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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 802447, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699427

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious epidemic, characterized by potential mutation and can bring about poor vaccine efficiency. It is evidenced that patients with malignancies, including prostate cancer (PC), may be highly vulnerable to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Currently, there are no existing drugs that can cure PC and COVID-19. Luteolin can potentially be employed for COVID-19 treatment and serve as a potent anticancer agent. Our present study was conducted to discover the possible drug target and curative mechanism of luteolin to serve as treatment for PC and COVID-19. The differential gene expression of PC cases was determined via RNA sequencing. The application of network pharmacology and molecular docking aimed to exhibit the drug targets and pharmacological mechanisms of luteolin. In this study, we found the top 20 up- and downregulated gene expressions in PC patients. Enrichment data demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects, where improvement of metabolism and enhancement of immunity were the main functions and mechanism of luteolin in treating PC and COVID-19, characterized by associated signaling pathways. Additional core drug targets, including MPO and FOS genes, were computationally identified accordingly. In conclusion, luteolin may be a promising treatment for PC and COVID-19 based on bioinformatics findings, prior to future clinical validation and application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery/methods , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Computational Biology/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Luteolin/pharmacology , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , Protein Interaction Maps/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
2.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 22(2): 273-311, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666892

ABSTRACT

Due to the high mortality rate of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, there is an immediate need to discover drugs that can help before a vaccine becomes available. Given that the process of producing new drugs is so long, the strategy of repurposing existing drugs is one of the promising options for the urgent treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19 disease. Although FDA has approved Remdesivir for the use in hospitalized adults and pediatric patients suffering from COVID-19, no fully effective and reliable drug has been yet identified worldwide to treat COVID-19 specifically. Thus, scientists are still trying to find antivirals specific to COVID-19. This work reviews the chemical structure, metabolic pathway, and mechanism of action of the existing drugs with potential therapeutic applications for COVID-19. Furthermore, we summarized the molecular docking stimulation of the medications related to key protein targets. These already established drugs could be further developed, and after their testing through clinical trials, they could be used as suitable therapeutic options for patients suffering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 29, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655546

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted on mink farms between minks and humans in many countries. However, the systemic pathological features of SARS-CoV-2-infected minks are mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrated that minks were largely permissive to SARS-CoV-2, characterized by severe and diffuse alveolar damage, and lasted at least 14 days post inoculation (dpi). We first reported that infected minks displayed multiple organ-system lesions accompanied by an increased inflammatory response and widespread viral distribution in the cardiovascular, hepatobiliary, urinary, endocrine, digestive, and immune systems. The viral protein partially co-localized with activated Mac-2+ macrophages throughout the body. Moreover, we first found that the alterations in lipids and metabolites were correlated with the histological lesions in infected minks, especially at 6 dpi, and were similar to that of patients with severe and fatal COVID-19. Particularly, altered metabolic pathways, abnormal digestion, and absorption of vitamins, lipids, cholesterol, steroids, amino acids, and proteins, consistent with hepatic dysfunction, highlight metabolic and immune dysregulation. Enriched kynurenine in infected minks contributed to significant activation of the kynurenine pathway and was related to macrophage activation. Melatonin, which has significant anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects, was significantly downregulated at 6 dpi and displayed potential as a targeted medicine. Our data first illustrate systematic analyses of infected minks to recapitulate those observations in severe and fetal COVID-19 patients, delineating a useful animal model to mimic SARS-CoV-2-induced systematic and severe pathophysiological features and provide a reliable tool for the development of effective and targeted treatment strategies, vaccine research, and potential biomarkers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Metabolome , Mink/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Amino Acids/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/virology , Melatonin/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sterols/metabolism , Virulence , Virus Replication/genetics
5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(1): 73-108, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622955

