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1.
J Gen Virol ; 103(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831590

ABSTRACT

Encephalitis is most often caused by a variety of infectious agents identified through diagnostic tests utilizing cerebrospinal fluid. We investigated the clinical characteristics and potential aetiological agents of unexplained encephalitis through metagenomic sequencing of residual clinical samples from multiple tissue types and independent clinical review. Forty-three specimens were collected from 18 encephalitis cases with no cause identified by the Australian Childhood Encephalitis study. Samples were subjected to total RNA sequencing ('metatranscriptomics') to determine the presence and abundance of potential pathogens, and to describe the possible aetiologies of unexplained encephalitis. Using this protocol, we identified five RNA and two DNA viruses associated with human infection from both non-sterile and sterile sites, which were confirmed by PCR. These comprised two human rhinoviruses, two human seasonal coronaviruses, two polyomaviruses and one picobirnavirus. Human rhinovirus and seasonal coronaviruses may be responsible for five of the encephalitis cases. Immune-mediated encephalitis was considered likely in six cases and metatranscriptomics did not identify a possible pathogen in these cases. The aetiology remained unknown in nine cases. Our study emphasizes the importance of respiratory viruses in the aetiology of unexplained child encephalitis and suggests that non-central-nervous-system sampling in encephalitis clinical guidelines and protocols could improve the diagnostic yield.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis , Viruses , Australia , Child , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Encephalitis/etiology , Humans , Metagenomics , Polymerase Chain Reaction
2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267106, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793494

ABSTRACT

The classification of biological sequences is an open issue for a variety of data sets, such as viral and metagenomics sequences. Therefore, many studies utilize neural network tools, as the well-known methods in this field, and focus on designing customized network structures. However, a few works focus on more effective factors, such as input encoding method or implementation technology, to address accuracy and efficiency issues in this area. Therefore, in this work, we propose an image-based encoding method, called as WalkIm, whose adoption, even in a simple neural network, provides competitive accuracy and superior efficiency, compared to the existing classification methods (e.g. VGDC, CASTOR, and DLM-CNN) for a variety of biological sequences. Using WalkIm for classifying various data sets (i.e. viruses whole-genome data, metagenomics read data, and metabarcoding data), it achieves the same performance as the existing methods, with no enforcement of parameter initialization or network architecture adjustment for each data set. It is worth noting that even in the case of classifying high-mutant data sets, such as Coronaviruses, it achieves almost 100% accuracy for classifying its various types. In addition, WalkIm achieves high-speed convergence during network training, as well as reduction of network complexity. Therefore WalkIm method enables us to execute the classifying neural networks on a normal desktop system in a short time interval. Moreover, we addressed the compatibility of WalkIm encoding method with free-space optical processing technology. Taking advantages of optical implementation of convolutional layers, we illustrated that the training time can be reduced by up to 500 time. In addition to all aforementioned advantages, this encoding method preserves the structure of generated images in various modes of sequence transformation, such as reverse complement, complement, and reverse modes.


Subject(s)
Metagenomics , Neural Networks, Computer , Data Collection , Research Design
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 280, 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Deep neck space abscess (DNSA) is a serious infection in the head and neck. Antibiotic therapy is an important treatment in patients with DNSA. However, the results of bacterial culture need at least 48 h, and the positive rate is only 30-50%, indicating that the use of empiric antibiotic treatment for most patients with DNSA should at least 48 h or even throughout the whole course of treatment. Thus, how to use empiric antibiotics has always been a problem for clinicians. This study analyzed the distribution of bacteria based on disease severity and clinical characteristics of DNSA patients, and provides bacteriological guidance for the empiric use of antibiotics. METHODS: We analyzed 433 patients with DNSA who were diagnosed and treated at nine medical centers in Guangdong Province between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2020. A nomogram for disease severity (mild/severe) was constructed using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator-logistic regression analysis. Clinical characteristics for the Gram reaction of the strain were identified using multivariate analyses. RESULTS: 92 (21.2%) patients developed life-threatening complications. The nomogram for disease severity comprised of seven predictors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the nomogram in the training and validation cohorts were 0.951 and 0.931, respectively. In the mild cases, 43.2% (101/234) had positive culture results (49% for Gram-positive and 51% for Gram-negative strains). The positive rate of cultures in the patients with severe disease was 63% (58/92, 37.9% for Gram-positive, and 62.1% for Gram-negative strains). Diabetes mellitus was an independent predictor of Gram-negative strains in the mild disease group, whereas gas formation and trismus were independent predictors of Gram-positive strains in the severe disease group. The positivity rate of multidrug-resistant strains was higher in the severe disease group (12.1%) than in the mild disease group (1.0%) (P < 0.001). Metagenomic sequencing was helpful for the bacteriological diagnosis of DNSA by identifying anaerobic strains (83.3%). CONCLUSION: We established a DNSA clinical severity prediction model and found some predictors for the type of Gram-staining strains in different disease severity cases. These results can help clinicians in effectively choosing an empiric antibiotic treatment.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Neck , Abscess/drug therapy , Abscess/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Metagenomics , Neck/microbiology , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5856, 2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784021

