Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 131
Filter
1.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 319, 2023 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is still more to learn about the pathobiology of COVID-19. A multi-omic approach offers a holistic view to better understand the mechanisms of COVID-19. We used state-of-the-art statistical learning methods to integrate genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics data obtained from 123 patients experiencing COVID-19 or COVID-19-like symptoms for the purpose of identifying molecular signatures and corresponding pathways associated with the disease. RESULTS: We constructed and validated molecular scores and evaluated their utility beyond clinical factors known to impact disease status and severity. We identified inflammation- and immune response-related pathways, and other pathways, providing insights into possible consequences of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: The molecular scores we derived were strongly associated with disease status and severity and can be used to identify individuals at a higher risk for developing severe disease. These findings have the potential to provide further, and needed, insights into why certain individuals develop worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiomics , Humans , Metabolomics , Genomics , Inflammation
2.
Anal Chem ; 95(25): 9397-9403, 2023 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243247

ABSTRACT

Peak-detection algorithms currently used to process untargeted metabolomics data were designed to maximize sensitivity at the sacrifice of selectively. Peak lists returned by conventional software tools therefore contain a high density of artifacts that do not represent real chemical analytes, which, in turn, hinder downstream analyses. Although some innovative approaches to remove artifacts have recently been introduced, they involve extensive user intervention due to the diversity of peak shapes present within and across metabolomics data sets. To address this bottleneck in metabolomics data processing, we developed a semisupervised deep learning-based approach, PeakDetective, for classification of detected peaks as artifacts or true peaks. Our approach utilizes two techniques for artifact removal. First, an unsupervised autoencoder is used to extract a low-dimensional, latent representation of each peak. Second, a classifier is trained with active learning to discriminate between artifacts and true peaks. Through active learning, the classifier is trained with less than 100 user-labeled peaks in a matter of minutes. Given the speed of its training, PeakDetective can be rapidly tailored to specific LC/MS methods and sample types to maximize performance on each type of data set. In addition to curation, the trained models can also be utilized for peak detection to immediately detect peaks with both high sensitivity and selectivity. We validated PeakDetective on five diverse LC/MS data sets, where PeakDetective showed greater accuracy compared to current approaches. When applied to a SARS-CoV-2 data set, PeakDetective enabled more statistically significant metabolites to be detected. PeakDetective is open source and available as a Python package at https://github.com/pattilab/PeakDetective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Software , Metabolomics/methods
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 132, 2023 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241599

ABSTRACT

Metabolic abnormalities lead to the dysfunction of metabolic pathways and metabolite accumulation or deficiency which is well-recognized hallmarks of diseases. Metabolite signatures that have close proximity to subject's phenotypic informative dimension, are useful for predicting diagnosis and prognosis of diseases as well as monitoring treatments. The lack of early biomarkers could lead to poor diagnosis and serious outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring methods with high specificity and selectivity are desperately needed. Small molecule metabolites-based metabolomics has become a specialized tool for metabolic biomarker and pathway analysis, for revealing possible mechanisms of human various diseases and deciphering therapeutic potentials. It could help identify functional biomarkers related to phenotypic variation and delineate biochemical pathways changes as early indicators of pathological dysfunction and damage prior to disease development. Recently, scientists have established a large number of metabolic profiles to reveal the underlying mechanisms and metabolic networks for therapeutic target exploration in biomedicine. This review summarized the metabolic analysis on the potential value of small-molecule candidate metabolites as biomarkers with clinical events, which may lead to better diagnosis, prognosis, drug screening and treatment. We also discuss challenges that need to be addressed to fuel the next wave of breakthroughs.