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread around the world and became a global pandemic in 2020. One promising drug target for SARS-CoV-2 is the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). This study was designed to explore the expression status, prognostic significance and molecular functions of TMPRSS2 in lung cancer. TMPRSS2 expression was investigated using the TIMER, Oncomine, UALCAN, GEO, HPA and TCGA databases. The prognostic value of TMPRSS2 was examined using Cox regression and a nomogram. KEGG, GO and GSEA were performed to investigate the cellular function of TMPRSS2 in lung cancer. The relationship between TMPRSS2 and immune infiltration was determined using the TIMER and CIBERSORT algorithms. TMPRSS2 mRNA and protein expression was significantly reduced in lung cancer. Decreased TMPRSS2 expression and increased DNA methylation of TMPRSS2 were associated with various clinicopathological parameters in patients with lung cancer. Low TMPRSS2 mRNA expression also correlated with poor outcome in lung cancer patients. Moreover, a nomogram was constructed and exhibited good predictive power for the overall survival of lung cancer patients. KEGG and GO analyses and GSEA implied that multiple immune- and metabolism-related pathways were significantly linked with TMPRSS2 expression. Intriguingly, TMPRSS2 expression associated with immune cell infiltration in lung cancer. More importantly, TMPRSS2 expression was markedly decreased in SARS-CoV-infected cells. These findings indicate that TMPRSS2 may be a promising prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for lung cancer through metabolic pathways and immune cell infiltration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Immune System/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Young Adult
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580701

ABSTRACT

Using drugs to treat COVID-19 symptoms may induce adverse effects and modify patient outcomes. These adverse events may be further aggravated in obese patients, who often present different illnesses such as metabolic-associated fatty liver disease. In Rennes University Hospital, several drug such as hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used in the clinical trial HARMONICOV to treat COVID-19 patients, including obese patients. The aim of this study is to determine whether HCQ metabolism and hepatotoxicity are worsened in obese patients using an in vivo/in vitro approach. Liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry in combination with untargeted screening and molecular networking were employed to study drug metabolism in vivo (patient's plasma) and in vitro (HepaRG cells and RPTEC cells). In addition, HepaRG cells model were used to reproduce pathophysiological features of obese patient metabolism, i.e., in the condition of hepatic steatosis. The metabolic signature of HCQ was modified in HepaRG cells cultured under a steatosis condition and a new metabolite was detected (carboxychloroquine). The RPTEC model was found to produce only one metabolite. A higher cytotoxicity of HCQ was observed in HepaRG cells exposed to exogenous fatty acids, while neutral lipid accumulation (steatosis) was further enhanced in these cells. These in vitro data were compared with the biological parameters of 17 COVID-19 patients treated with HCQ included in the HARMONICOV cohort. Overall, our data suggest that steatosis may be a risk factor for altered drug metabolism and possibly toxicity of HCQ.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Correlation of Data , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Fatty Liver/complications , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Linear Models , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Risk Factors
7.
Bioengineered ; 12(2): 12461-12469, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585255

ABSTRACT

Severe mortality due to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted from the lack of effective treatment. Although COVID-19 vaccines are available, their side effects have become a challenge for clinical use in patients with chronic diseases, especially cancer patients. In the current report, we applied network pharmacology and systematic bioinformatics to explore the use of biochanin A in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and COVID-19 infection. Using the network pharmacology approach, we identified two clusters of genes involved in immune response (IL1A, IL2, and IL6R) and cell proliferation (CCND1, PPARG, and EGFR) mediated by biochanin A in CRC/COVID-19 condition. The functional analysis of these two gene clusters further illustrated the effects of biochanin A on interleukin-6 production and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction in CRC/COVID-19 pathology. In addition, pathway analysis demonstrated the control of PI3K-Akt and JAK-STAT signaling pathways by biochanin A in the treatment of CRC/COVID-19. The findings of this study provide a therapeutic option for combination therapy against COVID-19 infection in CRC patients.


Subject(s)
Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Genistein/therapeutic use , Phytoestrogens/therapeutic use , Atlases as Topic , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/immunology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Cyclin D1/genetics , Cyclin D1/immunology , ErbB Receptors/genetics , ErbB Receptors/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-1alpha/genetics , Interleukin-1alpha/immunology , Interleukin-2/genetics , Interleukin-2/immunology , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/immunology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Multigene Family , PPAR gamma/genetics , PPAR gamma/immunology , Pharmacogenetics/methods , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/immunology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/immunology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , STAT Transcription Factors/immunology , Signal Transduction
8.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(3): 484-502, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555185