ABSTRACT

Rapid dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 sequencing data to public repositories has enabled widespread study of viral genomes, but studies of longitudinal specimens from infected persons are relatively limited. Analysis of longitudinal specimens enables understanding of how host immune pressures drive viral evolution in vivo. Here we performed sequencing of 49 longitudinal SARS-CoV-2-positive samples from 20 patients in Washington State collected between March and September of 2020. Viral loads declined over time with an average increase in RT-QPCR cycle threshold of 0.87 per day. We found that there was negligible change in SARS-CoV-2 consensus sequences over time, but identified a number of nonsynonymous variants at low frequencies across the genome. We observed enrichment for a relatively small number of these variants, all of which are now seen in consensus genomes across the globe at low prevalence. In one patient, we saw rapid emergence of various low-level deletion variants at the N-terminal domain of the spike glycoprotein, some of which have previously been shown to be associated with reduced neutralization potency from sera. In a subset of samples that were sequenced using metagenomic methods, differential gene expression analysis showed a downregulation of cytoskeletal genes that was consistent with a loss of ciliated epithelium during infection and recovery. We also identified co-occurrence of bacterial species in samples from multiple hospitalized individuals. These results demonstrate that the intrahost genetic composition of SARS-CoV-2 is dynamic during the course of COVID-19, and highlight the need for continued surveillance and deep sequencing of minor variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/genetics , Genome, Viral , Humans , Metagenome , Metagenomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(4): 486-496, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773980

ABSTRACT

Lessons learnt from the COVID-19 pandemic include increased awareness of the potential for zoonoses and emerging infectious diseases that can adversely affect human health. Although emergent viruses are currently in the spotlight, we must not forget the ongoing toll of morbidity and mortality owing to antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens and to vector-borne, foodborne and waterborne diseases. Population growth, planetary change, international travel and medical tourism all contribute to the increasing frequency of infectious disease outbreaks. Surveillance is therefore of crucial importance, but the diversity of microbial pathogens, coupled with resource-intensive methods, compromises our ability to scale-up such efforts. Innovative technologies that are both easy to use and able to simultaneously identify diverse microorganisms (viral, bacterial or fungal) with precision are necessary to enable informed public health decisions. Metagenomics-enabled surveillance methods offer the opportunity to improve detection of both known and yet-to-emerge pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Animals , Humans , Metagenomics/methods , Pandemics , Viruses/genetics , Zoonoses
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1670-1688, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718413

