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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19934, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133627

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we synthesized Ag/ZnO composite colloidal nanoparticles and the surface of nanoparticles was improved by amodiaquine ligand. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using the XRD diffraction pattern, FT-IR Spectroscopy, TEM image, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral effects of the synthesized colloid were examined on E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus hirae bacteria, and Candida Albicans and form spore aspergillus fungi, also influenza, herpes simplex, and covid 19 viruses. The results indicate more than 7 log removal of the bacteria, fungi, and viruses by synthesized colloid with a concentration of 15 µg/L (Ag)/50 µg/ml (ZnO). This removal for covid 19 virus is from 3.2 × 108 numbers to 21 viruses within 30 s. Also, irritation and toxicity tests of the synthesized colloid show harmless effects on human cells and tissues. These colloidal nanoparticles were used as mouthwash solution and their clinical tests were done on 500 people infected by the coronavirus. The results indicate that by washing their mouth and nose three times on day all patients got healthy at different times depending on the depth of the disease. Almost all people with no signs of infection and using this solution as a mouthwash didn't infect by the virus during the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Metal Nanoparticles , Zinc Oxide , Humans , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Amodiaquine/pharmacology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Escherichia coli
2.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110188

ABSTRACT

With increasingly frequent highly infectious global pandemics, the textile industry has responded by developing commercial fabric products by incorporating antibacterial metal oxide nanoparticles, particularly copper oxide in cleaning products and personal care items including antimicrobial wipes, hospital gowns and masks. Current methods use a surface adsorption method to functionalize nanomaterials to fibers. However, this results in poor durability and decreased antimicrobial activity after consecutive launderings. In this study, cuprous oxide nanoparticles with nanoflower morphology (Cu2O nanoflowers) are synthesized in situ within the cotton fiber under mild conditions and without added chemical reducing agents from a copper (II) precursor with an average maximal Feret diameter of 72.0 ± 51.8 nm and concentration of 17,489 ± 15 mg/kg. Analysis of the Cu2O NF-infused cotton fiber cross-section by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the internal formation, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the copper (I) reduced oxidation state. An exponential correlation (R2 = 0.9979) between the UV-vis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) intensity at 320 nm of the Cu2O NFs and the concentration of copper in cotton was determined. The laundering durability of the Cu2O NF-cotton fabric was investigated, and the superior nanoparticle-leach resistance was observed, with the fabrics releasing only 19% of copper after 50 home laundering cycles. The internally immobilized Cu2O NFs within the cotton fiber exhibited continuing antibacterial activity (≥99.995%) against K. pneumoniae, E. coli and S. aureus), complete antifungal activity (100%) against A. niger and antiviral activity (≥90%) against Human coronavirus, strain 229E, even after 50 laundering cycles.


Subject(s)
Copper , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Copper/chemistry , Cellulose/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Antiviral Agents , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Oxides
3.
Analyst ; 147(22): 5028-5037, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069895

ABSTRACT

The continued uncertainty of emerging infectious viral diseases has led to an extraordinary urgency to develop advanced molecular diagnostic tests that are faster, more reliable, simpler to use, and readily available than traditional methods. This study presents a system that can accurately and rapidly trace viral nucleic acids by employing flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1)-assisted specific DNA cleavage reactions and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based analysis. The designed Raman tag-labeled 5'- and 3'-flap provider DNA yielded structurally defined DNA substrates on magnetic nanoparticle surfaces when a target was present. The FEN1 enzyme subsequently processes the substrates formed via an invasive cleavage reaction, producing 5'-flap DNA products. Magnetic separation allows efficient purification of flap products from reaction mixtures. The isolated solution was directly applied onto high aspect-ratio plasmonic silver nanopillars serving as SERS-active substrates to induce amplified SERS signals. We verified the developed SERS-based sensing system using a synthetic target complementary to an avian influenza A (H9N2) virus gene and examined the detection performance of the system using complementary DNA (cDNA) derived from H9N2 viral RNA. As a result, we could detect a synthetic target with a detection limit of 41.1 fM with a single base-pair discrimination ability and achieved multiplexed detection capability for two targets. Using cDNA samples from H9N2 viruses, we observed a high concordance of R2 = 0.917 between the data obtained from SERS and the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We anticipate that this enzyme-assisted SERS sensor may provide insights into the development of high-performance molecular diagnostic tools that can respond rapidly to viral pathogens.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Metal Nanoparticles , Nucleic Acids , Animals , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , Gold/chemistry , Flap Endonucleases , DNA, Complementary , DNA/analysis , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry
4.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1234: 340523, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068605

