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1.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2285-2289, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826502

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered multipotent progenitors with the capacity to differentiate into mesoderm-like cells in many species. The immunosuppressive properties of MSCs are important for downregulating inflammatory responses. Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) is the etiological agent of a poult mortality syndrome that affects intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, poult MSCs were isolated, characterized, and infected with TCoV after in vitro culture. The poult-derived MSCs showed fibroblast-like morphology and the ability to undergo differentiation into mesodermal-derived cells and to support virus replication. Infection with TCoV resulted in cytopathic effects and the loss of cell viability. TCoV antigens and new viral progeny were detected at high levels, as were transcripts of the pro-inflammatory factors INFγ, IL-6, and IL-8. These findings suggest that the cytokine storm phenomenon is not restricted to one genus of the family Coronaviridae and that MSCs cannot always balance the process.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Turkey/physiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cell Survival , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , Turkeys , Up-Regulation
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488618

ABSTRACT

The inflammatory response plays a central role in the complications of congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM) and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the transcriptional changes induced by SARS-CoV-2 exposure in pediatric MSCs derived from pediatric lung (MSCs-lung) and CPAM tissues (MSCs-CPAM) in order to elucidate potential pathways involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection in a condition of exacerbated inflammatory response. MSCs-lung and MSCs-CPAM do not express angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TRMPSS2). SARS-CoV-2 appears to be unable to replicate in MSCs-CPAM and MSCs-lung. MSCs-lung and MSCs-CPAM maintained the expression of stemness markers MSCs-lung show an inflammatory response (IL6, IL1B, CXCL8, and CXCL10), and the activation of Notch3 non-canonical pathway; this route appears silent in MSCs-CPAM, and cytokine genes expression is reduced. Decreased value of p21 in MSCs-lung suggested no cell cycle block, and cells did not undergo apoptosis. MSCs-lung appears to increase genes associated with immunomodulatory function but could contribute to inflammation, while MSCs-CPAM keeps stable or reduce the immunomodulatory receptors expression, but they also reduce their cytokines expression. These data indicated that, independently from their perilesional or cystic origin, the MSCs populations already present in a patient affected with CPAM are not permissive for SARS-CoV-2 entry, and they will not spread the disease in case of infection. Moreover, these MSCs will not undergo apoptosis when they come in contact with SARS-CoV-2; on the contrary, they maintain their staminality profile.


Subject(s)
Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Respiratory System Abnormalities , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcriptome , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Profiling , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Infant , Lung/abnormalities , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , RNA-Seq , Respiratory System Abnormalities/genetics , Respiratory System Abnormalities/pathology , Respiratory System Abnormalities/virology
3.
Am J Pathol ; 191(7): 1255-1268, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275092

ABSTRACT

We postulate that similar to bacteria, adult stem cells may also exhibit an altruistic defense mechanism to protect their niche against external threat. Herein, we report mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based altruistic defense against a mouse model of coronavirus, murine hepatitis virus-1 (MHV-1) infection of lung. MHV-1 infection led to reprogramming of CD271+ MSCs in the lung to an enhanced stemness phenotype that exhibits altruistic behavior, as per previous work in human embryonic stem cells. The reprogrammed MSCs exhibited transient expansion for 2 weeks, followed by apoptosis and expression of stemness genes. The conditioned media of the reprogrammed MSCs exhibited direct antiviral activity in an in vitro model of MHV-1-induced toxicity to type II alveolar epithelial cells by increasing their survival/proliferation and decreasing viral load. Thus, the reprogrammed MSCs can be identified as altruistic stem cells (ASCs), which exert a unique altruistic defense against MHV-1. In a mouse model of MSC-mediated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) dormancy, MHV-1 infection in the lung exhibited 20-fold lower viral loads than the MTB-free control mice on the third week of viral infection, and exhibited six-fold increase of ASCs, thereby enhancing the altruistic defense. Notably, these ASCs exhibited intracellular replication of MTB, and their extracellular release. Animals showed tuberculosis reactivation, suggesting that dormant MTB may exploit ASCs for disease reactivation.


Subject(s)
Lung/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/virology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus
4.
Stem Cells ; 39(6): 707-722, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121521

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has grown to be a global public health crisis with no safe and effective treatments available yet. Recent findings suggest that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the coronavirus pathogen that causes COVID-19, could elicit a cytokine storm that drives edema, dysfunction of the airway exchange, and acute respiratory distress syndrome in the lung, followed by acute cardiac injury and thromboembolic events leading to multiorgan failure and death. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), owing to their powerful immunomodulatory abilities, have the potential to attenuate the cytokine storm and have therefore been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach for which several clinical trials are underway. Given that intravenous infusion of MSCs results in a significant trapping in the lung, MSC therapy could directly mitigate inflammation, protect alveolar epithelial cells, and reverse lung dysfunction by normalizing the pulmonary microenvironment and preventing pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we present an overview and perspectives of the SARS-CoV-2 induced inflammatory dysfunction and the potential of MSC immunomodulation for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 related pulmonary disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Immunomodulation , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , Pandemics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(2): 341-356, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053104