ABSTRACT

Bangladesh is experiencing a second wave of COVID-19 since March 2021, despite the nationwide vaccination drive with ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccine from early February 2021. Here, we characterized 19 nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples from COVID-19 suspect patients using genomic and metagenomic approaches. Screening for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and metagenomic sequencing revealed 17 samples of COVID-19 positive (vaccinated = 10, nonvaccinated = 7) and 2 samples of COVID-19 negative. We did not find any significant correlation between associated factors including vaccination status, age or sex of the patients, diversity or abundance of the coinfected organisms/pathogens, and the abundance of SARS-CoV-2. Though the first wave of the pandemic was dominated by clade 20B, Beta, V2 (South African variant) dominated the second wave (January 2021 to May 2021), while the third wave (May 2021 to September 2021) was responsible for Delta variants of the epidemic in Bangladesh including both vaccinated and unvaccinated infections. Noteworthily, the receptor binding domain (RBD) region of S protein of all the isolates harbored similar substitutions including K417N, E484K, and N501Y that signify the Beta, while D614G, D215G, D80A, A67V, L18F, and A701V substitutions were commonly found in the non-RBD region of Spike proteins. ORF7b and ORF3a genes underwent a positive selection (dN/dS ratio 1.77 and 1.24, respectively), while the overall S protein of the Bangladeshi SARS-CoV-2 isolates underwent negative selection pressure (dN/dS = 0.621). Furthermore, we found different bacterial coinfections like Streptococcus agalactiae, Neisseria meningitidis, Elizabethkingia anophelis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, expressing a number of antibiotic resistance genes such as tetA and tetM. Overall, this approach provides valuable insights on the SARS-CoV-2 genomes and microbiome composition from both vaccinated and nonvaccinated patients in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Metagenomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Female , Genome, Bacterial/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Microbiota/genetics , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Selection, Genetic , Vaccination , Viral Proteins/genetics , Young Adult
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1824, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713207

ABSTRACT

The human gut contains a complex microbiota dominated by bacteriophages but also containing other viruses and bacteria and fungi. There are a growing number of techniques for the extraction, sequencing, and analysis of the virome but currently no standardized protocols. This study established an effective workflow for virome analysis to investigate the virome of stool samples from two understudied ethnic groups from Malaysia: the Jakun and Jehai Orang Asli. By using the virome extraction and analysis workflow with the Oxford Nanopore Technology, long-read sequencing successfully captured close to full-length viral genomes. The virome composition of the two indigenous Malaysian communities were remarkably different from those found in other parts of the world. Additionally, plant viruses found in the viromes of these individuals were attributed to traditional food-seeking methods. This study establishes a human gut virome workflow and extends insights into the healthy human gut virome, laying the groundwork for comparative studies.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Genome, Viral , Indigenous Peoples , Viruses/genetics , Feces/virology , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Malaysia , Metagenomics/methods , Phylogeny , Virome/genetics , Viruses/classification
8.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 151, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708032

ABSTRACT

A large gap remains between sequencing a microbial community and characterizing all of the organisms inside of it. Here we develop a novel method to taxonomically bin metagenomic assemblies through alignment of contigs against a reference database. We show that this workflow, BugSplit, bins metagenome-assembled contigs to species with a 33% absolute improvement in F1-score when compared to alternative tools. We perform nanopore mNGS on patients with COVID-19, and using a reference database predating COVID-19, demonstrate that BugSplit's taxonomic binning enables sensitive and specific detection of a novel coronavirus not possible with other approaches. When applied to nanopore mNGS data from cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection, BugSplit's taxonomic binning accurately separates pathogen sequences from those of the host and microbiota, and unlocks the possibility of sequence typing, in silico serotyping, and antimicrobial resistance prediction of each organism within a sample. BugSplit is available at https://bugseq.com/academic .


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Bacteria/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Metagenome/genetics , Metagenomics/methods , Nanopore Sequencing/methods , Bacteria/classification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Internet , Pandemics/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010259, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690683