ABSTRACT

To better understand the mechanisms at the basis of neutrophil functions during SARS-CoV-2, we studied patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. They had high blood proportion of degranulated neutrophils and elevated plasma levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), elastase, and MPO-DNA complexes, which are typical markers of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). Their neutrophils display dysfunctional mitochondria, defective oxidative burst, increased glycolysis, glycogen accumulation in the cytoplasm, and increase glycogenolysis. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (ΗΙF-1α) is stabilized in such cells, and it controls the level of glycogen phosphorylase L (PYGL), a key enzyme in glycogenolysis. Inhibiting PYGL abolishes the ability of neutrophils to produce NET. Patients displayed significant increases of plasma levels of molecules involved in the regulation of neutrophils' function including CCL2, CXCL10, CCL20, IL-18, IL-3, IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ. Our data suggest that metabolic remodelling is vital for the formation of NET and for boosting neutrophil inflammatory response, thus, suggesting that modulating ΗΙF-1α or PYGL could represent a novel approach for innovative therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/blood , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Female , Glycogen Phosphorylase, Liver Form/blood , Granulocytes/immunology , Granulocytes/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/blood , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/immunology , Middle Aged , Neutrophil Activation , Peroxidase/blood , Respiratory Burst , Severity of Illness Index
9.
mSphere ; 6(6): e0071121, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546463

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need to identify additional antiviral small molecules to complement existing therapies. Although increasing evidence suggests that metabolites produced by the human microbiome have diverse biological activities, their antiviral properties remain poorly explored. Using a cell-based SARS-CoV-2 infection assay, we screened culture broth extracts from a collection of phylogenetically diverse human-associated bacteria for the production of small molecules with antiviral activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation uncovered three bacterial metabolites capable of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection. This included the nucleoside analogue N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine, the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist tryptamine, and the pyrazine 2,5-bis(3-indolylmethyl)pyrazine. The most potent of these, N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine, had a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2 µM. These natural antiviral compounds exhibit structural and functional similarities to synthetic drugs that have been clinically examined for use against COVID-19. Our discovery of structurally diverse metabolites with anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity from screening a small fraction of the bacteria reported to be associated with the human microbiome suggests that continued exploration of phylogenetically diverse human-associated bacteria is likely to uncover additional small molecules that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 as well as other viral infections. IMPORTANCE The continued prevalence of COVID-19 and the emergence of new variants has once again put the spotlight on the need for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 antivirals. The human microbiome produces an array of small molecules with bioactivities (e.g., host receptor ligands), but its ability to produce antiviral small molecules is relatively underexplored. Here, using a cell-based screening platform, we describe the isolation of three microbiome-derived metabolites that are able to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. These molecules display structural similarities to synthetic drugs that have been explored for the treatment of COVID-19, and these results suggest that the microbiome may be a fruitful source of the discovery of small molecules with antiviral activities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Microbiota/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Symbiosis/physiology , Bacteria/chemistry , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/growth & development , Biological Assay , Cell Line, Tumor , Culture Media/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding
10.
Curr Probl Dermatol ; 55: 329-338, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541964

ABSTRACT

While UV radiation is a skin carcinogen, this should not obscure the growing evidence that sunlight has significant health benefits, including impacts on cardiovascular and metabolic health. Epidemiological and mechanistic evidences for the importance of different wavelengths of sunlight, including blue light and UV radiation, are presented.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Skin/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Vitamin D/biosynthesis , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/radiation effects , Risk Assessment , Skin/metabolism , Skin/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/etiology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534091

