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1.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 111(3): 579-584, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1396859

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may experience a cytokine storm with elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). IL-6 suppresses hepatic enzymes, including CYP3A; however, the effect on drug exposure and drug-drug interaction magnitudes of the cytokine storm and resulting elevated IL-6 levels have not been characterized in patients with COVID-19. We used physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to simulate the effect of inflammation on the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A metabolized drugs. A PBPK model was developed for lopinavir boosted with ritonavir (LPV/r), using clinically observed data from people living with HIV (PLWH). The inhibition of CYPs by IL-6 was implemented by a semimechanistic suppression model and verified against clinical data from patients with COVID-19, treated with LPV/r. Subsequently, the verified model was used to simulate the effect of various clinically observed IL-6 levels on the exposure of LPV/r and midazolam, a CYP3A model drug. Clinically observed LPV/r concentrations in PLWH and patients with COVID-19 were predicted within the 95% confidence interval of the simulation results, demonstrating its predictive capability. Simulations indicated a twofold higher LPV exposure in patients with COVID-19 compared with PLWH, whereas ritonavir exposure was predicted to be comparable. Varying IL-6 levels under COVID-19 had only a marginal effect on LPV/r pharmacokinetics according to our model. Simulations showed that a cytokine storm increased the exposure of the CYP3A paradigm substrate midazolam by 40%. Our simulations suggest that CYP3A metabolism is altered in patients with COVID-19 having increased cytokine release. Caution is required when prescribing narrow therapeutic index drugs particularly in the presence of strong CYP3A inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Lopinavir/pharmacokinetics , Midazolam/pharmacokinetics , Ritonavir/pharmacokinetics , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/pharmacokinetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Metabolic Clearance Rate/drug effects , Middle Aged , Models, Biological
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26253, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258821

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Pathophysiological changes are important risk factors for critically ill patients with pneumonia manifesting sub-therapeutic antibiotic exposures during empirical treatment. The effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on antibiotic dosing requirements is uncertain. We aimed to determine the effect of COVID-19 on ß-lactam pharmacokinetics (PK) and PK target attainment in critically ill patients with a personalized dosing strategy.Retrospective, single-center analysis of COVID-19 ± critically ill patients with pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia) who received continuous infusion of a ß-lactam antibiotic with dosing personalized through dosing software and therapeutic drug monitoring. A therapeutic exposure was defined as serum concentration between (css) 4 to 8 times the EUCAST non-species related breakpoint).Data from 58 patients with pneumonia was analyzed. Nineteen patients were tested COVID-19-positive before the start of the antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia. Therapeutic exposure was achieved in 71% of COVID-19 patients (68% considering all patients). All patients demonstrated css above the non-species-related breakpoint. Twenty percent exceeded css above the target range (24% of all patients). The median ß-lactam clearance was 49% compared to ß-lactam clearance in a standard patient without a significant difference regarding antibiotic, time of sampling or present COVID-19 infection. Median daily doses were 50% lower compared to standard bolus dosing.COVID-19 did not significantly affect ß-lactam pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients. Personalized ß-lactam dosing strategies were safe in critically ill patients and lead to high PK target attainment with less resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , beta-Lactams/administration & dosage , beta-Lactams/pharmacokinetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , Critical Illness , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Monitoring , Female , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Male , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , beta-Lactams/economics , beta-Lactams/therapeutic use
3.
J Adv Res ; 32: 27-36, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240416

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In long-term induced general anesthesia cases such as those uniquely defined by the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic context, the clearance of hypnotic and analgesic drugs from the body follows anomalous diffusion with afferent drug trapping and escape rates in heterogeneous tissues. Evidence exists that drug molecules have a preference to accumulate in slow acting compartments such as muscle and fat mass volumes. Currently used patient dependent pharmacokinetic models do not take into account anomalous diffusion resulted from heterogeneous drug distribution in the body with time varying clearance rates. Objectives: This paper proposes a mathematical framework for drug trapping estimation in PK models for estimating optimal drug infusion rates to maintain long-term anesthesia in Covid-19 patients. We also propose a protocol for measuring and calibrating PK models, along with a methodology to minimize blood sample collection. Methods: We propose a framework enabling calibration of the models during the follow up of Covid-19 patients undergoing anesthesia during their treatment and recovery period in ICU. The proposed model can be easily updated with incoming information from clinical protocols on blood plasma drug concentration profiles. Already available pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models can be then calibrated based on blood plasma concentration measurements. Results: The proposed calibration methodology allow to minimize risk for potential over-dosing as clearance rates are updated based on direct measurements from the patient. Conclusions: The proposed methodology will reduce the adverse effects related to over-dosing, which allow further increase of the success rate during the recovery period.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , COVID-19 , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Female , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacokinetics , Male , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Middle Aged , Pandemics
4.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 60(5): 569-583, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157031