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019 Wuhan witnessed an outbreak of "atypical pneumonia" that later developed into a global pandemic. Metagenomic sequencing rapidly revealed the causative agent of this outbreak to be a novel coronavirus denoted SARS-CoV-2. To provide a snapshot of the pathogens in pneumonia-associated respiratory samples from Wuhan prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from 408 patients presenting with pneumonia and acute respiratory infections at the Central Hospital of Wuhan between 2016 and 2017. Unbiased total RNA sequencing was performed to reveal their "total infectome", including viruses, bacteria and fungi. We identified 35 pathogen species, comprising 13 RNA viruses, 3 DNA viruses, 16 bacteria and 3 fungi, often at high abundance and including multiple co-infections (13.5%). SARS-CoV-2 was not present. These data depict a stable core infectome comprising common respiratory pathogens such as rhinoviruses and influenza viruses, an atypical respiratory virus (EV-D68), and a single case of a sporadic zoonotic pathogen-Chlamydia psittaci. Samples from patients experiencing respiratory disease on average had higher pathogen abundance than healthy controls. Phylogenetic analyses of individual pathogens revealed multiple origins and global transmission histories, highlighting the connectedness of the Wuhan population. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the pathogens associated with acute respiratory infections and pneumonia, which were more diverse and complex than obtained using targeted PCR or qPCR approaches. These data also suggest that SARS-CoV-2 or closely related viruses were absent from Wuhan in 2016-2017.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Male , Metagenomics , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Pneumonia/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Young Adult
10.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662709

ABSTRACT

The human body is colonized by a wide range of microorganisms. The field of viromics has expanded since the first reports on the detection of viruses via metagenomic sequencing in 2002. With the continued development of reference materials and databases, viral metagenomic approaches have been used to explore known components of the virome and discover new viruses from various types of samples. The virome has attracted substantial interest since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Increasing numbers of studies and review articles have documented the diverse virome in various sites in the human body, as well as interactions between the human host and the virome with regard to health and disease. However, there have been few studies of direct causal relationships. Viral metagenomic analyses often lack standard references and are potentially subject to bias. Moreover, most virome-related review articles have focused on the gut virome and did not investigate the roles of the virome in other sites of the body in human disease. This review presents an overview of viral metagenomics, with updates regarding the relations between alterations in the human virome and the pathogenesis of human diseases, recent findings related to COVID-19, and therapeutic applications related to the human virome.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Metagenome , Metagenomics/methods , Virome/genetics , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Mice , Obesity/complications , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Diseases/therapy , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics
11.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611142

ABSTRACT

We found and genetically described two novel SARS-like coronaviruses in feces and oral swabs of the greater (R. ferrumequinum) and the lesser (R. hipposideros) horseshoe bats in southern regions of Russia. The viruses, named Khosta-1 and Khosta-2, together with related viruses from Bulgaria and Kenya, form a separate phylogenetic lineage. We found evidence of recombination events in the evolutionary history of Khosta-1, which involved the acquisition of the structural proteins S, E, and M, as well as the nonstructural genes ORF3, ORF6, ORF7a, and ORF7b, from a virus that is related to the Kenyan isolate BtKY72. The examination of bats by RT-PCR revealed that 62.5% of the greater horseshoe bats in one of the caves were positive for Khosta-1 virus, while its overall prevalence was 14%. The prevalence of Khosta-2 was 1.75%. Our results show that SARS-like coronaviruses circulate in horseshoe bats in the region, and we provide new data on their genetic diversity.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , SARS Virus/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , Chiroptera/classification , Evolution, Molecular , Feces/virology , Metagenomics , Mouth/virology , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Recombination, Genetic , Russia , SARS Virus/classification , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
12.
J Neurovirol ; 28(1): 172-176, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597411

ABSTRACT

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) secondary to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The condition is typically diagnosed based on characteristic neuroimaging findings in the context of active viral respiratory symptoms. We present a rare case of COVID-19-associated ANE presenting with expressive aphasia and encephalopathy in the absence of active respiratory symptoms. Initial evaluation revealed bilateral thalamic lesions and a mild neutrophilic-predominant pleocytosis on cerebrospinal fluid analysis, the latter of which has not been described in previously published cases. Presence of these atypical features prompted extensive diagnostic evaluation. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing on cerebrospinal fluid did not detect the presence of pathogenic nucleic acids. Thalamic biopsy revealed perivascular neutrophilic inflammation suggestive of small vessel vasculitis with surrounding hemorrhage and necrosis. Ultimately, the diagnosis was made following detection of SARS-CoV-2 serologies and after exclusion of alternative etiologies. The patient was successfully treated with a short course of high-dose methylprednisolone with favorable outcome.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Metagenomics , Neuroimaging , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Ecohealth ; 18(4): 421-428, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590480