ABSTRACT

Myopia is the second leading cause of visual impairment globally. Myopia can induce sight-threatening retinal degeneration and the underlying mechanism remains poorly defined. We generated a model of myopia-induced early-stage retinal degeneration in guinea pigs and investigated the mechanism of action. Methods: The form-deprivation-induced myopia (FDM) was induced in the right eyes of 2~3-week-old guinea pigs using a translucent balloon for 15 weeks. The left eye remained untreated and served as a self-control. Another group of untreated age-matched animals was used as naïve controls. The refractive error and ocular biometrics were measured at 3, 7, 9, 12 and 15 weeks post-FDM induction. Visual function was evaluated by electroretinography. Retinal neurons and synaptic structures were examined by confocal microscopy of immunolabelled retinal sections. The total RNAs were extracted from the retinas and processed for RNA sequencing analysis. Results: The FDM eyes presented a progressive axial length elongation and refractive error development. After 15 weeks of intervention, the average refractive power was -3.40 ± 1.85 D in the FDM eyes, +2.94 ± 0.59 D and +2.69 ± 0.56 D in the self-control and naïve control eyes, respectively. The a-wave amplitude was significantly lower in FDM eyes and these eyes had a significantly lower number of rods, secretagogin+ bipolar cells, and GABAergic amacrine cells in selected retinal areas. RNA-seq analysis showed that 288 genes were upregulated and 119 genes were downregulated in FDM retinas compared to naïve control retinas. In addition, 152 genes were upregulated and 12 were downregulated in FDM retinas compared to self-control retinas. The KEGG enrichment analysis showed that tyrosine metabolism, ABC transporters and inflammatory pathways were upregulated, whereas tight junction, lipid and glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis were downregulated in FDM eyes. Conclusions: The long-term (15-week) FDM in the guinea pig models induced an early-stage retinal degeneration. The dysregulation of the tyrosine metabolism and inflammatory pathways may contribute to the pathogenesis of myopia-induced retinal degeneration.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/genetics , Myopia/genetics , Retinal Degeneration/genetics , Tyrosine/metabolism , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Glycosaminoglycans/genetics , Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism , Guinea Pigs , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Myopia/complications , Myopia/pathology , RNA-Seq , Retina/metabolism , Retina/pathology , Retinal Degeneration/etiology , Retinal Degeneration/pathology , Tyrosine/genetics
12.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(11): e10260, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488874

ABSTRACT

Tremendous progress has been made to control the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, effective therapeutic options are still rare. Drug repurposing and combination represent practical strategies to address this urgent unmet medical need. Viruses, including coronaviruses, are known to hijack host metabolism to facilitate viral proliferation, making targeting host metabolism a promising antiviral approach. Here, we describe an integrated analysis of 12 published in vitro and human patient gene expression datasets on SARS-CoV-2 infection using genome-scale metabolic modeling (GEM), revealing complicated host metabolism reprogramming during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We next applied the GEM-based metabolic transformation algorithm to predict anti-SARS-CoV-2 targets that counteract the virus-induced metabolic changes. We successfully validated these targets using published drug and genetic screen data and by performing an siRNA assay in Caco-2 cells. Further generating and analyzing RNA-sequencing data of remdesivir-treated Vero E6 cell samples, we predicted metabolic targets acting in combination with remdesivir, an approved anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug. Our study provides clinical data-supported candidate anti-SARS-CoV-2 targets for future evaluation, demonstrating host metabolism targeting as a promising antiviral strategy.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Datasets as Topic , Drug Development , Drug Repositioning , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , RNA, Small Interfering , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Vero Cells
13.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 9(1): e00712, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482163

ABSTRACT

Mass drug administration of ivermectin has been proposed as a possible malaria elimination tool. Ivermectin exhibits a mosquito-lethal effect well beyond its biological half-life, suggesting the presence of active slowly eliminated metabolites. Human liver microsomes, primary human hepatocytes, and whole blood from healthy volunteers given oral ivermectin were used to identify ivermectin metabolites by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The molecular structures of metabolites were determined by mass spectrometry and verified by nuclear magnetic resonance. Pure cytochrome P450 enzyme isoforms were used to elucidate the metabolic pathways. Thirteen different metabolites (M1-M13) were identified after incubation of ivermectin with human liver microsomes. Three (M1, M3, and M6) were the major metabolites found in microsomes, hepatocytes, and blood from volunteers after oral ivermectin administration. The chemical structure, defined by LC-MS/MS and NMR, indicated that M1 is 3″-O-demethyl ivermectin, M3 is 4-hydroxymethyl ivermectin, and M6 is 3″-O-demethyl, 4-hydroxymethyl ivermectin. Metabolic pathway evaluations with characterized cytochrome P450 enzymes showed that M1, M3, and M6 were produced primarily by CYP3A4, and that M1 was also produced to a small extent by CYP3A5. Demethylated (M1) and hydroxylated (M3) ivermectin were the main human in vivo metabolites. Further studies are needed to characterize the pharmacokinetic properties and mosquito-lethal activity of these metabolites.


