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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0054921, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381170

ABSTRACT

In one year of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many studies have described the different metabolic changes occurring in COVID-19 patients, linking these alterations to the disease severity. However, a complete metabolic signature of the most severe cases, especially those with a fatal outcome, is still missing. Our study retrospectively analyzes the metabolome profiles of 75 COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe symptoms admitted to Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico (Lombardy Region, Italy) following SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and April 2020. Italy was the first Western country to experience COVID-19, and the Lombardy Region was the epicenter of the Italian COVID-19 pandemic. This cohort shows a higher mortality rate compared to others; therefore, it represents a unique opportunity to investigate the underlying metabolic profiles of the first COVID-19 patients in Italy and to identify the potential biomarkers related to the disease prognosis and fatal outcome. IMPORTANCE Understanding the metabolic alterations occurring during an infection is a key element for identifying potential indicators of the disease prognosis, which are fundamental for developing efficient diagnostic tools and offering the best therapeutic treatment to the patient. Here, exploiting high-throughput metabolomics data, we identified the first metabolic profile associated with a fatal outcome, not correlated with preexisting clinical conditions or the oxygen demand at the moment of diagnosis. Overall, our results contribute to a better understanding of COVID-19-related metabolic disruption and may represent a useful starting point for the identification of independent prognostic factors to be employed in therapeutic practice.


Subject(s)
Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Metabolome/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(17): e2101222, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283720

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities, including the deficiencies in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) and glutathione metabolism. Here it is investigated if administration of a mixture of combined metabolic activators (CMAs) consisting of glutathione and NAD+ precursors can restore metabolic function and thus aid the recovery of COVID-19 patients. CMAs include l-serine, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, nicotinamide riboside, and l-carnitine tartrate, salt form of l-carnitine. Placebo-controlled, open-label phase 2 study and double-blinded phase 3 clinical trials are conducted to investigate the time of symptom-free recovery on ambulatory patients using CMAs. The results of both studies show that the time to complete recovery is significantly shorter in the CMA group (6.6 vs 9.3 d) in phase 2 and (5.7 vs 9.2 d) in phase 3 trials compared to placebo group. A comprehensive analysis of the plasma metabolome and proteome reveals major metabolic changes. Plasma levels of proteins and metabolites associated with inflammation and antioxidant metabolism are significantly improved in patients treated with CMAs as compared to placebo. The results show that treating patients infected with COVID-19 with CMAs lead to a more rapid symptom-free recovery, suggesting a role for such a therapeutic regime in the treatment of infections leading to respiratory problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Antioxidants/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/metabolism , Male , Metabolome/physiology , Middle Aged , Proteins/metabolism , Proteome/metabolism , Young Adult
3.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 577-588, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223836

ABSTRACT

Aim: To understand the pathological progress of COVID-19 and to explore the potential biomarkers. Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing. There is metabolomics research about COVID-19 indicating the rich information of metabolomics is worthy of further data mining. Methods: We applied bioinformatics technology to reanalyze the published metabolomics data of COVID-19. Results: Benzoate, ß-alanine and 4-chlorobenzoic acid were first reported to be used as potential biomarkers to distinguish COVID-19 patients from healthy individuals; taurochenodeoxycholic acid 3-sulfate, glucuronate and N,N,N-trimethyl-alanylproline betaine TMAP are the top classifiers in the receiver operating characteristic curve of COVID-severe and COVID-nonsevere patients. Conclusion: These unique metabolites suggest an underlying immunoregulatory treatment strategy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Metabolome/physiology , Metabolomics , Benzoates/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Chlorobenzoates/blood , Chromatography, Liquid , Computational Biology , Glucuronic Acid/blood , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid/blood , beta-Alanine/blood
4.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1152: 338267, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056120

ABSTRACT

Although SARS-CoV-2 can invade the intestine, though its effect on digestion and absorption is not fully understood. In the present study, 56 COVID-19 patients and 47 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were divided into a discovery cohort and a validation cohort. Blood, faeces and clinical information were collected from the patients in the hospital and at discharge. The faecal metabolome was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and Spearman's correlation analyses of clinical features, the serum metabolome, and the faecal micro- and mycobiota were conducted. The results showed that, the faeces of COVID-19 patients were enriched with important nutrients that should be metabolized or absorbed, such as sucrose and 2-palmitoyl-glycerol; diet-related components that cannot be synthesized by humans, such as 1,5-anhydroglucitol and D-pinitol; and harmful metabolites, such as oxalate, were also detected. In contrast, purine metabolites such as deoxyinosine and hypoxanthine, low-water-soluble long-chain fatty alcohols/acids such as behenic acid, compounds rarely occurring in nature such as D-allose and D-arabinose, and microbe-related compounds such as 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol were depleted in the faeces of COVID-19 patients. Moreover, these metabolites significantly correlated with altered serum metabolites such as oxalate and gut microbesincluding Ruminococcaceae, Actinomyces, Sphingomonas and Aspergillus. Although levels of several faecal metabolites, such as sucrose, 1,5-anhydroglucitol and D-pinitol, of discharged patients were not different from those of healthy controls (HCs), those of oxalate and 2-palmitoyl-glycerol did differ. Therefore, alterations in the faecal metabolome of COVID-19 patients may reflect malnutrition and intestinal inflammation and warrant greater attention. The results of present study provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Dysbiosis/diagnosis , Feces/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Metabolome/physiology , Adult , Bacteria/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Dysbiosis/physiopathology , Feces/microbiology , Female , Fungi/metabolism , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4455-4469, 2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889124

