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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 852083, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834649

ABSTRACT

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the gold standard in disease diagnostics due to its extreme sensitivity and specificity. However, PCR tests are expensive and complex, require skilled personnel and specialized equipment to conduct the tests, and have long turnaround times. On the other hand, lateral flow immunoassay-based antigen tests are rapid, relatively inexpensive, and can be performed by untrained personnel at the point of care or even in the home. However, rapid antigen tests are less sensitive than PCR since they lack the inherent target amplification of PCR. It has been argued that rapid antigen tests are better indicators of infection in public health decision-making processes to test, trace, and isolate infected people to curtail further transmission. Hence, there is a critical need to increase the sensitivity of rapid antigen tests and create innovative solutions to achieve that goal. Herein, we report the development of a low-cost diagnostic platform, enabling rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 under field or at-home conditions. This platform (Halo™) is a small, highly accurate, consumer-friendly diagnostic reader paired with fluorescently labeled lateral flow assays and custom software for collection and reporting of results. The focus of this study is to compare the analytical performance of HaloTM against comparable tests that use either colloidal gold nanoparticles or fluorescence-based reporters in simulated nasal matrix and not in clinical samples. Live virus data has demonstrated limit of detection performance of 1.9 TCID50/test in simulated nasal matrix for the delta variant, suggesting that single-assay detection of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections may be feasible. Performance of the system against all tested SARS CoV-2 virus variants showed comparable sensitivities indicating mutations in SARS-CoV-2 variants do not negatively impact the assay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold , Humans , Proof of Concept Study , SARS-CoV-2
2.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 5(5): 2421-2430, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829968

ABSTRACT

In this work, we report a facile synthesis of graphene oxide-gold (GO-Au) nanocomposites by electrodeposition. The fabricated electrochemical immunosensors are utilized for the dual detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigen and SARS-CoV-2 antibody. The GO-Au nanocomposites has been characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for its biosensing properties. The linear detection range of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen immunosensor is 10.0 ag mL-1 to 50.0 ng mL-1, whereas that for the antibody immunosensor ranges from 1.0 fg mL-1 to 1.0 ng mL-1. The calculated limit of detection (LOD) of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen immunosensor is 3.99 ag mL-1, and that for SARS-CoV-2 antibody immunosensor is 1.0 fg mL-1 with high sensitivity. The validation of the immunosensor has also been carried out on patient serum and patient swab samples from COVID-19 patients. The results suggest successful utilization of the immunosensors with a very low detection limit enabling its use in clinical samples. Further work is needed for the standardization of the results and translation in screen-printed electrodes for use in portable commercial applications.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanocomposites , Antibodies , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold/chemistry , Graphite , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1211: 339904, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819418

ABSTRACT

Until now, COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is engulfing the worldwide and still ranging to date, continuing to threaten the public health. The main challenge facing COVID-19 epidemic is short of fast-response and high-efficiency methods to determine SARS-CoV-2 viral pathogens. Herein, a nanobody-based label-free photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor has been fabricated for rapidly detecting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. As a small-size and high-stability antibody, nanobody was directly and well immobilized with Au nanoparticles and TiO2 spheres by the interaction. Au deposited TiO2 nanomaterial possessed 8.5 times photoelectric performance in comparison with TiO2 in the presence of electron donor owing to surface plasma resonance effect of Au. Based on the steric hindrance effect, this immunoassay platform realized the linear detection from 0.015 to 15000 pg mL-1, and a limit of detection was low as 5 fg mL-1. The label-free PEC immunoassay design provides a new idea for convenient, rapid, and efficient test of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and broadens further application of nanobody as an identification agent to specific biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Gold , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Limit of Detection , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 18(2): 394-404, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816973