ABSTRACT

Sensitive and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 methods is meaningful for preventing and controlling the novel coronavirus. The detection techniques supporting portable, onsite, in-time, and online data transfer are urgently needed. Here, we one-click investigated the shape influence of silver nanostructures on SERS performance and their applications in the sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2. Such investigation is achieved by adjusting multiple parameters (concentration, potential, and time) on the integrated electrochemical array, thus various morphologies (e.g., bulk, dendritic, globular, and spiky) can be one-click synthesized. The SERS performance results indicated that dendritic nanostructures are superior to the other three with an order of magnitude signal enhancement. Such on-electrode dendritic silver substrate also represents high sensitivity (LOD = 7.42 × 10-14 M) and high reproducibility (RSD = 3.67%) toward the SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequence detection. Such approach provides great potentials for rapid diagnosis and prevention of diverse infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanostructures , Humans , Silver/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reproducibility of Results , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry
5.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0269864, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054309

ABSTRACT

Till now the exact mechanism and effect of biogenic silver nanoparticles on fungus is an indefinable question. To focus on this issue, the first time we prepared hydrothermal assisted thyme coated silver nanoparticles (T/AgNPs) and their toxic effect on Candida isolates were determined. The role of thyme (Thymus Vulgaris) in the reduction of silver ions and stabilization of T/AgNPs was estimated by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, structure and size of present silver nanoparticles were detected via atomic force microscopy as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The biological activity of T/AgNPs was observed against Candida isolates from COVID-19 Patients. Testing of virulence of Candida species using Multiplex PCR. T/AgNPs proved highly effective against Candida albicans, Candida kruzei, Candida glabrata and MIC values ranging from 156.25 to 1,250 µg/mL and MFC values ranging from 312.5 to 5,000 µg/mL. The structural and morphological modifications due to T/AgNPs on Candida albicans were detected by TEM. It was highly observed that when Candida albicans cells were subjected to 50 and 100 µg/mL T/AgNPs, a remarkable change in the cell wall and cell membrane was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida , Candida albicans , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Silver/chemistry
6.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043579

ABSTRACT

The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has posed a great challenge for the development of ultra-fast methods for virus identification based on sensor principles. We created a structure modeling surface and size of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and used it in comparison with the standard antigen SARS-CoV-2-the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S-protein of the envelope of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from the Wuhan strain-for the development of detection of coronaviruses using a DNA-modified, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based aptasensor in sandwich mode: a primary aptamer attached to the plasmonic surface-RBD-covered Ag nanoparticle-the Cy3-labeled secondary aptamer. Fabricated novel hybrid plasmonic structures based on "Ag mirror-SiO2-nanostructured Ag" demonstrate sensitivity for the detection of investigated analytes due to the combination of localized surface plasmons in nanostructured silver surface and the gap surface plasmons in a thin dielectric layer of SiO2 between silver layers. A specific SERS signal has been obtained from SERS-active compounds with RBD-specific DNA aptamers that selectively bind to the S protein of synthetic virion (dissociation constants of DNA-aptamer complexes with protein in the range of 10 nM). The purpose of the study is to systematically analyze the combination of components in an aptamer-based sandwich system. A developed virus size simulating silver particles adsorbed on an aptamer-coated sensor provided a signal different from free RBD. The data obtained are consistent with the theory of signal amplification depending on the distance of the active compound from the amplifying surface and the nature of such a compound. The ability to detect the target virus due to specific interaction with such DNA is quantitatively controlled by the degree of the quenching SERS signal from the labeled compound. Developed indicator sandwich-type systems demonstrate high stability. Such a platform does not require special permissions to work with viruses. Therefore, our approach creates the promising basis for fostering the practical application of ultra-fast, amplification-free methods for detecting coronaviruses based on SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA/chemistry , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Silicon Dioxide , Silver/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039868