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV, Veklury®) is a once-daily, nucleoside ribonucleic acid polymerase inhibitor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 replication. Remdesivir has been granted approvals in several countries for use in adults and children hospitalized with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Inside the cell, remdesivir undergoes metabolic activation to form the intracellular active triphosphate metabolite, GS-443902 (detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells), and ultimately, the renally eliminated plasma metabolite GS-441524. This review discusses the pre-clinical pharmacology of RDV, clinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics/concentration-QT analysis, rationale for dose selection for treatment of patients with COVID-19, and drug-drug interaction potential based on available in vitro and clinical data in healthy volunteers. Following single-dose intravenous administration over 2 h of an RDV solution formulation across the dose range of 3-225 mg in healthy participants, RDV and its metabolites (GS-704277and GS-441524) exhibit linear pharmacokinetics. Following multiple doses of RDV 150 mg once daily for 7 or 14 days, major metabolite GS-441524 accumulates approximately 1.9-fold in plasma. Based on pharmacokinetic bridging from animal data and available human data in healthy volunteers, the RDV clinical dose regimen of a 200-mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 100-mg maintenance doses for 4 or 9 days was selected for further evaluation of pharmacokinetics and safety. Results showed high intracellular concentrations of GS-443902 suggestive of efficient conversion from RDV into the triphosphate form, and further supporting this clinical dosing regimen for the treatment of COVID-19. Mathematical drug-drug interaction liability predictions, based on in vitro and phase I data, suggest RDV has low potential for drug-drug interactions, as the impact of inducers or inhibitors on RDV disposition is minimized by the parenteral route of administration and extensive extraction. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling, RDV is not predicted to be a clinically significant inhibitor of drug-metabolizing enzymes or transporters in patients infected with COVID-19 at therapeutic RDV doses.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Area Under Curve , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Furans/metabolism , Half-Life , Humans , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Pyrroles/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Triazines/metabolism
5.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs ; 20(6): 525-533, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755898

ABSTRACT

Human factor Xa (FXa) is a serine protease of the common coagulation pathway. FXa is known to activate prothrombin to thrombin, which eventually leads to the formation of cross-linked blood clots. While this process is important in maintaining hemostasis, excessive thrombin generation results in a host of thrombotic conditions. FXa has also been linked to inflammation via protease-activated receptors. Together, coagulopathy and inflammation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of viral infections, including the current coronavirus pandemic. Direct FXa inhibitors have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects, in addition to their established anticoagulant activity. This review summarizes the pharmacological activities of direct FXa inhibitors, their pharmacokinetics, potential drug-drug interactions and adverse effects, and the details of clinical trials involving direct FXa inhibitors in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/pharmacology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Drug Interactions , Factor Xa/metabolism , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Factor Xa Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Half-Life , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Pandemics , Protein Binding/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 77(4): 583-593, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926186

