surface expression of CD73, D90, CD105 in the lack of expression of CD14, CD34, CD45, and human leucocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR), and also the capability to differentiate to multiple cell types including adipocyte, chondrocyte, or osteoblast in vitro depends on culture conditions. However, these distinct properties, including self-renewability, multipotency, and easy accessibility are just one side of the coin; another side is their huge secretome which is comprised of hundreds of mediators, cytokines, and signaling molecules and can effectively modulate the inflammatory responses and control the infiltration process that finally leads to a regulated tissue repair/healing or regeneration process. MSC-mediated immunomodulation is a direct result of a harmonic synergy of MSC-released signaling molecules (i.e., mediators, cytokines, and chemokines), the reaction of immune cells and other target cells to those molecules, and also feedback in the MSC-molecule-target cell axis. These features make MSCs a respectable and eligible therapeutic candidate to be evaluated in immune-mediated disorders, such as graft versus host diseases (GVHD), multiple sclerosis (MS), Crohn's disease (CD), and osteoarthritis (OA), and even in immune-dysregulating infectious diseases such as the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This paper discussed the therapeutic applications of MSC secretome and its biomedical aspects related to immune-mediated conditions. Sources for MSC extraction, their migration and homing properties, therapeutic molecules released by MSCs, and the pathways and molecular mechanisms possibly involved in the exceptional immunoregulatory competence of MSCs were discussed. Besides, the novel discoveries and recent findings on immunomodulatory plasticity of MSCs, clinical applications, and the methods required for their use as an effective therapeutic option in patients with immune-mediated/immune-dysregulating diseases were highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunomodulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans
20.
Stem Cells ; 39(6): 707-722, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121521

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has grown to be a global public health crisis with no safe and effective treatments available yet. Recent findings suggest that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the coronavirus pathogen that causes COVID-19, could elicit a cytokine storm that drives edema, dysfunction of the airway exchange, and acute respiratory distress syndrome in the lung, followed by acute cardiac injury and thromboembolic events leading to multiorgan failure and death. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), owing to their powerful immunomodulatory abilities, have the potential to attenuate the cytokine storm and have therefore been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach for which several clinical trials are underway. Given that intravenous infusion of MSCs results in a significant trapping in the lung, MSC therapy could directly mitigate inflammation, protect alveolar epithelial cells, and reverse lung dysfunction by normalizing the pulmonary microenvironment and preventing pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we present an overview and perspectives of the SARS-CoV-2 induced inflammatory dysfunction and the potential of MSC immunomodulation for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 related pulmonary disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Immunomodulation , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , Pandemics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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