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 beta coronavirus is the etiological driver of COVID-19 disease, which is primarily characterized by shortness of breath, persistent dry cough, and fever. Because they transport oxygen, red blood cells (RBCs) may play a role in the severity of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients. The present study combines state-of-the-art metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics approaches to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on RBCs from 23 healthy subjects and 29 molecularly diagnosed COVID-19 patients. RBCs from COVID-19 patients had increased levels of glycolytic intermediates, accompanied by oxidation and fragmentation of ankyrin, spectrin beta, and the N-terminal cytosolic domain of band 3 (AE1). Significantly altered lipid metabolism was also observed, in particular, short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, and sphingolipids. Nonetheless, there were no alterations of clinical hematological parameters, such as RBC count, hematocrit, or mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, with only minor increases in mean corpuscular volume. Taken together, these results suggest a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on RBC structural membrane homeostasis at the protein and lipid levels. Increases in RBC glycolytic metabolites are consistent with a theoretically improved capacity of hemoglobin to off-load oxygen as a function of allosteric modulation by high-energy phosphate compounds, perhaps to counteract COVID-19-induced hypoxia. Conversely, because the N-terminus of AE1 stabilizes deoxyhemoglobin and finely tunes oxygen off-loading and metabolic rewiring toward the hexose monophosphate shunt, RBCs from COVID-19 patients may be less capable of responding to environmental variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation/oxidant stress when traveling from the lungs to peripheral capillaries and vice versa.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Erythrocytes , Membrane Lipids , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Erythrocytes/chemistry , Erythrocytes/cytology , Erythrocytes/pathology , Humans , Lipidomics , Membrane Lipids/analysis , Membrane Lipids/chemistry , Membrane Lipids/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/analysis , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Metabolome/physiology , Models, Molecular , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Proteome/analysis , Proteome/chemistry , Proteome/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Phytother Res ; 35(2): 908-919, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777655

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is currently decimating the world's most advanced technologies and largest economies and making its way to the continent of Africa. Weak medical infrastructure and over-reliance on medical aids may eventually predict worse outcomes in Africa. To reverse this trend, Africa must re-evaluate the only area with strategic advantage; phytotherapy. One of the many plants with previous antiviral potency is against RNA viruses is Aframomum melegueta. In this study, one hundred (100) A. melegueta secondary metabolites have been mined and computational evaluated for inhibition of host furin, and SARS-COV-2 targets including 3C-like proteinase (Mpro /3CLpro ), 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase (nsp16) and surface glycoprotein/ACE2 receptor interface. Silica-gel column partitioning of A. melegueta fruit/seed resulted in 6 fractions tested against furin activity. Diarylheptanoid (Letestuianin A), phenylpropanoid (4-Cinnamoyl-3-hydroxy-spiro[furan-5,2'-(1'H)-indene]-1',2,3'(2'H,5H)-trione), flavonoids (Quercetin, Apigenin and Tectochrysin) have been identified as high-binding compounds to SARS-COV-2 targets in a polypharmacology manner. Di-ethyl-ether (IC50 = 0.03 mg/L), acetone (IC50 = 1.564 mg/L), ethyl-acetate (IC50 = 0.382 mg/L) and methanol (IC50 = 0.438 mg/L) fractions demonstrated the best inhibition in kinetic assay while DEF, ASF and MEF completely inhibited furin-recognition sequence containing Ebola virus-pre-glycoprotein. In conclusion, A. melegueta and its secondary metabolites have potential for addressing the therapeutic needs of African population during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Furin/antagonists & inhibitors , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/metabolism , Furin/metabolism , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Metabolome/physiology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Polypharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seeds/chemistry , Seeds/metabolism , Zingiberaceae/metabolism
7.
Cell Metab ; 32(2): 188-202.e5, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612608

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents an unprecedented threat to global public health. Herein, we utilized a combination of targeted and untargeted tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the plasma lipidome and metabolome in mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. A panel of 10 plasma metabolites effectively distinguished COVID-19 patients from healthy controls (AUC = 0.975). Plasma lipidome of COVID-19 resembled that of monosialodihexosyl ganglioside (GM3)-enriched exosomes, with enhanced levels of sphingomyelins (SMs) and GM3s, and reduced diacylglycerols (DAGs). Systems evaluation of metabolic dysregulation in COVID-19 was performed using multiscale embedded differential correlation network analyses. Using exosomes isolated from the same cohort, we demonstrated that exosomes of COVID-19 patients with elevating disease severity were increasingly enriched in GM3s. Our work suggests that GM3-enriched exosomes may partake in pathological processes related to COVID-19 pathogenesis and presents the largest repository on the plasma lipidome and metabolome distinct to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Exosomes/metabolism , G(M3) Ganglioside/blood , Gangliosides/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19 , Diglycerides/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolome/physiology , Metabolomics/methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sphingomyelins/blood , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Young Adult
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