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Chloroquine (CQ) has been repurposed to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the pharmacokinetics (PK) in COVID-19 patients is essential to study its exposure-efficacy/safety relationship and provide a basis for a possible dosing regimen optimization. SUBJECT AND METHODS: In this study, we used a population-based meta-analysis approach to develop a population PK model to characterize the CQ PK in COVID-19 patients. An open-label, single-center study (ethical review approval number: PJ-NBEY-KY-2020-063-01) was conducted to assess the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of CQ in patients with COVID-19. The sparse PK data from 50 COVID-19 patients, receiving 500 mg CQ phosphate twice daily for 7 days, were combined with additional CQ PK data from 18 publications. RESULTS: A two-compartment model with first-order oral absorption and first-order elimination and an absorption lag best described the data. Absorption rate (ka) was estimated to be 0.559 h-1, and a lag time of absorption (ALAG) was estimated to be 0.149 h. Apparent clearance (CL/F) and apparent central volume of distribution (V2/F) was 33.3 l/h and 3630 l. Apparent distribution clearance (Q/F) and volume of distribution of peripheral compartment (Q3/F) were 58.7 l/h and 5120 l. The simulated CQ concentration under five dosing regimens of CQ phosphate were within the safety margin (400 ng/ml). CONCLUSION: Model-based simulation using PK parameters from the COVID-19 patients shows that the concentrations under the currently recommended dosing regimen are below the safety margin for side-effects, which suggests that these dosing regimens are generally safe. The derived population PK model should allow for the assessment of pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) relationships for CQ when given alone or in combination with other agents to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Repositioning , Models, Biological , Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Gastrointestinal Absorption , Humans , Male , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
7.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 59(10): 1251-1260, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Darunavir is an anti-HIV protease inhibitor repurposed for SARS-CoV-2 treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the population pharmacokinetics of darunavir in SARS-CoV-2 patients compared with HIV patients. METHODS: Two separate models were created by means of a nonlinear mixed-effect approach. The influence of clinical covariates on each basic model was tested and the association of significant covariates with darunavir parameters was assessed at multivariate regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses. Monte Carlo simulation assessed the influence of covariates on the darunavir concentration versus time profile. RESULTS: A one-compartment model well-described darunavir concentrations in both groups. In SARS-CoV-2 patients (n = 30), interleukin (IL)-6 and body surface area were covariates associated with darunavir oral clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (Vd), respectively; no covariates were identified in HIV patients (n = 25). Darunavir CL/F was significantly lower in SARS-CoV-2 patients compared with HIV patients (4.1 vs. 10.3 L/h; p < 0.001). CART analysis found that an IL-6 level of 18 pg/mL may split the SARS-CoV-2 population in patients with low versus high darunavir CL/F (mean ± standard deviation 3.47 ± 1.90 vs. 8.03 ± 3.24 L/h; proportion of reduction in error = 0.46). Median (interquartile range) darunavir CL/F was significantly lower in SARS-CoV-2 patients with IL-6 levels ≥ 18 pg/mL than in SARS-CoV-2 patients with IL-6 levels < 18 pg/mL or HIV patients (2.78 [2.16-4.47] vs. 7.24 [5.88-10.38] vs. 9.75 [8.45-13.79] L/h, respectively; p < 0.0001). Increasing IL-6 levels affected darunavir concentration versus time simulated profiles. We hypothesized that increases in IL-6 levels associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 disease may downregulate the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4-mediated metabolism of darunavir. CONCLUSIONS: This is a proof-of-concept of SARS-CoV-2 disease-drug interactions, and may support the need for optimal dose selection of sensitive CYP3A4 substrates in severe SARS-CoV-2 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Darunavir/pharmacokinetics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Interleukin-6/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Body Weights and Measures , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Monte Carlo Method , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
8.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 108(6): 1176-1184, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696806

ABSTRACT

Lopinavir/ritonavir, originally developed for treating HIV, is currently undergoing clinical studies for treating the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although recent reports suggest that lopinavir exhibits in vitro efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, it is a highly protein-bound drug and it remains unknown if it reaches adequate in vivo unbound (free) concentrations in lung tissue. We built a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of lopinavir/ritonavir in white and Chinese populations. Our aim was to perform pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic correlations by comparing simulated free plasma and lung concentration values achieved using different dosing regimens of lopinavir/ritonavir with unbound half-maximal effective concentration (EC50,unbound ) and unbound effective concentration 90% values of lopinavir against SARS-CoV-2. The model was validated against multiple observed clinical datasets for single and repeated dosing of lopinavir/ritonavir. Predicted pharmacokinetic parameters, such as the maximum plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration-time profile, oral clearance, half-life, and minimum plasma concentration at steady-state were within two-fold of clinical values for both populations. Using the current lopinavir/ritonavir regimen of 400/100 mg twice daily, lopinavir does not achieve sufficient free lung concentrations for efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. Although the Chinese population reaches greater plasma and lung concentrations as compared with whites, our simulations suggest that a significant dose increase from the current clinically used dosing regimen is necessary to reach the EC50,unbound value for both populations. Based on safety data, higher doses would likely lead to QT prolongation and gastrointestinal disorders (nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), thus, any dose adjustment must be carefully weighed alongside these safety concerns.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lopinavir/pharmacokinetics , Ritonavir/pharmacokinetics , Area Under Curve , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Half-Life , Humans , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Lung/metabolism , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Models, Biological , Ritonavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 108(5): 976-984, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679745