ABSTRACT

A simple and rapid genotyping method with less-instrumentation is essential for realizing point-of-care detection of personalized medicine-related gene biomarkers. Herein, we developed a rapid and visualized genotyping method by coupling recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) with allele-specific invader reaction assisted gold nanoparticle probes assembling. In the method, the DNA targets were firstly amplified by using RPA, which is a rapid isothermal amplification technology. Then an allele-specific invasion reaction was performed to recognize the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) site in the amplicons, to produce signal molecules that caused discoloration of gold nanoparticle probes. As a result, genotyping was achieved by observing the color change of the reaction by using naked eye without the requirement for any expensive instrument. In order to achieve rapid genotyping detection, the genomic DNA from oral swab lysate samples were used for the RPA templates amplification. In this way, a visualized genotyping from "samples to results" within 25 min was realized. Two clopidogrel related SNPs CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 of 56 clinical samples were correctly genotyped by using this rapid visualized genotyping assay. In addition, the feasibility for this pathogen genotyping method was also verified by detecting plasmid DNA containing three SARS-COV-2 gene mutation sites, indicating that this method has the potential for clinical sample detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Alleles , COVID-19/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 , DNA , Genotype , Gold , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Recombinases/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Anal Chem ; 94(18): 6703-6710, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815468

ABSTRACT

Ratiometric assays of label-free dual-signaling reporters with enzyme-free amplification are intriguing yet challenging. Herein, yellow- and red-silver nanocluster (yH-AgNC and rH-AgNC) acting as bicolor ratiometric emitters are guided to site-specifically cluster in two template signaling hairpins (yH and rH), respectively, and originally, both of them are almost non-fluorescent. The predesigned complement tethered in yH is recognizable to a DNA trigger (TOC) related to SARS-CoV-2. With the help of an enhancer strand (G15E) tethering G-rich bases (G15) and a linker strand (LS), a switchable DNA construct is assembled via their complementary hybridizing with yH and rH, in which the harbored yH-AgNC close to G15 is lighted-up. Upon introducing TOC, its affinity ligating with yH is further implemented to unfold rH and induce the DNA construct switching into closed conformation, causing TOC-repeatable recycling amplification through competitive strand displacement. Consequently, the harbored rH-AgNC is also placed adjacent to G15 for turning on its red fluorescence, while the yH-AgNC is retainable. As demonstrated, the intensity ratio dependent on varying TOC is reliable with high sensitivity down to 0.27 pM. By lighting-up dual-cluster emitters using one G15 enhancer, it would be promising to exploit a simpler ratiometric biosensing format for bioassays or clinical theranostics.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA , Fluorescence , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver , Spectrometry, Fluorescence
6.
Biomolecules ; 12(4)2022 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792832

ABSTRACT

Edoxaban is a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) that has been recently indicated for the treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) in SARS-CoV-2 infections. Due to its pharmacokinetic variability and a narrow therapeutic index, the safe administration of the drug requires its therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in patients receiving the treatment. In this work, we present a label-free method for the TDM of edoxaban by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The new method utilises the thiol chemistry of the drug to chemisorb its molecules onto a highly sensitive SERS substrate. This leads to the formation of efficient hotspots and a strong signal enhancement of the drug Raman bands, thus negating the need for a Raman reporter for its SERS quantification. The standard samples were run with a concentration range of 1.4 × 10-4 M to 10-12 M using a mobile phase comprising of methanol/acetonitrile (85:15 v/v) at 291 nm followed by the good linearity of R2 = 0.997. The lowest limit of quantification (LOQ) by the SERS method was experimentally determined to be 10-12 M, whereas LOQ for HPLC-UV was 4.5 × 10-7 M, respectively. The new method was used directly and in a simple HPLC-SERS assembly to detect the drug in aqueous solutions and in spiked human blood plasma down to 1 pM. Therefore, the SERS method has strong potential for the rapid screening of the drug at pathology labs and points of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pyridines , SARS-CoV-2 , Thiazoles
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6223, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788319

ABSTRACT

Paper-based biosensors featuring immunoconjugated gold nanoparticles have gained extraordinary momentum in recent times as the platform of choice in key cases of field applications, including the so-called rapid antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2. Here, we propose a revision of this format, one that may leverage on the most recent advances in materials science and data processing. In particular, we target an amplifiable DNA rather than a protein analyte, and we replace gold nanospheres with anisotropic nanorods, which are intrinsically brighter by a factor of ~ 10, and multiplexable. By comparison with a gold-standard method for dot-blot readout with digoxigenin, we show that gold nanorods entail much faster and easier processing, at the cost of a higher limit of detection (from below 1 to 10 ppm in the case of plasmid DNA containing a target transgene, in our current setup). In addition, we test a complete workflow to acquire and process photographs of dot-blot membranes with custom-made hardware and regression tools, as a strategy to gain more analytical sensitivity and potential for quantification. A leave-one-out approach for training and validation with as few as 36 sample instances already improves the limit of detection reached by the naked eye by a factor around 2. Taken together, we conjecture that the synergistic combination of new materials and innovative tools for data processing may bring the analytical sensitivity of paper-based biosensors to approach the level of lab-grade molecular tests.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanotubes , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA , Gold , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
Talanta ; 243: 123355, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778463

