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Cell Metab ; 34(3): 424-440.e7, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676683


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a systemic disease that may cause severe metabolic complications in multiple tissues including liver, kidney, and cardiovascular system. However, the underlying mechanisms and optimal treatment remain elusive. Our study shows that impairment of ACE2 pathway is a key factor linking virus infection to its secondary metabolic sequelae. By using structure-based high-throughput virtual screening and connectivity map database, followed with experimental validations, we identify imatinib, methazolamide, and harpagoside as direct enzymatic activators of ACE2. Imatinib and methazolamide remarkably improve metabolic perturbations in vivo in an ACE2-dependent manner under the insulin-resistant state and SARS-CoV-2-infected state. Moreover, viral entry is directly inhibited by these three compounds due to allosteric inhibition of ACE2 binding to spike protein on SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, our study shows that enzymatic activation of ACE2 via imatinib, methazolamide, or harpagoside may be a conceptually new strategy to treat metabolic sequelae of COVID-19.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Metabolic Diseases/drug therapy , Methazolamide/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Down-Regulation/drug effects , HEK293 Cells , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacology , Male , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Metabolic Diseases/virology , Methazolamide/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects
Elife ; 112022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626761


Insulin resistance (IR) contributes to the pathophysiology of diabetes, dementia, viral infection, and cardiovascular disease. Drug repurposing (DR) may identify treatments for IR; however, barriers include uncertainty whether in vitro transcriptomic assays yield quantitative pharmacological data, or how to optimise assay design to best reflect in vivo human disease. We developed a clinical-based human tissue IR signature by combining lifestyle-mediated treatment responses (>500 human adipose and muscle biopsies) with biomarkers of disease status (fasting IR from >1200 biopsies). The assay identified a chemically diverse set of >130 positively acting compounds, highly enriched in true positives, that targeted 73 proteins regulating IR pathways. Our multi-gene RNA assay score reflected the quantitative pharmacological properties of a set of epidermal growth factor receptor-related tyrosine kinase inhibitors, providing insight into drug target specificity; an observation supported by deep learning-based genome-wide predicted pharmacology. Several drugs identified are suitable for evaluation in patients, particularly those with either acute or severe chronic IR.

Developing a new drug that is both safe and effective is a complex and expensive endeavor. An alternative approach is to 'repurpose' existing, safe compounds ­ that is, to establish if they could treat conditions others than the ones they were initially designed for. To achieve this, methods that can predict the activity of thousands of established drugs are necessary. These approaches are particularly important for conditions for which it is hard to find promising treatment. This includes, for instance, heart failure, dementia and other diseases that are linked to the activity of the hormone insulin becoming modified throughout the body, a defect called insulin resistance. Unfortunately, it is difficult to model the complex actions of insulin using cells in the lab, because they involve intricate networks of proteins, tissues and metabolites. Timmons et al. set out to develop a way to better assess whether a drug could be repurposed to treat insulin resistance. The aim was to build a biological signature of the disease in multiple human tissues, as this would help to make the findings more relevant to the clinic. This involved examining which genes were switched on or off in thousands of tissue samples from patients with different degrees of insulin resistance. Importantly, some of the patients had their condition reversed through lifestyle changes, while others did not respond well to treatment. These 'non-responders' provided crucial new clues to screen for active drugs. Carefully piecing the data together revealed the molecules and pathways most related to the severity of insulin resistance. Cross-referencing these results with the way existing drugs act on gene activity, highlighted 138 compounds that directly bind 73 proteins responsible for regulating insulin resistance pathways. Some of the drugs identified are suitable for short-term clinical studies, and it may even be possible to rank similar compounds based on their chemical activity. Beyond giving a glimpse into the complex molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in humans, Timmons et al. provide a fresh approach to how drugs could be repurposed, which could be adapted to other conditions.