Subject(s)
Metabolome , Metabolomics , Humans , Biomarkers , Metabolomics/methods , Metabolic Networks and Pathways
4.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2610, 2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316557

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is characterized by an increase in the number and changes in the function of innate immune cells including neutrophils. However, it is not known how the metabolome of immune cells changes in patients with COVID-19. To address these questions, we analyzed the metabolome of neutrophils from patients with severe or mild COVID-19 and healthy controls. We identified widespread dysregulation of neutrophil metabolism with disease progression including in amino acid, redox, and central carbon metabolism. Metabolic changes in neutrophils from patients with severe COVID-19 were consistent with reduced activity of the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH. Inhibition of GAPDH blocked glycolysis and promoted pentose phosphate pathway activity but blunted the neutrophil respiratory burst. Inhibition of GAPDH was sufficient to cause neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation which required neutrophil elastase activity. GAPDH inhibition increased neutrophil pH, and blocking this increase prevented cell death and NET formation. These findings indicate that neutrophils in severe COVID-19 have an aberrant metabolism which can contribute to their dysfunction. Our work also shows that NET formation, a pathogenic feature of many inflammatory diseases, is actively suppressed in neutrophils by a cell-intrinsic mechanism controlled by GAPDH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating) , Humans , COVID-19/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Neutrophils , Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating)/metabolism
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 954801, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315271

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 and its mutant strains continue to rapidly spread with high infection and fatality. Large-scale SARS-CoV-2 vaccination provides an important guarantee for effective resistance to existing or mutated SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. However, whether the host metabolite levels respond to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-influenced host immunity remains unclear. To help delineate the serum metabolome profile of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated volunteers and determine that the metabolites tightly respond to host immune antibodies and cytokines, in this study, a total of 59 sera samples were collected from 30 individuals before SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and from 29 COVID-19 vaccines 2 weeks after the two-dose vaccination. Next, untargeted metabolomics was performed and a distinct metabolic composition was revealed between the pre-vaccination (VB) group and two-dose vaccination (SV) group by partial least squares-discriminant and principal component analyses. Based on the criteria: FDR < 0.05, absolute log2 fold change greater than 0.25, and VIP >1, we found that L-glutamic acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), succinic acid, and taurine showed increasing trends from SV to VB. Furthermore, SV-associated metabolites were mainly annotated to butanoate metabolism and glutamate metabolism pathways. Moreover, two metabolite biomarkers classified SV from VB individuals with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.96. Correlation analysis identified a positive association between four metabolites enriched in glutamate metabolism and serum antibodies in relation to IgG, IgM, and IgA. These results suggest that the contents of gamma-aminobutyric acid and indole in serum could be applied as biomarkers in distinguishing vaccinated volunteers from the unvaccinated. What's more, metabolites such as GABA and taurine may serve as a metabolic target for adjuvant vaccines to boost the ability of the individuals to improve immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Biomarkers , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytokines , Glutamic Acid , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Indoles , Metabolomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Succinic Acid , Taurine , Vaccination , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
6.
Metabolomics ; 18(1): 6, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310631

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of COVID-19 is normally based on the qualitative detection of viral nucleic acid sequences. Properties of the host response are not measured but are key in determining outcome. Although metabolic profiles are well suited to capture host state, most metabolomics studies are either underpowered, measure only a restricted subset of metabolites, compare infected individuals against uninfected control cohorts that are not suitably matched, or do not provide a compact predictive model. OBJECTIVES: Here we provide a well-powered, untargeted metabolomics assessment of 120 COVID-19 patient samples acquired at hospital admission. The study aims to predict the patient's infection severity (i.e., mild or severe) and potential outcome (i.e., discharged or deceased). METHODS: High resolution untargeted UHPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed on patient serum using both positive and negative ionization modes. A subset of 20 intermediary metabolites predictive of severity or outcome were selected based on univariate statistical significance and a multiple predictor Bayesian logistic regression model was created. RESULTS: The predictors were selected for their relevant biological function and include deoxycytidine and ureidopropionate (indirectly reflecting viral load), kynurenine (reflecting host inflammatory response), and multiple short chain acylcarnitines (energy metabolism) among others. Currently, this approach predicts outcome and severity with a Monte Carlo cross validated area under the ROC curve of 0.792 (SD 0.09) and 0.793 (SD 0.08), respectively. A blind validation study on an additional 90 patients predicted outcome and severity at ROC AUC of 0.83 (CI 0.74-0.91) and 0.76 (CI 0.67-0.86). CONCLUSION: Prognostic tests based on the markers discussed in this paper could allow improvement in the planning of COVID-19 patient treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Metabolomics/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
7.
J Appl Microbiol ; 134(1)2023 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308562