ABSTRACT

Mass testing for the diagnosis of COVID-19 has been hampered in many countries owing to the high cost of genetic material detection. This study reports on a low-cost immunoassay for detecting SARS-CoV-2 within 30 min using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The immunosensor comprises 50-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, whose bioconjugation was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy (SERS). The specific binding of the bioconjugates to the spike protein led to an increase in bioconjugate size, with a limit of detection (LOD) 5.29 × 103 TCID50/mL (Tissue Culture Infectious Dose). The immunosensor was also proven to be selective upon interaction with influenza viruses once no increase in size was observed after DLS measurement. The strategy proposed here aimed to use antibodies conjugated to AuNPs as a generic platform that can be extended to other detection principles, enabling technologies for low-cost mass testing for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Dynamic Light Scattering , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Proteins
9.
Biochem J ; 479(8): 901-920, 2022 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774010

ABSTRACT

Diagnostic testing continues to be an integral component of the strategy to contain the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) global pandemic, the causative agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The SARS-CoV-2 genome encodes the 3C-like protease (3CLpro) which is essential for coronavirus replication. This study adapts an in vitro colorimetric gold nanoparticle (AuNP) based protease assay to specifically detect the activity of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro as a purified recombinant protein and as a cellular protein exogenously expressed in HEK293T human cells. We also demonstrate that the specific sensitivity of the assay for SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro can be improved by use of an optimised peptide substrate and through hybrid dimerisation with inactive 3CLpro mutant monomers. These findings highlight the potential for further development of the AuNP protease assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro activity as a novel, accessible and cost-effective diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2 infection at the point-of-care. Importantly, this versatile assay could also be easily adapted to detect specific protease activity associated with other viruses or diseases conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Gold , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(3): e0010311, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The focus on laboratory-based diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) warrants alternative public health tools such as rapid antigen tests. While there are a number of commercially available antigen tests to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), all cross-react with the genetically similar SARS-CoV-1 or require an instrument for results interpretation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed and validated rapid antigen tests that use pairs of murine-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), along with gold nanoparticles, to detect SARS-CoV-2 with or without cross-reaction to SARS-CoV-1 and other coronaviruses. In this development, we demonstrate a robust antibody screening methodology for the selection of mAb pairs that can recognize SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. Linear epitope mapping of the mAbs helped elucidate SARS-CoV-2 S and N interactions in lateral flow chromatography. A candidate rapid antigen test for SARS-CoV-2 N was validated using nasal swab specimens that were confirmed positive or negative by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Test results were image-captured using a mobile phone and normalized signal pixel intensities were calculated; signal intensities were inversely correlated to RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our results suggest that the rapid antigen test is optimized to detect SARS-CoV-2 N during the acute phase of COVID-19. The rapid antigen tests developed in this study are alternative tools for wide scale public health surveillance of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Nanoscale ; 14(14): 5600-5611, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764222

ABSTRACT

We develop a novel theory for the nanomorphology dependent outer sphere heterogeneous electron transfer (ET) rate constant () based on an energy level alignment approach. is modelled through the activation free energy, which is a product of the water monolayer covered metal work function (WF) and the fractional electronic charge exchanged at the transition state (attained through the alignment of the metal Fermi and HOMO/LUMO energy levels of the electroactive species). The theory shows that is an exponentially increasing and decreasing function of the mean curvature in concave and convex nanomorphologies, respectively, for electroactive species or proteins involving their HOMO energy. For the specific spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, we have estimated the half lifetime (t1/2) and degree of inactivation as a function of the metal WF, nanostructure mean curvature, spike protein HOMO energy, and the environmental temperature (T). By varying the metal from Ag to Au, t1/2 is reduced from 7 h to 4 min, respectively. The reduction in the copper nanoparticle size from 50 to 5 nm increases the degree of inactivation from 60 to 99.6% (with a reduction factor of 10 in t1/2). Similarly, the increase in T from 10 °C to 65 °C causes a 100 times lowering of the t1/2 and t99.9% of SARS-CoV-2 on Cu metal. The theory predicts that involving the HOMO energy level of a protein follows the surface nanostructure shape dependent order as follows: spherical nanoparticle > cylindrical nanorod > cylindrical nanopore > spherical nanocavity, while the opposite trend is observed in the case of the LUMO energy level participation. Finally, the theory shows agreement with the reported experimental data of the degree of inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 on Ag and Cu nanoparticles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Copper , Energy Transfer , Humans , Kinetics , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metals , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Temperature
12.
Talanta ; 244: 123381, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747550

