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Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 112: 110924, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1017020

ABSTRACT

Research on highly effective antiviral drugs is essential for preventing the spread of infections and reducing losses. Recently, many functional nanoparticles have been shown to possess remarkable antiviral ability, such as quantum dots, gold and silver nanoparticles, nanoclusters, carbon dots, graphene oxide, silicon materials, polymers and dendrimers. Despite their difference in antiviral mechanism and inhibition efficacy, these functional nanoparticles-based structures have unique features as potential antiviral candidates. In this topical review, we highlight the antiviral efficacy and mechanism of these nanoparticles. Specifically, we introduce various methods for analyzing the viricidal activity of functional nanoparticles and the latest advances in antiviral functional nanoparticles. Furthermore, we systematically describe the advantages and disadvantages of these functional nanoparticles in viricidal applications. Finally, we discuss the challenges and prospects of antiviral nanostructures. This topic review covers 132 papers and will enrich our knowledge about the antiviral efficacy and mechanism of various functional nanoparticles.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA Viruses/drug effects , DNA Viruses/physiology , Graphite/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/toxicity , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Polymers/chemistry , Quantum Dots/chemistry , Quantum Dots/therapeutic use , Quantum Dots/toxicity , Zika Virus/drug effects , Zika Virus Infection/drug therapy , Zika Virus Infection/veterinary
2.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 533(1): 195-200, 2020 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753910

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 is spreading unchecked due to the lack of effective antiviral measures. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have been studied to possess antiviral properties and are presumed to inhibit SARS-CoV-2. Due to the need for an effective agent against SARS-CoV-2, we evaluated the antiviral effect of AgNPs. We evaluated a plethora of AgNPs of different sizes and concentration and observed that particles of diameter around 10 nm were effective in inhibiting extracellular SARS-CoV-2 at concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 ppm while cytotoxic effect was observed at concentrations of 20 ppm and above. Luciferase-based pseudovirus entry assay revealed that AgNPs potently inhibited viral entry step via disrupting viral integrity. These results indicate that AgNPs are highly potent microbicides against SARS-CoV-2 but should be used with caution due to their cytotoxic effects and their potential to derange environmental ecosystems when improperly disposed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Metal Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Silver/administration & dosage , Animals , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/toxicity , Metal Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Pandemics , Particle Size , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver/toxicity , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects
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