ABSTRACT

In the end of 2019 COVID-19 emerged as a new threat worldwide and this disease present impaired immune system, exacerbated production of inflammatory cytokines, and coagulation disturbs. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a therapeutic option due to its intrinsic properties to alleviate inflammatory responses, capable to promote the restoring of injured tissue. EVs contain heterogeneous cargo, including active microRNAs, small noncoding sequences involved in post-transcriptional gene repression or degradation and can attach in multiple targets. This study investigated whether the MSC-EVs miRNA cargo has the capacity to modulate the exacerbated cytokines, cell death and coagulation disturbs present in severe COVID-19. Through bioinformatics analysis, four datasets of miRNA, using different stem cell tissue sources (bone marrow, umbilical cord and adipose tissue), and one dataset of mRNA (bone marrow) were analyzed. 58 miRNAs overlap in the four miRNA datasets analyzed. Sequentially, those miRNAs present in at least two datasets, were analyzed using miRWalk for the 3'UTR binding target mRNA. The result predicted 258 miRNAs for exacerbated cytokines and chemokines, 266 miRNAs for cell death genes and 148 miRNAs for coagulation cascades. Some miRNAs may simultaneously attenuate inflammatory agents, inhibit cell death genes and key factors of coagulation cascade, consequently preventing tissue damage and coagulation disturbs. Therefore, the MSC-derived EVs due to their heterogeneous cargo are a potential multitarget approach able to improve the survival rates of severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , MicroRNAs/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/virology , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology
6.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 10(4): 568-571, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996305

ABSTRACT

The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from several sources has been suggested as a major anti-inflammation strategy during the recent outbreak of coronavirus-19 (COVID-19). As the virus enters the target cells through the receptor ACE2, it is important to determine if the MSC population transfused to patients could also be a target for the virus entry. We report here that ACE2 is highly expressed in adult bone marrow, adipose tissue, or umbilical cord-derived MSC. On the other hand, placenta-derived MSC express low levels of ACE2 but only in early passages of cultures. MSC derived from human embryonic stem cell or human induced pluripotent stem cells express also very low levels of ACE2. The transcriptome analysis of the MSCs with lowest expression of ACE2 in fetal-like MSCs is found to be associated in particularly with an anti-inflammatory signature. These results are of major interest for designing future clinical MSC-based stem cell therapies for severe COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transcriptome/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , Organ Specificity/immunology
7.
Stem Cell Res ; 49: 102066, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-929389

ABSTRACT

Due to the multi-potential differentiation and immunomodulatory function, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used in the therapy of chronic and autoimmune diseases. Recently, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has grown to be a global public health emergency but no effective drug is available to date. Several studies investigated MSCs therapy for COVID-19 patients. However, it remains unclear whether MSCs could be the host cells of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) and whether they might affect the SARS-CoV-2 entry into other cells. Here, we report that human MSCs barely express ACE2 and TMPRSS2, two receptors required for the virus endocytosis, indicating that MSCs are free from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, we observed that MSCs were unable to induce the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in epithelial cells and macrophages. Importantly, under different inflammatory challenge conditions, implanted human MSCs failed to up-regulate the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the lung tissues of mice. Intriguingly, we showed that a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus failed to infect MSCs and co-cultured MSCs did not increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection in epithelial cells. All these results suggest that human MSCs have no risk of assisting SARS-CoV-2 infection and the use of MSCs as the therapy for COVID-19 patients is feasible and safe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Safety , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Animals , Cell Line , Heterografts , Humans , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , Mice , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis
8.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(3): 419-427, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752835

ABSTRACT

Previous studies reported on the safety and applicability of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) to ameliorate pulmonary inflammation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thus, multiple clinical trials assessing the potential of MSCs for COVID-19 treatment are underway. Yet, as SARS-inducing coronaviruses infect stem/progenitor cells, it is unclear whether MSCs could be infected by SARS-CoV-2 upon transplantation to COVID-19 patients. We found that MSCs from bone marrow, amniotic fluid, and adipose tissue carry angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine subtype 2 at low levels on the cell surface under steady-state and inflammatory conditions. We did not observe SARS-CoV-2 infection or replication in MSCs at steady state under inflammatory conditions, or in direct contact with SARS-CoV-2-infected Caco-2 cells. Further, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 production in MSCs was not impaired in the presence of SARS-CoV-2. We show that MSCs are resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection and retain their immunomodulation potential, supporting their potential applicability for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Inflammation/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-382126

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 or CoV-19) appeared in Wuhan, China, causing a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 causes mild to severe respiratory tract inflammation, often developing into lung fibrosis with thrombosis in pulmonary small vessels and causing even death. COronaVIrus Disease (COVID-19) patients manifest exacerbated inflammatory and immune responses, cytokine storm, prevalence of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and increased levels of resident and circulating immune cells. Men show higher susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection than women, likely due to estrogens production. The protective role of estrogens, as well as an immune-suppressive activity that limits the excessive inflammation, can be mediated by cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2). The role of this receptor in modulating inflammation and immune response is well documented in fact in several settings. The stimulation of CB2 receptors is known to limit the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, shift the macrophage phenotype towards the anti-inflammatory M2 type and enhance the immune-modulating properties of mesenchymal stromal cells. For these reasons, we hypothesize that CB2 receptor can be a therapeutic target in COVID-19 pandemic emergency.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Estrogens/chemistry , Estrogens/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Macrophages/cytology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(1): 4-8, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-244923

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 viruses are positive single-stranded RNA viruses, whose infection can be asymptomatic or lead to the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Covid-19 is a respiratory infection with a significant impact on the hematopoietic system and hemostasis leading to several cardiovascular complications. Hematologic consequences of this new infection allowed medical community to start new treatment approaches concerning infection going from targeted anti-inflammatory drugs to anticoagulation or stem cell therapies. A better understanding of Covid-19 pathophysiology, in particular hematological disorders, will help to choose appropriate treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hematologic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Blood Coagulation/genetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Hematologic Diseases/blood , Hematologic Diseases/pathology , Hematologic Diseases/virology , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology
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