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate the effects of the Qingwen Gupi decoction (QGT) in a rat model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF), and explore the underlying mechanisms by integrating UPLC-Q-TOF/MS metabolomics and 16S rDNA sequencing of gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: The animals were randomly divided into the control, PF model, pirfenidone-treated, and low-, medium-, and high-dose QGT groups. The lung tissues were examined and the expression of TGF-ß, SMAD-3, and SMAD-7 mRNAs in the lung tissues were analyzed. Metabolomic profiles were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF/MS, and the intestinal flora were examined by prokaryotic 16 rDNA sequencing. Pathological examination and biochemical indices revealed that QGT treatment improved the symptoms of PF by varying degrees. Furthermore, QGT significantly downregulated TGF-ß1 and Smad-3 mRNAs and increased the expression levels of Smad-7. QGT-L in particular increased the levels of 18 key metabolic biomarkers that were associated with nine gut microbial species and may exert antifibrosis effects through arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and phenylalanine metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: QGT alleviated PF in a rat model through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-fibrotic effects, and by reversing bleomycin-induced gut dysbiosis.This study lays the foundation for further research on the pathological mechanisms of PF and the development of new drug candidates.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Rats , Animals , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Lung , Bleomycin/adverse effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Metabolomics
8.
EMBO Rep ; 24(4): e55747, 2023 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308515

ABSTRACT

Metabolic processes play a critical role in immune regulation. Metabolomics is the systematic analysis of small molecules (metabolites) in organisms or biological samples, providing an opportunity to comprehensively study interactions between metabolism and immunity in physiology and disease. Integrating metabolomics into systems immunology allows the exploration of the interactions of multilayered features in the biological system and the molecular regulatory mechanism of these features. Here, we provide an overview on recent technological developments of metabolomic applications in immunological research. To begin, two widely used metabolomics approaches are compared: targeted and untargeted metabolomics. Then, we provide a comprehensive overview of the analysis workflow and the computational tools available, including sample preparation, raw spectra data preprocessing, data processing, statistical analysis, and interpretation. Third, we describe how to integrate metabolomics with other omics approaches in immunological studies using available tools. Finally, we discuss new developments in metabolomics and its prospects for immunology research. This review provides guidance to researchers using metabolomics and multiomics in immunity research, thus facilitating the application of systems immunology to disease research.


Subject(s)
Metabolomics , Multiomics , Research Design
9.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 22(6): 100561, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307387

ABSTRACT

The world has witnessed a steady rise in both non-infectious and infectious chronic diseases, prompting a cross-disciplinary approach to understand and treating disease. Current medical care focuses on treating people after they become patients rather than preventing illness, leading to high costs in treating chronic and late-stage diseases. Additionally, a "one-size-fits all" approach to health care does not take into account individual differences in genetics, environment, or lifestyle factors, decreasing the number of people benefiting from interventions. Rapid advances in omics technologies and progress in computational capabilities have led to the development of multi-omics deep phenotyping, which profiles the interaction of multiple levels of biology over time and empowers precision health approaches. This review highlights current and emerging multi-omics modalities for precision health and discusses applications in the following areas: genetic variation, cardio-metabolic diseases, cancer, infectious diseases, organ transplantation, pregnancy, and longevity/aging. We will briefly discuss the potential of multi-omics approaches in disentangling host-microbe and host-environmental interactions. We will touch on emerging areas of electronic health record and clinical imaging integration with muti-omics for precision health. Finally, we will briefly discuss the challenges in the clinical implementation of multi-omics and its future prospects.