Drug Repositioning , Metabolic Diseases/drug therapy , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Diseases/genetics , Muscles/metabolism , Transcriptome
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 176, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388767


BACKGROUND: It remains uncertain if prior use of oral anticoagulants (OACs) in COVID-19 outpatients with multimorbidity impacts prognosis, especially if cardiometabolic diseases are present. Clinical outcomes 30-days after COVID-19 diagnosis were compared between outpatients with cardiometabolic disease receiving vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or direct-acting OAC (DOAC) therapy at time of COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: A study was conducted using TriNetX, a global federated health research network. Adult outpatients with cardiometabolic disease (i.e. diabetes mellitus and any disease of the circulatory system) treated with VKAs or DOACs at time of COVID-19 diagnosis between 20-Jan-2020 and 15-Feb-2021 were included. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to balance cohorts receiving VKAs and DOACs. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission/mechanical ventilation (MV) necessity, intracranial haemorrhage (ICH)/gastrointestinal bleeding, and the composite of any arterial or venous thrombotic event(s) at 30-days after COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: 2275 patients were included. After PSM, 1270 patients remained in the study (635 on VKAs; 635 on DOACs). VKA-treated patients had similar risks and 30-day event-free survival than patients on DOACs regarding all-cause mortality, ICU admission/MV necessity, and ICH/gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of any arterial or venous thrombotic event was 43% higher in the VKA cohort (hazard ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.98; Log-Rank test p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 outpatients with cardiometabolic diseases, prior use of DOAC therapy compared to VKA therapy at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis demonstrated lower risk of arterial or venous thrombotic outcomes, without increasing the risk of bleeding.

Ambulatory Care/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Metabolic Diseases/drug therapy , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Administration, Oral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/mortality , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Metabolic Diseases/mortality , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Treatment Outcome
Biomed Pharmacother ; 140: 111685, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235862


Type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, and other associated metabolic complications have been demonstrated as a crucial contributor to the enhanced morbidity and mortality of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Data on the interplay between metabolic comorbidities and the outcomes in patients with COVID-19 have been emerging and rapidly increasing. This implies a mechanistic link between metabolic diseases and COVID-19 resulting in the exacerbation of the condition. Nonetheless, new evidences are emerging to support insulin-mediated aggressive glucose-lowering treatment as a possible trigger of high mortality rate in diabetic COVID-19 patients, putting the clinician in a confounding and difficult dilemma for the treatment of COVID-19 patients with metabolic comorbidities. Thus, this review discusses the pathophysiological link among severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), metabolic complications, and severe inflammation in COVID-19 development, especially in those with multi-organ injuries. We discuss the influence of several routinely used drugs in COVID-19 patients, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant drugs, antidiabetic drugs, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors. Especially, we provide a balanced overview on the clinical application of glucose-lowering drugs (insulin and metformin), angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers. Although there is insufficient evidence from clinical or basic research to comprehensively reveal the mechanistic link between adverse outcomes in COVID-19 and metabolic comorbidities, it is hoped that the update in the current review may help to better outline the optimal strategies for clinical management of COVID-19 patients with metabolic comorbidities.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Metabolic Diseases/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Comorbidity , Humans , Polypharmacy
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 55-62, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065018


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly evolving, thereby posing a profound challenge to the global healthcare system. Cardiometabolic disorders are associated with poor clinical outcomes in persons with COVID-19. Healthcare challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic are linked to resource constraints including shortage of Personal Protective Equipment's (PPE), laboratory tests and medication. In this context, a group of clinical experts discussed the endocrine and cardiology vigilance required in times of COVID-19. Further, the group proposed certain resource husbandry recommendations to be followed during the pandemic to overcome the constraints. METHOD: The clinical experts discussed and provided their inputs virtually. The expert panel included clinical experts comprising endocrinologists, Consultant Physicians and cardiologists from India. The panel thoroughly reviewed existing literature on the subject and proposed expert opinion. RESULTS: The expert panel put forward clinical practice-based opinion for the management of cardiometabolic conditions including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. As these conditions are associated with poor clinical outcomes, the expert panel recommends that these persons be extra-cautious and take necessary precautions during the ongoing pandemic. Further, experts also provided appropriate, affordable, available and accessible solution to the resource constraint situations in times of COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: The clinical expert opinion put forward in this article will serve as a reference for clinicians treating diabetes and cardiovascular disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Expert Testimony/trends , Health Resources/trends , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , India/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Metabolic Diseases/drug therapy
Cell ; 181(6): 1189-1193, 2020 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720440


Researchers around the globe have been mounting, accelerating, and redeploying efforts across disciplines and organizations to tackle the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. However, humankind continues to be afflicted by numerous other devastating diseases in increasing numbers. Here, we outline considerations and opportunities toward striking a good balance between maintaining and redefining research priorities.

Biomedical Research , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Biomedical Research/economics , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Data Science/instrumentation , Data Science/methods , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Inventions , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Metabolic Diseases/drug therapy , Metabolic Diseases/prevention & control , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Research