ABSTRACT

The development of a strategy to investigate interfacial phenomena at lipid membranes is practically useful because most essential biomolecular interactions occur at cell membranes. In this study, a colorimetric method based on cysteine-encapsulated liposomes was examined using gold nanoparticles as a probe to provide a platform to report an enzymatic activity at lipid membranes. The cysteine-encapsulated liposomes were prepared with varying ratios of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and cholesterol through the hydration of lipid films and extrusions in the presence of cysteine. The size, composition, and stability of resulting liposomes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The results showed that the increased cholesterol content improved the stability of liposomes, and the liposomes were formulated with 60 mol % cholesterol for the subsequent experiments. Triton X-100 was tested to disrupt the lipid membranes to release the encapsulated cysteine from the liposomes. Cysteine can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles accompanying a color change, and the colorimetric response of gold nanoparticles to the released cysteine was investigated in various media. Except in buffer solutions at around pH 5, the cysteine-encapsulated liposomes showed the color change of gold nanoparticles only after being incubated with Triton X-100. Finally, the cysteine-encapsulated liposomal platform was tested to report the enzymatic activity of phospholipase A2 that hydrolyzes phospholipids in the membrane. The hydrolysis of phospholipids triggered the release of cysteine from the liposomes, and the released cysteine was successfully detected by monitoring the distinct red-to-blue color change of gold nanoparticles. The presence of phospholipase A2 was also confirmed by the appearance of a peak around 690 nm in the UV-vis spectra, which is caused by the cysteine-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles. The results demonstrated that the cysteine-encapsulated liposome has the potential to be used to investigate biological interactions occurring at lipid membranes.


Subject(s)
Liposomes , Metal Nanoparticles , Cholesterol , Cysteine , Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine , Gold/chemistry , Liposomes/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Octoxynol , Phospholipases , Phospholipids , Phosphorylcholine
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032985

ABSTRACT

The nano-metal-treated PET films with anti-virus and anti-fogging ability were developed using sparking nano-metal particles of Ag, Zn, and Ti wires on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Ag nanoparticles were detected on the PET surface, while a continuous aggregate morphology was observed with Zn and Ti sparking. The color of the Ag-PET films changed to brown with increasing repeat sparking times, but not with the Zn-PET and Ti-PET films. The water contact angle of the nano-metal-treated PET films decreased with increasing repeat sparking times. The RT-PCR anti-virus test confirmed the high anti-virus efficiency of the nano-metal-treated PET films due to the fine particle distribution, high polarity, and binding of the nano-metal ions to the coronavirus, which was destroyed by heat after UV irradiation. A highly transparent, anti-fogging, and anti-virus face shield was prepared using the Zn-PET film. Sparking was an effective technique to prepare the alternative anti-virus and anti-fogging films for medical biomaterial applications because of their low cost, convenience, and fast processing.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Metal Nanoparticles , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polyethylene Terephthalates/chemistry , Silver/chemistry , Surface Properties , Water
9.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 217: 114714, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031161