Subject(s)
Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Ivermectin/pharmacokinetics , Administration, Oral , Antiparasitic Agents/blood , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Demethylation , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Humans , Hydroxylation , Ivermectin/blood , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480800

ABSTRACT

Plenty of research has revealed virus induced alternations in metabolic pathways, which is known as metabolic reprogramming. Studies focusing on COVID-19 have uncovered significant changes in metabolism, resulting in the perspective that COVID-19 is a metabolic disease. Reprogramming of amino acid, glucose, cholesterol and fatty acid is distinctive characteristic of COVID-19 infection. These metabolic changes in COVID-19 have a critical role not only in producing energy and virus constituent elements, but also in regulating immune response, offering new insights into COVID-19 pathophysiology. Remarkably, metabolic reprogramming provides great opportunities for developing novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for COVID-19 infection. Such novel agents are expected to be effective adjuvant therapies. In this review, we integrate present studies about major metabolic reprogramming in COVID-19, as well as the possibility of targeting reprogrammed metabolism to combat virus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Amino Acids/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/metabolism
15.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480599

ABSTRACT

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) constitute a plastic and heterogeneous cell population among immune cells within the tumour microenvironment (TME) that support cancer progression and resistance to therapy. During tumour progression, cancer cells modify their metabolism to sustain an increased energy demand to cope with uncontrolled cell proliferation and differentiation. This metabolic reprogramming of cancer establishes competition for nutrients between tumour cells and leukocytes and most importantly, among tumour-infiltrating immune cells. Thus, MDSCs that have emerged as one of the most decisive immune regulators of TME exhibit an increase in glycolysis and fatty acid metabolism and also an upregulation of enzymes that catabolise essential metabolites. This complex metabolic network is not only crucial for MDSC survival and accumulation in the TME but also for enhancing immunosuppressive functions toward immune effectors. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the field of MDSC-associated metabolic pathways that could facilitate therapeutic targeting of these cells during cancer progression.


Subject(s)
Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/immunology , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology , Animals , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/therapy
16.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(10): e10387, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478718

ABSTRACT

We need to effectively combine the knowledge from surging literature with complex datasets to propose mechanistic models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improving data interpretation and predicting key targets of intervention. Here, we describe a large-scale community effort to build an open access, interoperable and computable repository of COVID-19 molecular mechanisms. The COVID-19 Disease Map (C19DMap) is a graphical, interactive representation of disease-relevant molecular mechanisms linking many knowledge sources. Notably, it is a computational resource for graph-based analyses and disease modelling. To this end, we established a framework of tools, platforms and guidelines necessary for a multifaceted community of biocurators, domain experts, bioinformaticians and computational biologists. The diagrams of the C19DMap, curated from the literature, are integrated with relevant interaction and text mining databases. We demonstrate the application of network analysis and modelling approaches by concrete examples to highlight new testable hypotheses. This framework helps to find signatures of SARS-CoV-2 predisposition, treatment response or prioritisation of drug candidates. Such an approach may help deal with new waves of COVID-19 or similar pandemics in the long-term perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Factual , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Software , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Computer Graphics , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Data Mining/statistics & numerical data , Gene Expression Regulation , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/virology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/immunology , Myeloid Cells/drug effects , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/virology , Protein Interaction Mapping , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/immunology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology
17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(1): 166289, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466061

ABSTRACT

To explore the recovery of renal function in severely ill coronavirus disease (COVID-19) survivors and determine the plasma metabolomic profile of patients with different renal outcomes 3 months after discharge, we included 89 severe COVID-19 survivors who had been discharged from Wuhan Union Hospital for 3 months. All patients had no underlying kidney disease before admission. At patient recruitment, renal function assessment, laboratory examination, chest computed tomography (CT) were performed. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect metabolites in the plasma. We analyzed the longitudinally change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on serum creatinine and cystatin-c levels using the CKD-EPI equation and explored the metabolomic differences in patients with different eGFR change patterns from hospitalization to 3 months after discharge. Lung CT showed good recovery; however, the median eGFR significantly decreased at the 3-month follow-up. Among the 89 severely ill COVID-19 patients, 69 (77.5%) showed abnormal eGFR (<90 mL/min per 1.73 m2) at 3 months after discharge. Age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-1.47, p = 0.003), body mass index (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.20-3.22, p = 0.007), and cystatin-c level (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07-1.39, p = 0.003) at discharge were independent risk factors for post-discharge abnormal eGFR. Plasma metabolomics at the 3-months follow-up revealed that ß-pseudouridine, uridine, and 2-(dimethylamino) guanosine levels gradually increased with an abnormal degree of eGFR. Moreover, the kynurenine pathway in tryptophan metabolism, vitamin B6 metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, and arginine biosynthesis were also perturbed in survivors with abnormal eGFR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Energy Metabolism , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Diseases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Metabolome , Metabolomics/methods , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Patient Discharge , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19998, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462031