ABSTRACT

We investigated the prevalence of coronaviruses in 44 bats from four families in northeastern Eswatini using high-throughput sequencing of fecal samples. We found evidence of coronaviruses in 18% of the bats. We recovered full or near-full-length genomes from two bat species: Chaerephon pumilus and Afronycteris nana, as well as additional coronavirus genome fragments from C. pumilus, Epomophorus wahlbergi, Mops condylurus, and Scotophilus dinganii. All bats from which we detected coronaviruses were captured leaving buildings or near human settlements, demonstrating the importance of continued surveillance of coronaviruses in bats to better understand the prevalence, diversity, and potential risks for spillover.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Metagenomics , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Eswatini , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 706970, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581382

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause gastrointestinal symptoms in the patients, but the role of gut microbiota in SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. Thus, in this study, we aim to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection affects the composition and function of gut microbiota. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that significant shifts in microbiome composition and function were appeared in both SARS-CoV-2-infected asymptomatic and symptomatic cases. The relative abundance of Candidatus_Saccharibacteria was significantly increased, whereas the levels of Fibrobacteres was remarkably reduced in SARS-CoV-2-infected cases. There was one bacterial species, Spirochaetes displayed the difference between patients and asymptomatic cases. On the genus level, Tyzzerella was the key species that remarkably increased in both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. Analyses of genome annotations further revealed SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in the significant 'functional dysbiosis' of gut microbiota, including metabolic pathway, regulatory pathway and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites etc. We also identified potential metagenomic markers to discriminate SARS-CoV-2-infected symptomatic and asymptomatic cases from healthy controls. These findings together suggest gut microbiota is of possible etiological and diagnostic importance for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dysbiosis , Humans , Metagenome , Metagenomics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Genes Genet Syst ; 96(4): 165-176, 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574597

ABSTRACT

In genetics and related fields, huge amounts of data, such as genome sequences, are accumulating, and the use of artificial intelligence (AI) suitable for big data analysis has become increasingly important. Unsupervised AI that can reveal novel knowledge from big data without prior knowledge or particular models is highly desirable for analyses of genome sequences, particularly for obtaining unexpected insights. We have developed a batch-learning self-organizing map (BLSOM) for oligonucleotide compositions that can reveal various novel genome characteristics. Here, we explain the data mining by the BLSOM: an unsupervised AI. As a specific target, we first selected SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) because a large number of viral genome sequences have been accumulated via worldwide efforts. We analyzed more than 0.6 million sequences collected primarily in the first year of the pandemic. BLSOMs for short oligonucleotides (e.g., 4-6-mers) allowed separation into known clades, but longer oligonucleotides further increased the separation ability and revealed subgrouping within known clades. In the case of 15-mers, there is mostly one copy in the genome; thus, 15-mers that appeared after the epidemic started could be connected to mutations, and the BLSOM for 15-mers revealed the mutations that contributed to separation into known clades and their subgroups. After introducing the detailed methodological strategies, we explain BLSOMs for various topics, such as the tetranucleotide BLSOM for over 5 million 5-kb fragment sequences derived from almost all microorganisms currently available and its use in metagenome studies. We also explain BLSOMs for various eukaryotes, including fishes, frogs and Drosophila species, and found a high separation ability among closely related species. When analyzing the human genome, we found enrichments in transcription factor-binding sequences in centromeric and pericentromeric heterochromatin regions. The tDNAs (tRNA genes) could be separated according to their corresponding amino acid.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Computational Biology/methods , Genome, Human , Genome, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Cluster Analysis , Codon Usage , Humans , Metagenomics/methods , Mutation , RNA, Transfer , Time Factors
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24042, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574556