ABSTRACT

The early diagnosis of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) requires either an accurate detection of genetic material or a sensitive detection of viral proteins. In this work, we designed an immunoassay platform for detecting trace levels of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. It is based on surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) of methylene blue (MB) adsorbed onto spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and coated with a 6 nm silica shell. The latter shell in the SERRS nanoprobe prevented aggregation and permitted functionalization with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Specificity of the immunoassay was achieved by combining this functionalization with antibody immobilization on the cover slides that served as the platform support. Different concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 antigen could be distinguished and the lack of influence of interferents was confirmed by treating SERRS data with the multidimensional projection technique Sammon's mapping. With SERRS using a laser line at 633 nm, the lowest concentration of spike protein detected was 10 pg/mL, achieving a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.046 ng/mL (0.60 pM). This value is comparable to the lowest concentrations in the plasma of COVID-19 patients at the onset of symptoms, thus indicating that the SERRS immunoassay platform may be employed for early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
13.
Talanta ; 243: 123393, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740208

ABSTRACT

We present a fast, reliable and easy to scale-up colorimetric sensor based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to detect the sequences coding for the RdRp, E, and S proteins of SARS-CoV-2. The optimization of the system (so-called "the sensor") includes the evaluation of different sizes of nanoparticles, sequences of oligonucleotides and buffers. It is stable for months without any noticeable decrease in its activity, allowing the detection of SARS-CoV-2 sequences by the naked eye in 15 min. The efficiency and selectivity of detection, in terms of significative colorimetric changes in the solution upon target recognition, are qualitatively (visually) and quantitatively (absorbance measurements) assessed using synthetic samples and samples derived from infected cells and patients. Furthermore, an easy and affordable amplification approach is implemented to increase the system's sensitivity for detecting high and medium viral loads (≥103 - 104 viral RNA copies/µl) in patient samples. The whole process (amplification and detection) takes 2.5 h. Due to the ease of use, stability and minimum equipment requirements, the proposed approach can be a valuable tool for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 at facilities with limited resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry , Gold , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 207: 114182, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734212

ABSTRACT

As an important component of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, liposomes play a key role in the efficient protection and delivery of mRNA to cells. Herein, due to the controllable release amplification strategy of liposomes, a reliable and robust single-particle collision electrochemical (SPCE) biosensor was constructed for H9N2 avian influenza virus (H9N2 AIV) detection by combining liposome encapsulation-release strategy with immunomagnetic separation. The liposomes modified with biotin and loaded with platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) were used as signal probes for the first time. Biotin facilitated the coupling of biomolecules (DNA or antibodies) through the specific reaction of biotin-streptavidin. Each liposome can encapsulate multiple Pt NPs, which were ruptured under the presence of 1 × PBST (phosphate buffer saline with 0.05% Tween-20) within 2 min, and the encapsulated Pt NPs were released for SPCE experiment. The combination of immunomagnetic separation not only improved the anti-interference capabilities but also avoided the agglomeration of Pt NPs, enabling the SPCE biosensor to realize ultrasensitive detection of 18.1 fg/mL H9N2 AIV. Furthermore, the reliable SPCE biosensor was successfully applied in specific detection of H9N2 AIV in complex samples (chicken serum, chicken liver and chicken lung), which promoted the universality of SPCE biosensor and its application prospect in early diagnosis of diseases.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Metal Nanoparticles , Animals , Biotin/chemistry , Chickens , Liposomes/chemistry , Platinum
15.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725509