ABSTRACT

We use a mechanistic lung model to demonstrate that accumulation of chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and azithromycin (AZ) in the lungs is sensitive to changes in lung pH, a parameter that can be affected in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A reduction in pH from 6.7 to 6 in the lungs, as observed in respiratory disease, led to 20-fold, 4.0-fold, and 2.7-fold increases in lung exposure of CQ, HCQ, and AZ, respectively. Simulations indicated that the relatively high concentrations of CQ and HCQ in lung tissue were sustained long after administration of the drugs had stopped. Patients with COVID-19 often present with kidney failure. Our simulations indicate that renal impairment (plus lung pH reduction) caused 30-fold, 8.0-fold, and 3.4-fold increases in lung exposures for CQ, HCQ, and AZ, respectively, with relatively small accompanying increases (20 to 30%) in systemic exposure. Although a number of different dosage regimens were assessed, the purpose of our study was not to provide recommendations for a dosing strategy, but to demonstrate the utility of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling approach to estimate lung concentrations. This, used in conjunction with robust in vitro and clinical data, can help in the assessment of COVID-19 therapeutics going forward.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/pharmacokinetics , Coronavirus Infections , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Lung , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Biological Availability , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Design , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Pharmacotherapy ; 40(8): 843-856, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602791

ABSTRACT

A hyperinflammatory response to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, reminiscent of cytokine release syndrome, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome and organ damage in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Agents that inhibit components of the pro-inflammatory cascade have garnered interest as potential treatment options with hopes that dampening the proinflammatory process may improve clinical outcomes. Baricitinib is a reversible Janus-associated kinase (JAK)-inhibitor that interrupts the signaling of multiple cytokines implicated in COVID-19 immunopathology. It may also have antiviral effects by targeting host factors that viruses rely for cell entry and by suppressing type I interferon driven angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2 upregulation. However, baricitinib's immunosuppressive effects may be detrimental during acute viral infections by delaying viral clearance and increasing vulnerability to secondary opportunistic infections. The lack of reliable biomarkers to monitor patients' immune status as illness evolves complicates deployment of immunosuppressive drugs like baricitinib. Furthermore, baricitinib carries the risk of increased thromboembolic events, which is concerning given the proclivity towards a hypercoagulable state in patients with COVID-19. In this article, we review available data on baricitinib with an emphasis on immunosuppressive and antiviral pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and current progress in COVID-19 clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/pharmacology , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/etiology , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Area Under Curve , Azetidines/administration & dosage , Azetidines/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Interactions , Humans , Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/biosynthesis , Purines , Pyrazoles , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/adverse effects
12.
Ther Drug Monit ; 42(2): 165-168, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-11505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dalbavancin, albeit indicated for the treatment of skin structure infections, is used for a much wider range of infections. This drug is characterized by a long half-life (more than 200 hours), a favorable safety profile, and an activity against a wide array of gram-positive organisms, including several strains of Staphylococci and Enterococci. METHODS: In this study, we presented 3 cases of critically ill patients treated with dalbavancin. All patients were therapeutically monitored for plasma dalbavancin concentrations; ultrafiltrate dalbavancin concentrations were assessed in a patient undergoing continuous renal-replacement therapy. Dalbavancin concentrations were measured using a validated liquid chromatographic method coupled with mass spectrometry. RESULTS: All 3 severely ill patients experiencing necrotizing fasciitis were successfully treated during the acute phase with dalbavancin. Dalbavancin clearance in patient 3 (0.334 L/h) was considerably increased compared with values measured in the other 2 patients (0.054 and 0.075 L/h) and with data reported in the literature (0.04-0.06 L/h). CONCLUSIONS: Our case reports presented preliminary evidence that dalbavancin can be considered a therapeutic option for necrotizing fasciitis in intensive care unit patients. The role of hypoalbuminemia during dalbavancin exposure merits further investigation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Drug Monitoring/methods , Fasciitis, Necrotizing/drug therapy , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Half-Life , Humans , Male , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Teicoplanin/pharmacokinetics , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use
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