ABSTRACT

Understanding the effects of metabolism on the rational design of novel and more effective drugs is still a considerable challenge. To the best of our knowledge, there are no entirely computational strategies that make it possible to predict these effects. From this perspective, the development of such methodologies could contribute to significantly reduce the side effects of medicines, leading to the emergence of more effective and safer drugs. Thereby, in this study, our strategy is based on simulating the electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) fragmentation of the drug molecules and combined with molecular docking and ADMET models in two different situations. In the first model, the drug is docked without considering the possible metabolic effects. In the second model, each of the intermediates from the EI-MS results is docked, and metabolism occurs before the drug accesses the biological target. As a proof of concept, in this work, we investigate the main antiviral drugs used in clinical research to treat COVID-19. As a result, our strategy made it possible to assess the biological activity and toxicity of all potential by-products. We believed that our findings provide new chemical insights that can benefit the rational development of novel drugs in the future.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenine/adverse effects , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/metabolism , Adenine/pharmacology , Adenosine/adverse effects , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/metabolism , Adenosine/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Amides/adverse effects , Amides/metabolism , Amides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/metabolism , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Drug Design , Humans , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitro Compounds/adverse effects , Nitro Compounds/metabolism , Nitro Compounds/pharmacology , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Pyrazines/metabolism , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/adverse effects , Pyrrolidines/metabolism , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ribavirin/metabolism , Ribavirin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thiazoles/adverse effects , Thiazoles/metabolism , Thiazoles/pharmacology
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390657

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global threat that has spread since the end of 2019, causing severe clinical sequelae and deaths, in the context of a world pandemic. The infection of the highly pathogenetic and infectious SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has been proven to exert systemic effects impacting the metabolism. Yet, the metabolic pathways involved in the pathophysiology and progression of COVID-19 are still unclear. Here, we present the results of a mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomic analysis on a cohort of 52 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, classified according to disease severity as mild, moderate, and severe. Our analysis defines a clear signature of COVID-19 that includes increased serum levels of lactic acid in all the forms of the disease. Pathway analysis revealed dysregulation of energy production and amino acid metabolism. Globally, the variations found in the serum metabolome of COVID-19 patients may reflect a more complex systemic perturbation induced by SARS-CoV-2, possibly affecting carbon and nitrogen liver metabolism.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Carbon/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Metabolome , Nitrogen/metabolism , Amino Acids/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Discriminant Analysis , Humans , Least-Squares Analysis , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Metabolomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Molecules ; 25(12)2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389454

ABSTRACT

Viruses can be spread from one person to another; therefore, they may cause disorders in many people, sometimes leading to epidemics and even pandemics. New, previously unstudied viruses and some specific mutant or recombinant variants of known viruses constantly appear. An example is a variant of coronaviruses (CoV) causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), named SARS-CoV-2. Some antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir as well as antiretroviral drugs including darunavir, lopinavir, and ritonavir are suggested to be effective in treating disorders caused by SARS-CoV-2. There are data on the utilization of antiretroviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2. Since there are many studies aimed at the identification of the molecular mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and the development of novel therapeutic approaches against HIV-1, we used HIV-1 for our case study to identify possible molecular pathways shared by SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1. We applied a text and data mining workflow and identified a list of 46 targets, which can be essential for the development of infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1. We show that SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 share some molecular pathways involved in inflammation, immune response, cell cycle regulation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Data Mining/methods , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antigens, Differentiation/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Complement System Proteins/genetics , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression Regulation , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/drug effects , HIV-1/immunology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Interferons/genetics , Interferons/immunology , Interleukins/genetics , Interleukins/immunology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Repressor Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/immunology
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