ABSTRACT

The microbiota of the nasopharyngeal tract (NT) play a role in host immunity against respiratory infectious diseases. However, scant information is available on interactions of SARS-CoV-2 with the nasopharyngeal microbiome. This study characterizes the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on human nasopharyngeal microbiomes and their relevant metabolic functions. Twenty-two (n = 22) nasopharyngeal swab samples (including COVID-19 patients = 8, recovered humans = 7, and healthy people = 7) were collected, and underwent to RNAseq-based metagenomic investigation. Our RNAseq data mapped to 2281 bacterial species (including 1477, 919 and 676 in healthy, COVID-19 and recovered metagenomes, respectively) indicating a distinct microbiome dysbiosis. The COVID-19 and recovered samples included 67% and 77% opportunistic bacterial species, respectively compared to healthy controls. Notably, 79% commensal bacterial species found in healthy controls were not detected in COVID-19 and recovered people. Similar dysbiosis was also found in viral and archaeal fraction of the nasopharyngeal microbiomes. We also detected several altered metabolic pathways and functional genes in the progression and pathophysiology of COVID-19. The nasopharyngeal microbiome dysbiosis and their genomic features determined by our RNAseq analyses shed light on early interactions of SARS-CoV-2 with the nasopharyngeal resident microbiota that might be helpful for developing microbiome-based diagnostics and therapeutics for this novel pandemic disease.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/classification , COVID-19/microbiology , Nasopharynx/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Adult , Aged , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Case-Control Studies , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Metagenomics , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Symbiosis , Young Adult
17.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(Suppl 6): 289, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Virus screening and viral genome reconstruction are urgent and crucial for the rapid identification of viral pathogens, i.e., tracing the source and understanding the pathogenesis when a viral outbreak occurs. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides an efficient and unbiased way to identify viral pathogens in host-associated and environmental samples without prior knowledge. Despite the availability of software, data analysis still requires human operations. A mature pipeline is urgently needed when thousands of viral pathogen and viral genome reconstruction samples need to be rapidly identified. RESULTS: In this paper, we present a rapid and accurate workflow to screen metagenomics sequencing data for viral pathogens and other compositions, as well as enable a reference-based assembler to reconstruct viral genomes. Moreover, we tested our workflow on several metagenomics datasets, including a SARS-CoV-2 patient sample with NGS data, pangolins tissues with NGS data, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-infected cells with NGS data, etc. Our workflow demonstrated high accuracy and efficiency when identifying target viruses from large scale NGS metagenomics data. Our workflow was flexible when working with a broad range of NGS datasets from small (kb) to large (100 Gb). This took from a few minutes to a few hours to complete each task. At the same time, our workflow automatically generates reports that incorporate visualized feedback (e.g., metagenomics data quality statistics, host and viral sequence compositions, details about each of the identified viral pathogens and their coverages, and reassembled viral pathogen sequences based on their closest references). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our system enabled the rapid screening and identification of viral pathogens from metagenomics data, providing an important piece to support viral pathogen research during a pandemic. The visualized report contains information from raw sequence quality to a reconstructed viral sequence, which allows non-professional people to screen their samples for viruses by themselves (Additional file 1).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Computational Biology/methods , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Metagenomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Algorithms , Animals , Automation , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Pandemics , Pangolins , Reference Values , Software , Transcriptome , Workflow
18.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(23): e2102593, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559092

ABSTRACT

Fast and accurate identification of microbial pathogens is critical for the proper treatment of infections. Traditional culture-based diagnosis in clinics is increasingly supplemented by metagenomic next-generation-sequencing (mNGS). Here, RNA/cDNA-targeted sequencing (meta-transcriptomics using NGS (mtNGS)) is established to reduce the host nucleotide percentage in clinic samples and by combining with Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) platforms (meta-transcriptomics using third-generation sequencing, mtTGS) to improve the sequencing time. It shows that mtNGS improves the ratio of microbial reads, facilitates bacterial identification using multiple-strategies, and discovers fungi, viruses, and antibiotic resistance genes, and displaying agreement with clinical findings. Furthermore, longer reads in mtTGS lead to additional improvement in pathogen identification and also accelerate the clinical diagnosis. Additionally, primary tests utilizing direct-RNA sequencing and targeted sequencing of ONT show that ONT displays important potential but must be further developed. This study presents the potential of RNA-targeted pathogen identification in clinical samples, especially when combined with the newest developments in ONT.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Infections/genetics , Metagenomics/methods , RNA/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Aged , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Metagenome/genetics , Middle Aged
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