Subject(s)
Genomics , Neoplasms , Humans , Genomics/methods , Proteomics/methods , Multiomics , Metabolomics/methods
10.
Metabolomics ; 19(4): 41, 2023 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304970

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The impact of maternal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on fetal health remains to be precisely characterized. OBJECTIVES: Using metabolomic profiling of newborn umbilical cord blood, we aimed to investigate the potential fetal biological consequences of maternal COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Cord blood plasma samples from 23 mild COVID-19 cases (mother infected/newborn negative) and 23 gestational age-matched controls were analyzed using nuclear magnetic spectroscopy and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Metabolite set enrichment analysis (MSEA) was used to evaluate altered biochemical pathways due to COVID-19 intrauterine exposure. Logistic regression models were developed using metabolites to predict intrauterine exposure. RESULTS: Significant concentration differences between groups (p-value < 0.05) were observed in 19 metabolites. Elevated levels of glucocorticoids, pyruvate, lactate, purine metabolites, phenylalanine, and branched-chain amino acids of valine and isoleucine were discovered in cases while ceramide subclasses were decreased. The top metabolite model including cortisol and ceramide (d18:1/23:0) achieved an Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve (95% CI) = 0.841 (0.725-0.957) for detecting fetal exposure to maternal COVID-19 infection. MSEA highlighted steroidogenesis, pyruvate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and the Warburg effect as the major perturbed metabolic pathways (p-value < 0.05). These changes indicate fetal increased oxidative metabolism, hyperinsulinemia, and inflammatory response. CONCLUSION: We present fetal biochemical changes related to intrauterine inflammation and altered energy metabolism in cases of mild maternal COVID-19 infection despite the absence of viral infection. Elucidation of the long-term consequences of these findings is imperative considering the large number of exposures in the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fetal Blood , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Metabolomics/methods , Fetus/metabolism , Prenatal Care
11.
Brief Bioinform ; 24(1)2023 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global or untargeted metabolomics is widely used to comprehensively investigate metabolic profiles under various pathophysiological conditions such as inflammations, infections, responses to exposures or interactions with microbial communities. However, biological interpretation of global metabolomics data remains a daunting task. Recent years have seen growing applications of pathway enrichment analysis based on putative annotations of liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) peaks for functional interpretation of LC-MS-based global metabolomics data. However, due to intricate peak-metabolite and metabolite-pathway relationships, considerable variations are observed among results obtained using different approaches. There is an urgent need to benchmark these approaches to inform the best practices. RESULTS: We have conducted a benchmark study of common peak annotation approaches and pathway enrichment methods in current metabolomics studies. Representative approaches, including three peak annotation methods and four enrichment methods, were selected and benchmarked under different scenarios. Based on the results, we have provided a set of recommendations regarding peak annotation, ranking metrics and feature selection. The overall better performance was obtained for the mummichog approach. We have observed that a ~30% annotation rate is sufficient to achieve high recall (~90% based on mummichog), and using semi-annotated data improves functional interpretation. Based on the current platforms and enrichment methods, we further propose an identifiability index to indicate the possibility of a pathway being reliably identified. Finally, we evaluated all methods using 11 COVID-19 and 8 inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) global metabolomics datasets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Metabolomics/methods , Metabolome
12.
Metabolomics ; 19(2): 7, 2023 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2209475