ABSTRACT

Timely and accurate detection of virus is crucial for preventing spread of disease and early treatment of the infected cases. Herein we design an integrated logic-operated three-dimensional DNA walker for colorimetric detection of viral RNA fragments, by taking SARS-CoV-2 as an example. The DNA walker is composed of small amounts of dually-blocked walking strands and large amounts of dual-stem-loop track strands on gold nanoparticles. The walking strand contains a swing arm domain and a DNAzyme domain blocked at both sides of catalytic core, while the track strand contains a substrate domain located at the peripheral larger loop. Only the presence of both ORF1ab and N RNA fragments can fully de-block the walking strand, which then continuously hybridizes with track strands and cleaves them by DNAzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis. As the cleavage of track strands from long-stranded, double stem-loop structure to short-stranded, linear sequence, the DNA walker shows much lowered stability due to decreased negative charge density and diminished steric repulsion, which then gets aggregated at high salt concentration, accompanied by a visible color change. The colorimetric DNA walker detects RNA fragments down to 1 nM, responds dual viral genes in a "AND" logic way, and shows high specificity to target sequence. It can further detect large nucleic acids containing ORF1ab and N sequences, and reach 200 copies/mL detection limit by coupling a simple upstream amplification of sample. The method may provide a convenient way for reliable detection of viral RNA.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , DNA, Catalytic , Metal Nanoparticles , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Colorimetry/methods , DNA/chemistry , DNA, Catalytic/chemistry , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Limit of Detection , Logic , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Dalton Trans ; 51(38): 14686-14699, 2022 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028738

ABSTRACT

We report the controlled growth of biologically active compounds: gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in various shapes, including their green synthesis, characterization, and studies of their applications towards biological, degradation and recycling. Using spectroscopic methods, studies on responsive binding mechanisms of AuNPs with biopolymers herring sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (hsDNA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), dyes degradation study, and exquisitely gold separation studies/recovery from nanowaste, COVID-19 testing kits, and pregnancy testing kits are discussed. The sensing ability of the AuNPs with biopolymers was investigated via various analytical techniques. The rate of degradation of various dyes in the presence and absence of AuNPs was studied by deploying stirring, IR, solar, and UV-Vis methods. AuNPs were found to be the most active cytotoxic agent against human breast cancer cell lines such as MCF-7 and MDAMB-468. Furthermore, an economical process for the recovery of gold traces from nanowaste, COVID-19 detection kits, and pregnancy testing kits was developed using inexpensive and eco-friendly α-cyclodextrin sugar. This method was found to be easy and safest in comparison with the universally accepted cyanidation process. In the future, small gold jewelry makers and related industries would benefit from the proposed gold-recycling process and it might contribute to their socio-economic growth. The methodologies proposed are also beneficial for trace-level forensic investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , alpha-Cyclodextrins , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Coloring Agents , Cytotoxins , DNA , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Male , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Semen , Serum Albumin, Bovine/chemistry , Sugars
11.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023938

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report our success synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extracts from the leaves and flowers of Calotropis gigantea growing in the geothermal manifestation Ie Seu-Um, Aceh Besar, Indonesia. C. gigantea aqueous extract can be used as a bio-reductant for Ag+→Ag0 conversion, obtained by 48h incubation of Ag+, and the extract mixture in a dark condition. UV-Vis characterization showed that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks of AgNPs-leaf C. gigantea (AgNPs-LCg) and AgNPs-flower C. gigantea (AgNPs-FCg) appeared in the wavelength range of 410-460 nm. Scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) revealed the agglomeration and spherical shapes of AgNPs-LCg and AgNPs-FCg with diameters ranging from 87.85 to 256.7 nm. Zeta potentials were observed in the range of -41.8 to -25.1 mV. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay revealed AgNPs-FCg as the most potent antimicrobial agent with inhibition zones of 12.05 ± 0.58, 11.29 ± 0.45, and 9.02 ± 0.10 mm for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans, respectively. In conclusion, aqueous extract from the leaves or flowers of Calotropis gigantea may be used in the green synthesis of AgNPs with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Calotropis , Metal Nanoparticles , Acetone/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Escherichia coli , Green Chemistry Technology , Hydrazones , Indonesia , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Silver/chemistry
12.
Mar Drugs ; 20(8)2022 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023893