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, human health is affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Hence, the fabrication of the biosensors to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 is critical. In this paper, we report an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based aptasensor for the determination of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (SARS-CoV-2-RBD). For this purpose, the carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were first decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Then, the surface of the carbon-based screen-printed electrode (CSPE) was modified with the CNF-AuNP nanocomposite (CSPE/CNF-AuNP). After that, the thiol-terminal aptamer probe was immobilized on the surface of the CSPE/CNF-AuNP. The surface coverage of the aptamer was calculated to be 52.8 pmol·cm-2. The CSPE/CNF-AuNP/Aptamer was then used for the measurement of SARS-CoV-2-RBD by using the EIS method. The obtained results indicate that the signal had a linear-logarithmic relationship in the range of 0.01-64 nM with a limit of detection of 7.0 pM. The proposed aptasensor had a good selectivity to SARS-CoV-2-RBD in the presence of human serum albumin; human immunoglobulins G, A, and M, hemagglutinin, and neuraminidase. The analytical performance of the aptasensor was studied in human saliva samples. The present study indicates a practical application of the CSPE/CNF-AuNP/Aptamer for the determination of SARS-CoV-2-RBD in human saliva samples with high sensitivity and accuracy.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanocomposites , Nanofibers , Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carbon/chemistry , Dielectric Spectroscopy , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Electrodes , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Limit of Detection , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanofibers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
16.
ACS Sens ; 7(3): 884-892, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721394

ABSTRACT

Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) have experienced an unprecedented story of success. In particular, as of today, most people have likely come into contact with one of their two most famous examples─the pregnancy or the SARS-CoV-2 antigen test. However, their sensing performance is constrained by the optical readout of nanoparticle agglomeration, which typically allows only qualitative measurements. In contrast, single-impact electrochemistry offers the possibility to quantify species concentrations beyond the pM range by resolving collisions of individual species on a microelectrode. Within this work, we investigate the integration of stochastic sensing into a µPAD design by combining a wax-patterned microchannel with a microelectrode array to detect silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by their oxidative dissolution. In doing so, we demonstrate the possibility to resolve individual nanoparticle collisions in a reference-on-chip configuration. To simulate a lateral flow architecture, we flush previously dried AgNPs along a microchannel toward the electrode array, where we are able to record nanoparticle impacts. Consequently, single-impact electrochemistry poses a promising candidate to extend the limits of lateral flow-based sensors beyond current applications toward a fast and reliable detection of very dilute species on site.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Electrochemistry , Female , Humans , Microelectrodes , Microfluidics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver
17.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715101

ABSTRACT

Protein-based carriers are promising vehicles for the intracellular delivery of therapeutics. In this study, we designed and studied adenovirus protein fiber constructs with potential applications as carriers for the delivery of protein and nanoparticle cargoes. We used as a basic structural framework the fibrous shaft segment of the adenovirus fiber protein comprising of residues 61-392, connected to the fibritin foldon trimerization motif at the C-terminal end. A fourteen-amino-acid biotinylation sequence was inserted immediately after the N-terminal, His-tagged end of the construct in order to enable the attachment of a biotin moiety in vivo. We report herein that this His-tag biotinylated construct folds into thermally and protease-stable fibrous nanorods that can be internalized into cells and are not cytotoxic. Moreover, they can bind to proteins and nanoparticles through the biotin-streptavidin interaction and mediate their delivery to cells. We demonstrate that streptavidin-conjugated gold nanoparticles can be transported into NIH3T3 fibroblast and HeLa cancer cell lines. Furthermore, two streptavidin-conjugated model proteins, alkaline phosphatase and horseradish peroxidase can be delivered into the cell cytoplasm in their enzymatically active form. This work is aimed at establishing the proof-of-principle for the rational engineering of diverse functionalities onto the initial protein structural framework and the use of adenovirus fiber-based proteins as nanorods for the delivery of nanoparticles and model proteins. These constructs could constitute a stepping stone for the development of multifunctional and modular fibrous nanorod platforms that can be tailored to applications at the sequence level.