ABSTRACT

Analysis of urine samples from COVID-19 patients by 1H NMR reveals important metabolic alterations due to SAR-CoV-2 infection. Previous studies have identified biomarkers in urine that reflect metabolic alterations in COVID-19 patients. We have used 1H NMR to better define these metabolic alterations since this technique allows us to obtain a broad profile of the metabolites present in urine. This technique offers the advantage that sample preparation is very simple and gives us very complete information on the metabolites present. To detect these alterations, we have compared urine samples from COVID-19 patients (n = 35) with healthy people (n = 18). We used unsupervised (Robust PCA) and supervised (PLS-LDA) multivariate analysis methods to evaluate the differences between the two groups: COVID-19 and healthy controls. The differences focus on a group of metabolites related to energy metabolism (glucose, ketone bodies, glycine, creatinine, and citrate) and other processes related to bacterial flora (TMAO and formic acid) and detoxification (hippuric acid). The alterations in the urinary metabolome shown in this work indicate that SARS-CoV-2 causes a metabolic change from a normal situation of glucose consumption towards a gluconeogenic situation and possible insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metabolomics , Humans , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/urine , Glucose/metabolism , Metabolome , Metabolomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 894170, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141903

ABSTRACT

The metabolic characteristics of COVID-19 disease are still largely unknown. Here, 44 patients with COVID-19 (31 mild COVID-19 patients and 13 severe COVID-19 patients), 42 healthy controls (HC), and 42 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), were involved in the study to assess their serum metabolomic profiles. We used widely targeted metabolomics based on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The differentially expressed metabolites in the plasma of mild and severe COVID-19 patients, CAP patients, and HC subjects were screened, and the main metabolic pathways involved were analyzed. Multiple mature machine learning algorithms confirmed that the metabolites performed excellently in discriminating COVID-19 groups from CAP and HC subjects, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 1. The specific dysregulation of AMP, dGMP, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and carnitine was observed in the severe COVID-19 group. Moreover, random forest analysis suggested that these metabolites could discriminate between severe COVID-19 patients and mild COVID-19 patients, with an AUC of 0.921. This study may broaden our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19 and may offer an experimental basis for developing novel treatment strategies against it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Humans , Metabolomics/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
14.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154527, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world. As a member against the epidemic, Qingfei Paidu Decoction (QFPDD) has been approved for the treatment of COVID-19 in China. However, its antiviral mechanism was still largely unclear. PURPOSE: An integrated strategy was used to explore the antiviral mechanisms of QFPDD in cold and damp environment, including pharmacokinetic (PK), network pharmacology, metabolomics and protein verification. METHODS: Firstly, the pharmacokinetic study of the prototype absorbed ingredients were analyzed by UHPLC-QqQ-MS. Secondly, the metabolomics analysis of the endogenous constituents was carried out. Based on the aforementioned results, an integrated network was constructed to identify the curative components, crucial endogenous differential metabolites and related pathways. Finally, the validation tests were implemented by molecular docking and western blotting (WB). RESULTS: According to the pharmacokinetic behaviors analysis of 31 components in vivo, the flavonoids presented more longer residence time and higher exposure compared with the other compounds. The efficacy and antiviral mechanism of QFPDD were verified by the poly-pharmacology, metabolomics, molecular docking and WB. For the occurrence of metabolic disorder, the change of amino acid transporters should not be neglected. Afterward, 8 curative compounds, 6 key genes and corresponding metabolic pathways were filtered by compound-reaction-enzyme-gene network. The molecular docking verified that the active ingredients bound to the relevant targets well. CONCLUSION: In the present study, an in vivo comprehensive pharmacokinetic behaviors of QFPDD was analyzed for the first time. The results illustrated that QFPDD could exhibit immune regulation, anti-infection, anti-inflammation and metabolic disorder to perform a corresponding therapeutic effect. Moreover, our findings highlighted the roles of amino acid transporters in the coronavirus infection situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Metabolomics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Technology
15.
Metabolomics ; 18(11): 81, 2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085518