ABSTRACT

The increased interest in nanomedicine and its applicability for a wide range of biological functions demands the search for raw materials to create nanomaterials. Recent trends have focused on the use of green chemistry to synthesize metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles. Bioactive chemicals have been found in a variety of marine organisms, including invertebrates, marine mammals, fish, algae, plankton, fungi, and bacteria. These marine-derived active chemicals have been widely used for various biological properties. Marine-derived materials, either whole extracts or pure components, are employed in the synthesis of nanoparticles due to their ease of availability, low cost of production, biocompatibility, and low cytotoxicity toward eukaryotic cells. These marine-derived nanomaterials have been employed to treat infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses as well as treat non-infectious diseases, such as tumors, cancer, inflammatory responses, and diabetes, and support wound healing. Furthermore, several polymeric materials derived from the marine, such as chitosan and alginate, are exploited as nanocarriers in drug delivery. Moreover, a variety of pure bioactive compounds have been loaded onto polymeric nanocarriers and employed to treat infectious and non-infectious diseases. The current review is focused on a thorough overview of nanoparticle synthesis and its biological applications made from their entire extracts or pure chemicals derived from marine sources.


Subject(s)
Chitosan , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Noncommunicable Diseases , Animals , Bacteria , Chitosan/chemistry , Drug Delivery Systems , Fungi , Mammals , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Polymers/therapeutic use
13.
ACS Nano ; 16(9): 14239-14253, 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991501

ABSTRACT

Limitations of the recognition elements in terms of synthesis, cost, availability, and stability have impaired the translation of biosensors into practical use. Inspired by nature to mimic the molecular recognition of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 S protein antibody (AbS) by the S protein binding site, we synthesized the peptide sequence of Asn-Asn-Ala-Thr-Asn-COOH (abbreviated as PEP2003) to create COVID-19 screening label-free (LF) biosensors based on a carbon electrode, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The PEP2003 is easily obtained by chemical synthesis, and it can be adsorbed on electrodes while maintaining its ability for AbS recognition, further leading to a sensitivity 3.4-fold higher than the full-length S protein, which is in agreement with the increase in the target-to-receptor size ratio. Peptide-loaded LF devices based on noncovalent immobilization were developed by affording fast and simple analyses, along with a modular functionalization. From studies by molecular docking, the peptide-AbS binding was found to be driven by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Moreover, the peptide is not amenable to denaturation, thus addressing the trade-off between scalability, cost, and robustness. The biosensor preserves 95.1% of the initial signal for 20 days when stored dry at 4 °C. With the aid of two simple equations fitted by machine learning (ML), the method was able to make the COVID-19 screening of 39 biological samples into healthy and infected groups with 100.0% accuracy. By taking advantage of peptide-related merits combined with advances in surface chemistry and ML-aided accuracy, this platform is promising to bring COVID-19 biosensors into mainstream use toward straightforward, fast, and accurate analyses at the point of care, with social and economic impacts being achieved.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Carbon/chemistry , Electrochemical Techniques , Electrodes , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptides/chemistry
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(34): 38459-38470, 2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991497