Subject(s)
Viral Proteins , Adenoviridae/chemistry , Animals , Biotin/chemistry , Biotin/metabolism , Gold/chemistry , HeLa Cells , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Mice , NIH 3T3 Cells , Streptavidin/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry
18.
Nanoscale ; 14(11): 4065-4072, 2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713225

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticles (NPs) have been used in drug delivery therapies, medical diagnostic strategies, and as current Covid-19 vaccine carriers. Many microscope-based imaging systems have been introduced to facilitate detection and visualization of NPs. Unfortunately, none can differentiate the core and the shell of NPs. Spectral imaging has been used to distinguish a drug molecule and its metabolite. We have recently integrated this technology to a resolution of 9 nm by using artificial intelligence-driven analyses. Such a resolution allowed us to collect many robust datapoints for each pixel of an image. Our analyses could recognize 45 spectral points within a pixel to detect unlabeled Ag-NPs and Au-NPs in single live cells and tissues (liver, heart, spleen and kidneys). The improved resolution and software provided a more specific fingerprinting for each single molecule, allowing simultaneous analyses of 990 complex interactions from the 45 points for each molecule within a pixel of an image. This in turn allowed us to detect surface-functionalization of Ag-NPs to distinguish the core from the shell of Ag-NPs for the first time. Our studies were validated using various laborious and time-consuming conventional techniques. We propose that spectral imaging has tremendous potential to study NP localization and identification in biological samples at a high temporal and spatial resolution, based primarily on spectral identity information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 Vaccines , Gold , Humans , Silver/analysis
19.
Analyst ; 147(6): 1213-1221, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713220

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused millions of cases and deaths all over the world since late 2019. Rapid detection of the virus is crucial for controlling its spread through a population. COVID-19 is currently detected by nucleic acid-based tests and serological tests. However, these methods have limitations such as the requirement of high-cost reagents, false negative results and being time consuming. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), which is a powerful technique that enhances the Raman signals of molecules using plasmonic nanostructures, can overcome these disadvantages. In this study, we developed a virus-infected cell model and analyzed this model by SERS combined with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). HEK293 cells were transfected with plasmids encoding the nucleocapsid (N), membrane (M) and envelope (E) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 via polyethyleneimine (PEI). Non-plasmid transfected HEK293 cells were used as the control group. Cellular uptake was optimized with green fluorescence protein (GFP) plasmids and evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The transfection efficiency was found to be around 60%. The expression of M, N, and E proteins was demonstrated by western blotting. The SERS spectra of the total proteins of transfected cells were obtained using a gold nanoparticle-based SERS substrate. Proteins of the transfected cells have peak positions at 646, 680, 713, 768, 780, 953, 1014, 1046, 1213, 1243, 1424, 2102, and 2124 cm-1. To reveal spectral differences between plasmid transfected cells and non-transfected control cells, PCA was applied to the spectra. The results demonstrated that SERS coupled with PCA might be a favorable and reliable way to develop a rapid, low-cost, and promising technique for the detection of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold/chemistry , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Multivariate Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods
20.
Anal Chem ; 94(10): 4446-4454, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713092

ABSTRACT

The enrichment of co-reactants is one of the keys to improving the sensitivity of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection. This work developed a novel hydrophobic localized enrichment strategy of co-reactants utilizing the inner hydrophobic cavity of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD). Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) were grown in situ on the coordination sites for metal ions of ß-CD to prepare the ß-CD-Pt nanocomposite, which could not only enrich co-reactant 3-(dibutylamino) propylamine (TDBA) highly efficiently through its hydrophobic cavity but also immobilize TDBA via the Pt-N bond. Meanwhile, the carboxyl-functionalized poly[2,5-dioctyl-1,4-phenylene] (PDP) polymer nanoparticles (PNPs) were developed as excellent ECL luminophores. With SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (ncovNP) as a model protein, the TDBA-ß-CD-Pt nanocomposite combined PDP PNPs to construct a biosensor for ncovNP determination. The PDP PNPs were modified onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to capture the first antibody (Ab1) and further capture antigen and secondary antibody complexes (TDBA-ß-CD-Pt@Ab2). The resultant biosensor with a sandwich structure achieved a highly sensitive detection of ncovNP with a detection limit of 22 fg/mL. TDBA-ß-CD-Pt shared with an inspiration in hydrophobic localized enrichment of co-reactants for improving the sensitivity of ECL detection. The luminophore PDP PNPs integrated TDBA-ß-CD-Pt to provide a promising and sensitive ECL platform, offering a new method for ncovNP detection.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
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