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2.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 108(10): 1974-1990, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643515

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has revealed major shortcomings in our ability to mitigate transmission of infectious viral disease and provide treatment to patients, resulting in a public health crisis. Within months of the first reported case in China, the virus has spread worldwide at an unprecedented rate. COVID-19 illustrates that the biomaterials community was engaged in significant research efforts against bacteria and fungi with relatively little effort devoted to viruses. Accordingly, biomaterials scientists and engineers will have to participate in multidisciplinary antiviral research over the coming years. Although tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have historically dominated the field of biomaterials, current research holds promise for providing transformative solutions to viral outbreaks. To facilitate collaboration, it is imperative to establish a mutual language and adequate understanding between clinicians, industry partners, and research scientists. In this article, clinical perspectives are shared to clearly define emerging healthcare needs that can be met by biomaterials solutions. Strategies and opportunities for novel biomaterials intervention spanning diagnostics, treatment strategies, vaccines, and virus-deactivating surface coatings are discussed. Ultimately this review serves as a call for the biomaterials community to become a leading contributor to the prevention and management of the current and future viral outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Biocompatible Materials , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Biosensing Techniques , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfection/methods , Drug Delivery Systems , Extracorporeal Circulation , Filtration , Humans , Immunologic Tests/instrumentation , Immunologic Tests/methods , Metals , Nanostructures , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Protective Devices , RNA, Viral/analysis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Surface-Active Agents , Tissue Engineering , Viral Vaccines
3.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114741, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-176010

ABSTRACT

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play important roles in water purification but are also important source of aerosols. However, the relationship between aerosol characteristics and wastewater treatment process remains poorly understood. In this study, aerosols were collected over a 24-month period from a WWTP using a modified anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process. The aerated tank (AerT) was characterized by the highest respiratory fraction (RF) concentrations (861-1525 CFU/m3) and proportions (50.76%-65.96%) of aerosol particles. Fourteen core potential pathogens and 15 toxic metal(loid)s were identified in aerosols. Mycobacterium was the genus that aerosolized most easily in fine grid, pre-anoxic tank, and AerT. High wastewater treatment efficiency may increase the emission of RF and core potential pathogens. The median size of activated sludge, richness of core potential pathogens in wastewater, and total suspended particulates were the most influential factors directly related to the RF proportions, core community of potential pathogens, and composition of toxic metal(loid)s in WWTP aerosols, respectively. Relative humidity, temperature, input and removal of biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, and mixed liquor suspended solids could also directly or indirectly affect the aerosol characteristics. This study enhances the mechanistic understanding of linking aerosol characteristics to treatment processes and has important implications for targeted manipulation.


Subject(s)
Waste Water , Water Purification , Aerosols , Metals , Sewage , Waste Disposal, Fluid
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