ABSTRACT

To prevent the ongoing spread of the highly infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), accurate and early detection based on a rapid, ultrasensitive, and highly reliable sensing method is crucially important. Here, we present a bumpy core-shell surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) nanoprobe-based sensing platform with single-nanoparticle (SNP)-based digital SERS analysis. The tailorable bumpy core-shell SERS nanoprobe with an internal self-assembled monolayer of 4-nitrobenzenethiol Raman reporters, synthesized using HEPES biological buffer, generates a strong, uniform, and reproducible SERS signal with an SNP-level sensitive and narrowly distributed enhancement factor (2.1 × 108 to 2.2 × 109). We also propose an SNP-based digital SERS analysis method that provides direct visualization of SNP detection at ultralow concentrations and reliable quantification over a wide range of concentrations. The bumpy core-shell SERS nanoprobe-based sensing platform with SNP-based digital SERS analysis achieves the ultrasensitive and quantitative detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with a limit of detection of 7.1 × 10-16 M over a wide dynamic range from 3.7 × 10-15 to 3.7 × 10-8 M, far outperforming the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method for the target protein. Furthermore, it can detect mutated spike proteins from the SARS-CoV-2 variants, representing the key mutations of Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron variants. Therefore, this sensing platform can be effectively and efficiently used for the accurate and early detection of SARS-CoV-2 and be adapted for the ultrasensitive and reliable detection of other highly infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
15.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(9): 316, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971724

ABSTRACT

A colorimetric sensor array designed on a paper substrate with a microfluidic structure has been developed. This array is capable of detecting COVID-19 disease by tracking metabolites of urine samples. In order to determine minor metabolic changes, various colorimetric receptors consisting of gold and silver nanoparticles, metalloporphyrins, metal ion complexes, and pH-sensitive indicators are used in the array structure. By injecting a small volume of the urine sample, the color pattern of the sensor changes after 7 min, which can be observed visually. The color changes of the receptors (recorded by a scanner) are subsequently calculated by image analysis software and displayed as a color difference map. This study has been performed on 130 volunteers, including 60 patients infected by COVID-19, 55 healthy controls, and 15 cured individuals. The resulting array provides a fingerprint response for each category due to the differences in the metabolic profile of the urine sample. The principal component analysis-discriminant analysis confirms that the assay sensitivity to the correctly detected patient, healthy, and cured participants is equal to 73.3%, 74.5%, and 66.6%, respectively. Apart from COVID-19, other diseases such as chronic kidney disease, liver disorder, and diabetes may be detectable by the proposed sensor. However, this performance of the sensor must be tested in the studies with a larger sample size. These results show the possible feasibility of the sensor as a suitable alternative to costly and time-consuming standard methods for rapid detection and control of viral and bacterial infectious diseases and metabolic disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Microfluidics , Silver/chemistry
16.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 234: 112538, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966877

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) occasioned global economic and health systems collapse. Also, it raised several concerns about using conventional cotton fabrics for manufacturing personal protective equipment without the antimicrobial capacity to inactivate viruses, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants. Therefore, developing antimicrobial cotton fibers is crucial to avoid new global pandemics or the transmission of dangerous pathogens that remain on surfaces for long periods, especially in hospitals and medical clinics. Herein, we developed antimicrobial cotton fabrics with Ag, ZnO, and Ag/ZnO nanoparticles and evaluated their bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), photocatalytic activity, and antiviral activity against Delta SARS-CoV-2. Although the antimicrobial fabrics are effective against these bacteria, they only reduce part of the SARS-CoV-2 virions during the first 15 min of direct contact via damage only to biological structures on the viral surface particle while the viral RNA remains intact.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Zinc Oxide , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , COVID-19/drug therapy , Escherichia coli , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcus aureus , Textiles , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology
17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 215: 114602, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966387

ABSTRACT

A facile and general strategy has been employed to develop highly-active nanozyme for immunoassay purposes. The hollow nanostructure of the Co3O4 nanocages (NCs) was anchoring the platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) enclosed by the exposed oxides framework nd formed PtNPs@Co3O4 NCs. The embodiment of PtNPs was considered an ideal hybrid nanozyme that efficiently catalyzed the oxidation of the substrate molecules with enhanced activity. The PtNPs@Co3O4 NCs were revisited and repurposed on showing its nanozyme's activity with optimization done for the immunoassay platform. The embodiment of 32.44% Pt in the hollow nanostructures demonstrated the highest signal-to-noise responses in the immunoassay. In addition, the stepwise analysis highlighted the enhancement factor of the nanocages' catalytic mechanism. Based on their catalytic activity, these nanocages have been demonstrated to enable sub-femtogram level biosensing of norovirus-like particles (NoV-LPs) with highly selective signals in the capture-detect immunoassay format. The detection limit of the prepared immunoassay achieved 33.52 viral NoV copies/mL of the detection limit, which is 321-folds lower magnitude of the commercial ELISA. This nanocage's enhanced synergic catalytic properties could have great potential applications, including catalysis, biological labeling, and bioassays.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Metal Nanoparticles , Cobalt , Immunoassay , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Oxides , Platinum/chemistry
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8977, 2022 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947469