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly linked to dysregulation of various molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that change abundance of different biomolecules including metabolites that may be ultimately used as biomarkers for disease progression and severity. It is important at early stage to readily distinguish those patients that are likely to progress to moderate and severe stages. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the utility of saliva and plasma metabolomic profiles as a potential parameter for risk stratifying COVID-19 patients. METHOD: LC-MS/MS-based untargeted metabolomics were used to profile the changes in saliva and plasma metabolomic profiles of COVID-19 patients with different severities. RESULTS: Saliva and plasma metabolites were screened in 62 COVID-19 patients and 18 non-infected controls. The COVID-19 group included 16 severe, 15 moderate, 16 mild, and 15 asymptomatic cases. Thirty-six differential metabolites were detected in COVID-19 versus control comparisons. SARS-CoV-2 induced metabolic derangement differed with infection severity. The metabolic changes were identified in saliva and plasma, however, saliva showed higher intensity of metabolic changes. Levels of saliva metabolites such as sphingosine and kynurenine were significantly different between COVID-19 infected and non-infected individuals; while linoleic acid and Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid were specifically increased in severe compared to non-severe patients. As expected, the two prognostic biomarkers of C-reactive protein and D-dimer were negatively correlated with sphingosine and 5-Aminolevulinic acid, and positively correlated with L-Tryptophan and L-Kynurenine. CONCLUSION: Saliva disease-specific and severity-specific metabolite could be employed as potential COVID-19 diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Metabolomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/metabolism , Chromatography, Liquid , Kynurenine/metabolism , Tryptophan/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Sphingosine , Linoleic Acid/metabolism , Aminolevulinic Acid/metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Severity of Illness Index , Biomarkers
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071503

ABSTRACT

Treatments for COVID-19 infections have improved dramatically since the beginning of the pandemic, and glucocorticoids have been a key tool in improving mortality rates. The UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance is for treatment to be targeted only at those requiring oxygen supplementation, however, and the interactions between glucocorticoids and COVID-19 are not completely understood. In this work, a multi-omic analysis of 98 inpatient-recruited participants was performed by quantitative metabolomics (using targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) and data-independent acquisition proteomics. Both 'omics datasets were analysed for statistically significant features and pathways differentiating participants whose treatment regimens did or did not include glucocorticoids. Metabolomic differences in glucocorticoid-treated patients included the modulation of cortisol and bile acid concentrations in serum, but no alleviation of serum dyslipidemia or increased amino acid concentrations (including tyrosine and arginine) in the glucocorticoid-treated cohort relative to the untreated cohort. Proteomic pathway analysis indicated neutrophil and platelet degranulation as influenced by glucocorticoid treatment. These results are in keeping with the key role of platelet-associated pathways and neutrophils in COVID-19 pathogenesis and provide opportunity for further understanding of glucocorticoid action. The findings also, however, highlight that glucocorticoids are not fully effective across the wide range of 'omics dysregulation caused by COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Proteomics/methods , Hydrocortisone , Metabolomics/methods , Amino Acids/metabolism , Tyrosine , Arginine , Bile Acids and Salts
17.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1232: 340469, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060276

ABSTRACT

Several areas such as microbiology, botany, and medicine use genetic information and computational tools to organize, classify and analyze data. However, only recently has it been possible to obtain the chemical ontology of metabolites computationally. The systematic classification of metabolites into classes opens the way for adapting methods that previously used genetic taxonomy to now accept chemical ontology. Community ecology tools are ideal for this adaptation as they have mature methods and enable exploratory data analysis with established statistical tools. This study introduces the Metabology approach, which transforms metabolites into an ecosystem where the metabolites (species) are related by chemical ontology. In the present work, we demonstrate the applicability of this new approach using publicly available data from a metabolomics study of human plasma that searched for prognostic markers of COVID-19, and in an untargeted metabolomics study carried out by our laboratory using Lasiodiplodia theobromae fungal pathogen supernatants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ecosystem , Humans , Metabolomics/methods
18.
OMICS ; 26(10): 542-551, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051229