ABSTRACT

Biosensors, especially those with a SERS readout, are required for an early and precise healthcare diagnosis. Unreproducible SERS platforms hamper clinical SERS. Here we report a synthetic procedure to obtain stabile, reproducible and robust highly-SERS performing nanocomposites for labelling. We controlled the NPs agglomeration and codification which resulted in an increased number of hot spots, thus exhibiting reproducible and superior Raman enhancement. We studied fundamental aspects affecting the plasmonic thiol bond resulting in pH exhibiting a determining role. We validated their biosensing performance by designing a SERS-based detection assay model for SARS-CoV-2. The limit of detection of our assay detecting the spike RBD was below 10 ng/mL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods
19.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 213: 114476, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944329

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused significant global morbidity and mortality. The serology test that detects antibodies against the disease causative agent, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has often neglected value in supporting immunization policies and therapeutic decision-making. The ELISA-based antibody test is time-consuming and bulky. This work described a gold micro-interdigitated electrodes (IDE) biosensor for COVID antibody detection based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) responses. The IDE architecture allows easy surface modification with the viral structure protein, Spike (S) protein, in the gap of the electrode digits to selectively capture anti-S antibodies in buffer solutions or human sera. Two strategies were employed to resolve the low sensitivity issue of non-faradic impedimetric sensors and the sensor fouling phenomenon when using the serum. One uses secondary antibody-gold nanoparticle (AuNP) conjugates to further distinguish anti-S antibodies from the non-specific binding and obtain a more significant impedance change. The second strategy consists of increasing the concentration of target antibodies in the gap of IDEs by inducing an AC electrokinetic effect such as dielectrophoresis (DEP). AuNP and DEP methods reached a limit of detection of 200 ng/mL and 2 µg/mL, respectively using purified antibodies in buffer, while the DEP method achieved a faster testing time of only 30 min. Both strategies could qualitatively distinguish COVID-19 antibody-positive and -negative sera. Our work, especially the impedimetric detection of COVID-19 antibodies under the assistance of the DEP force presents a promising path toward rapid, point-of-care solutions for COVID-19 serology tests.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrodes , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(58): 87764-87774, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930520

ABSTRACT

Pharmaceutical products are some of the most serious emergent pollutants in the environment, especially nowadays of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, nanogold-composite was prepared, and its catalytic activity for paracetamol degradation was investigated. Moreover, for the first time, recycled waste diatomite earth (WDE) from beer filtration was used for reproducible gold nanoparticle (Au NPs) preparation. We studied Au NPs by various psychical-chemical and analytical methods. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy were used for nanogold-composite morphology, size and shape characterization. Total element concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. X-ray powder diffraction analysis was used for crystal structure characterization of samples. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used to study the chemical changes before and after Au NP formation. The results revealed that the WDE served as both a reducing and a stabilizing agent for crystalline spherical 30 nm Au NPs as well as acting as a direct support matrix. The kinetics of paracetamol degradation was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector. The conversion of paracetamol was 62% and 67% after 72 h in the absence or presence of light irradiation, respectively, with 0.0126 h-1 and 0.0148 h-1 reaction rate constants. The presented study demonstrates the successful use of waste material from the food industry for nanogold-composite preparation and its application as a promising catalyst in paracetamol removal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Gold/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Acetaminophen/chemistry , Pandemics
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