ABSTRACT

Metabolome is the end point of the genome-environment interplay, and enables an important holistic overview of individual adaptability and host responses to environmental, ecological, as well as endogenous changes such as disease. Pharmacometabolomics is the application of metabolome knowledge to decipher the mechanisms of interindividual and intraindividual variations in drug efficacy and safety. Pharmacometabolomics also contributes to prediction of drug treatment outcomes on the basis of baseline (predose) and postdose metabotypes through mathematical modeling. Thus, pharmacometabolomics is a strong asset for a diverse community of stakeholders interested in theory and practice of evidence-based and precision/personalized medicine: academic researchers, public health scholars, health professionals, pharmaceutical, diagnostics, and biotechnology industries, among others. In this expert review, we discuss pharmacometabolomics in four contexts: (1) an interdisciplinary omics tool and field to map the mechanisms and scale of interindividual variability in drug effects, (2) discovery and development of translational biomarkers, (3) advance digital biomarkers, and (4) empower drug repurposing, a field that is increasingly proving useful in the current era of Covid-19. As the applications of pharmacometabolomics are growing rapidly in the current postgenome era, next-generation proteomics and metabolomics follow the example of next-generation sequencing analyses. Pharmacometabolomics can also empower data reliability and reproducibility through multiomics integration strategies, which use each data layer to correct, connect with, and inform each other. Finally, we underscore here that contextual data remain crucial for precision medicine and drug development that stand the test of time and clinical relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Metabolomics , Biomarkers , Proteomics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Oceans and Seas
19.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274967, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to represent an ongoing global health issue given the potential for new variants, vaccine escape and the low likelihood of eliminating all reservoirs of the disease. Whilst diagnostic testing has progressed at a fast pace, the metabolic drivers of outcomes-and whether markers can be found in different biofluids-are not well understood. Recent research has shown that serum metabolomics has potential for prognosis of disease progression. In a hospital setting, collection of saliva samples is more convenient for both staff and patients, and therefore offers an alternative sampling matrix to serum. METHODS: Saliva samples were collected from hospitalised patients with clinical suspicion of COVID-19, alongside clinical metadata. COVID-19 diagnosis was confirmed using RT-PCR testing, and COVID-19 severity was classified using clinical descriptors (respiratory rate, peripheral oxygen saturation score and C-reactive protein levels). Metabolites were extracted and analysed using high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting peak area matrix was analysed using multivariate techniques. RESULTS: Positive percent agreement of 1.00 between a partial least squares-discriminant analysis metabolomics model employing a panel of 6 features (5 of which were amino acids, one that could be identified by formula only) and the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 severity was achieved. The negative percent agreement with the clinical severity diagnosis was also 1.00, leading to an area under receiver operating characteristics curve of 1.00 for the panel of features identified. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory work, we found that saliva metabolomics and in particular amino acids can be capable of separating high severity COVID-19 patients from low severity COVID-19 patients. This expands the atlas of COVID-19 metabolic dysregulation and could in future offer the basis of a quick and non-invasive means of sampling patients, intended to supplement existing clinical tests, with the goal of offering timely treatment to patients with potentially poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Amino Acids/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Humans , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Metabolomics/methods , Pandemics , Saliva/metabolism
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2579-2589, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037298

ABSTRACT

Clinical microbiology has possessed a marvellous past, an important present and a bright future. Western medicine modernization started with the discovery of bacterial pathogens, and from then, clinical bacteriology became a cornerstone of diagnostics. Today, clinical microbiology uses standard techniques including Gram stain morphology, in vitro culture, antigen and antibody assays, and molecular biology both to establish a diagnosis and monitor the progression of microbial infections. Clinical microbiology has played a critical role in pathogen detection and characterization for emerging infectious diseases as evidenced by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Revolutionary changes are on the way in clinical microbiology with the application of "-omic" techniques, including transcriptomics and metabolomics, and optimization of clinical practice configurations to improve outcomes of patients with infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Metabolomics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL