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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250651, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833527

ABSTRACT

In recent times, many alarm bells have begun to sound: the metaphorical presentation of the COVID-19 emergency as a war might be dangerous, because it could affect the way people conceptualize the pandemic and react to it, leading citizens to endorse authoritarianism and limitations to civil liberties. The idea that conceptual metaphors actually influence reasoning has been corroborated by Thibodeau and Boroditsky, who showed that, when crime is metaphorically presented as a beast, readers become more enforcement-oriented than when crime is metaphorically framed as a virus. Recently, Steen, Reijnierse and Burgers replied that this metaphorical framing effect does not seem to occur and suggested that the question should be rephrased about the conditions under which metaphors do or do not influence reasoning. In this paper, we investigate whether presenting the COVID-19 pandemic as a war affects people's reasoning about the pandemic. Data collected suggest that the metaphorical framing effect does not occur by default. Rather, socio-political individual variables such as speakers' political orientation and source of information favor the acceptance of metaphor congruent entailments: right-wing participants and participants relying on independent sources of information are those more conditioned by the COVID-19 war metaphor, thus more inclined to prefer bellicose options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Social Behavior , Thinking/physiology , Adult , Armed Conflicts/psychology , Female , Humans , Italy , Language , Male , Metaphor , Pandemics/prevention & control , Problem Solving , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Am J Nurs ; 122(1): 11, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672272

ABSTRACT

Frontline workers deserve protection and follow-up support.


Subject(s)
Armed Conflicts , COVID-19/mortality , Language , Metaphor , Nursing Staff/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mental Health , Nursing Staff/supply & distribution
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261968, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592801

ABSTRACT

The study investigated how a group of 27 Wuhan citizens employed metaphors to communicate about their lived experiences of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic through in-depth individual interviews. The analysis of metaphors reflected the different kinds of emotional states and psychological conditions of the research participants, focusing on their mental imagery of COVID-19, extreme emotional experiences, and symbolic behaviors under the pandemic. The results show that multiple metaphors were used to construe emotionally-complex, isolating experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Most metaphorical narratives were grounded in embodied sensorimotor experiences such as body parts, battling, hitting, weight, temperature, spatialization, motion, violence, light, and journeys. Embodied metaphors were manifested in both verbal expressions and nonlinguistic behaviors (e.g., patients' repetitive behaviors). These results suggest that the bodily experiences of the pandemic, the environment, and the psychological factors combine to shape people's metaphorical thinking processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Communication , Metaphor , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 16(1): 1996872, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493506

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted thousands of individuals' experience of caregiving and grief. This qualitative study aimed to gain in-dept understanding of family caregivers' lived experiences of caregiving and bereavement in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in Quebec, Canada. The study also aimed at providing new insight about caregiving and bereavement by analysing the metaphors family caregivers use to report their experiences. METHODS: The design of this study was guided by an interpretative phenomenological approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty bereaved family caregivers who had lost a loved one during the first waves of the pandemic. RESULTS: Results indicate that bereaved family caregivers lived and understood their experience in terms of metaphoric cut-offs, obstructions and shockwaves. These three metaphors represented the grief process and the bereaved's quest for social connection, narrative coherence and recognition. CONCLUSION: By identifying the meaning of the bereaved's metaphors and the quest they reveal, our study underlines the singularity of pandemic grief and points to the value and meaning of caregiving with regard to the grieving process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Caregivers , Family , Grief , Humans , Metaphor , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 720512, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456303

ABSTRACT

Ensuring the well-being of persons with disabilities (PWDs) is a priority in the public sector during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To contain this unprecedented public crisis in China, a set of nationwide anti-epidemic discourse systems centered on war metaphors has guided the epidemic's prevention and control. While the public is immersed in the joy brought by the stage victory, most ignore the situation of the disadvantaged PWDs. Accordingly, this study adopts and presents a qualitative research method to explore the impact of war metaphors on PWDs. The results showed that while there was some formal and informal support for PWDs during this period, they were increasingly marginalized. Owing to the lack of a disability lens and institutional exclusion, PWDs were placed on the margins of the epidemic prevention and control system like outsiders. Affected by pragmatism under war metaphors, PWDs are regarded as non-contributory or inefficient persons; therefore, they are not prioritized and are thus placed into a state of being voiceless and invisible. This research can provide inspiration for improving public services for PWDs in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , China/epidemiology , Humans , Metaphor , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Nurs Res ; 31(3): 385-394, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455888

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore metaphoric perceptions of patients with COVID-19 including treatment process, family relationships, and mental health via using metaphors. Purposive sampling was used to include participants. Totally 46 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included in the study. The metaphor-based data collection process was carried out with three open-ended questions. The metaphors compiled according to questions and grouped by 13 themes according to analysis. Patients explained to COVID-19 process by using 91 different metaphors. Most frequently used metaphors by patients; black hole/dark for the treatment process of COVID-19, steel for family relationships, sea metaphor for mental health. This study, it was determined that individuals are afraid of death, have a serious perception of uncertainty, and their family relationships and this process negatively affected their family relationships and mental states. Nurses have important responsibilities to increase the quality of patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metaphor , Humans
7.
J Nurs Manag ; 30(1): 53-61, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443302

ABSTRACT

AIM: The purpose of this study is to understand the thoughts and perceptions of nurses caring for patients with COVID-19 diagnosis about the COVID-19 pandemic. BACKGROUND: The nursing profession, with the basic duty of caring for people, is among the professional groups most affected by COVID-19. The high rate of transmission of COVID-19, inadequate numbers of nurses for the increasing case numbers, inadequate personal protective equipment and increases in numbers of deaths negatively affected nurses, as they affected all health professionals. METHODS: This research is phenomenological research. A parallel mixed design including quantitative and qualitative research methods was used in the research. A sociodemographic data form and metaphor perception related to the COVID-19 pandemic form were used for data collection. Responses of nurses to the open-ended metaphor questions were evaluated with descriptive analysis and content analysis using the document investigation method. RESULTS: The research was completed with 227 nurses. Most of the nurses were employed in COVID-19 wards (68.3%), were not diagnosed with COVID-19 (65.2%) and had not lost any relatives to COVID-19 (59.0%). It was determined that the answers given by the nurses comprised 151 metaphors collected in eight categories in total. CONCLUSION: The results show that the metaphors mentioned by nurses involve hopelessness. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: This study reflects the ideas of nurses who are working with all their might during the COVID-19 pandemic and reveals the psychological status of the nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Metaphor , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Psychol ; 57(1): 107-126, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384185

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments around the world employed militaristic metaphors to draw attention to the dangers of the virus. But, do militaristic metaphors truly affect individuals' perceived threat of the COVID-19 virus and increase their support for corresponding restrictive policies? This study assessed the effects of fictitious newspaper articles that described COVID-19 policies using similarly negatively valenced metaphors but with differing militaristic connotations (e.g., "war" vs. "struggle"). Overall, data from three framing experiments (N = 1114) in Germany and the United States indicate limited evidence on the effectiveness of the tested militaristic metaphors. In the U.S. context, the non-militaristic concept of struggle was consistently more strongly associated with the desired outcomes than militaristic metaphors were. In Studies 2 and 3, we also tested whether reporting using a narrative or straightforward facts had additional influence on the framing effect. A congruency effect of the use of a narrative and of warfare metaphors was found in the German sample, but not in that of the United States. Results of post-experimental norming studies (N = 437) in both countries revealed that the metaphor of war is associated with people ascribing greater responsibility to their governments, whereas the concept of struggle triggers a sense of individual responsibility. These results are discussed in terms of the usefulness and appropriateness of militaristic metaphors in the context of a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metaphor , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378414

ABSTRACT

Living with anxiety can be a complex, biopsychosocial experience that is unique to each person and embedded in their contexts and lived worlds. Scales and questionnaires are necessary to quantify anxiety, yet these approaches are not always able to reflect the lived experience of psychological distress experienced by youth. Guided by hermeneutic phenomenology, our research aimed to amplify the voices of youth living with anxiety. Fifty-eight youth living with anxiety took part in in-depth, open-ended interviews and participatory arts-based methods (photovoice and ecomaps). Analysis was informed by van Manen's method of data analysis with attention to lived space, lived body, lived time, and lived relationships, as well as the meanings of living with anxiety. Youth relied on the following metaphors to describe their experiences: A shrinking world; The heavy, heavy backpack; Play, pause, rewind, forward; and A fine balance. Overall, youth described their anxiety as a monster, contributing to feelings of fear, loss, and pain, but also hope. The findings from this study can contribute to the reduction of barriers in knowledge translation by encouraging the use of narrative and visual metaphors as a communicative tool to convey youth's lived experience of anxiety to researchers, clinicians, and the public.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Metaphor , Adolescent , Anxiety , Emotions , Humans , Qualitative Research
10.
J Med Ethics ; 47(9): 643-644, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370904

ABSTRACT

Dr Caitríona L Cox's recent article expounds the far-reaching implications of the 'Healthcare Hero' metaphor. She presents a detailed overview of heroism in the context of clinical care, revealing that healthcare workers, when portrayed as heroes, face challenges in reconciling unreasonable expectations of personal sacrifice without reciprocity or ample structural support from institutions and the general public. We use narrative medicine, a field primarily concerned with honouring the intersubjective narratives shared between patients and providers, in our attempt to deepen the discussion about the ways Healthcare Heroes engenders military metaphor, antiscience discourse, and xenophobia in the USA. We argue that the militarised metaphor of Healthcare Heroes not only robs doctors and nurses of the ability to voice concerns for themselves and their patients, but effectively sacrifices them in a utilitarian bargain whereby human life is considered the expendable sacrifice necessary to 'open the U.S. economy'. Militaristic metaphors in medicine can be dangerous to both doctors and patients, thus, teaching and advocating for the critical skills to analyse and alter this language prevents undue harm to providers and patients, as well as our national and global communities.


Subject(s)
Metaphor , Pandemics , Betrayal , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Propaganda , United States
11.
Int J Psychol ; 57(1): 87-95, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258065

ABSTRACT

Communications about the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) often employ metaphors, which can help people understand complex issues. For example, public health messages may focus on "fighting" the disease, attempting to rouse people to action by instilling a sense of urgency. In contrast, change-focused metaphors may foster growth mindsets and self-efficacy-cornerstones of well-being and action. We randomly assigned participants to read one of two articles-either an article about coronavirus that focused on fighting the war or an article that highlighted the possibility of change. In Study 1 (N = 426), participants who read the war, relative to the change, message reported lower growth mindsets and self-efficacy and these in turn, predicted lower well-being and weaker intentions to engage in health behaviours. In Study 2, (N = 702), we sought to replicate findings and included a no treatment control. We failed to replicate the effects of message condition, although both messages predicted greater self-efficacy compared to the control. Similar to Study 1, growth mindsets predicted intentions to engage in recommended health behaviours and self-efficacy predicted both well-being and action. We discuss theoretical reasons for discrepancies as well as practical applications for developing public health communications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Intention , Metaphor , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Efficacy
12.
Qual Health Res ; 31(10): 1890-1903, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226839

ABSTRACT

This study provides insight into lived experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Participant metaphors of the pandemic were collected by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews (N = 44). Participants were asked to compare the pandemic with an animal and with a color, and to provide contextual sensemaking about their metaphors. A metaphor analysis revealed four convergent mental models of participants' pandemic experiences (i.e., uncertainty, danger, grotesque, and misery) as well as four primary emotions associated with those mental models (i.e., grief, disgust, anger, and fear). Through metaphor, participants were able to articulate deeply felt, implicit emotions about their pandemic experiences that were otherwise obscured and undiscussable. Theoretical and practical implications of these collective mental models and associated collective emotions related to the unprecedented collective trauma of the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metaphor , Emotions , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(4): e753-e755, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214684

ABSTRACT

Pandemic discussions employ language metaphors and metonymies to make sense of the coronavirus disease 2019 crisis. From commenting and proposing to revise terms such as social distancing, the war against the virus, to viewing mother nature as a killer, there are language reconsiderations to be made to avoid some disturbing mental imageries to picture a sustainable future. The Anthropocene geologic time and the improved environmental quality situate this backdrop. Language interventions make up as a vanishing mediation that will prompt a deeper understanding of the environment and nature as a whole.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Language , Metaphor , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250651, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206199

ABSTRACT

In recent times, many alarm bells have begun to sound: the metaphorical presentation of the COVID-19 emergency as a war might be dangerous, because it could affect the way people conceptualize the pandemic and react to it, leading citizens to endorse authoritarianism and limitations to civil liberties. The idea that conceptual metaphors actually influence reasoning has been corroborated by Thibodeau and Boroditsky, who showed that, when crime is metaphorically presented as a beast, readers become more enforcement-oriented than when crime is metaphorically framed as a virus. Recently, Steen, Reijnierse and Burgers replied that this metaphorical framing effect does not seem to occur and suggested that the question should be rephrased about the conditions under which metaphors do or do not influence reasoning. In this paper, we investigate whether presenting the COVID-19 pandemic as a war affects people's reasoning about the pandemic. Data collected suggest that the metaphorical framing effect does not occur by default. Rather, socio-political individual variables such as speakers' political orientation and source of information favor the acceptance of metaphor congruent entailments: right-wing participants and participants relying on independent sources of information are those more conditioned by the COVID-19 war metaphor, thus more inclined to prefer bellicose options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Social Behavior , Thinking/physiology , Adult , Armed Conflicts/psychology , Female , Humans , Italy , Language , Male , Metaphor , Pandemics/prevention & control , Problem Solving , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
Perspect Biol Med ; 64(1): 136-154, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197362

ABSTRACT

Comics have always responded to pandemics/catastrophes, documenting the way we deal with such crises. Recently, graphic medicine, an interdisciplinary field of comics and medicine, has been curating comics, editorial cartoons, autobiographical cartoons, and social media posts under the heading "COVID-19 Comics" on their websites. These collected comics express what we propose to call covidity, a neologism that captures both individual and collective philosophical, material, and wide-ranging emotional responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Treating such comics as the source material and drawing insights from theorists Ian Williams, Alan Bleakley, Susan Sontag, and others, this article examines graphic medicine's representation of the COVID-19 pandemic. The conceptual metaphors of war, anthropomorphism, and superheroism are used to represent and illustrate the lived experience of the pandemic, and the article investigates metaphor types, their utility, and motivational triggers for such representations. In doing so, the essay situates graphic medicine as a productive site that presents the pandemic's multifarious impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Graphic Novels as Topic , Metaphor , SARS-CoV-2 , Cartoons as Topic , Culture , Humans
16.
Psicol. soc. (Online) ; 32: e020005, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-755174

ABSTRACT

Resumo O presente artigo visa explorar diferentes metáforas acionadas na primeira fase da pandemia do novo coronavírus no Brasil, inspirado na obra de Susan Sontag, A doença como metáfora. As metáforas são ferramentas centrais nos processos de subjetivação da pandemia, do vírus que a causa e da doença que ela materializa. O material empírico que sustenta nossas reflexões vem de encontros semanais de um grupo terapêutico que passamos a conduzir on-line com as medidas de isolamento social no país, e de observação participante nas redes sociais da internet. Com base nisso, pensamos em quatro chaves de metáforas: o (in)visível, o mascarado, o divino e o isolado. A partir dessas categorias, é possível refletir sobre questões como sofrimento ético-político, resistência subjetiva, luto, negação, melancolia e megalomania, presentes nos modos de subjetivação da pandemia.


Resumen Este artículo tiene como objetivo explorar diferentes metáforas desencadenadas en la primera fase de la nueva pandemia de Coronavirus en Brasil, inspirado en el trabajo de Susan Sontag, "La enfermedad como metáfora". Las metáforas son herramientas centrales en los procesos de subjetivación de la pandemia, el virus que la causa y la enfermedad que le materializa. El material empírico que sustenta nuestras reflexiones proviene de reuniones semanales de un grupo terapéutico que comenzamos a realizar en línea con las medidas de aislamiento social en el país, y de la observación participante en las redes sociales de internet. Basado en esto, pensamos en cuatro claves metáforas: lo (no) visible, lo enmascarado, lo divino y lo aislado. A partir de estas categorías, es posible reflexionar sobre cuestiones como el sufrimiento ético-político, la resistencia subjetiva, el luto, la negación, la melancolía y la megalomanía, presentes en los modos de subjetivación de la pandemia.


Abstract This article aims to explore different metaphors triggered in the first phase of the pandemic of the new coronavirus in Brazil, inspired by Susan Sontag's work, "Illness as metaphor". Metaphors are central tools in the processes of subjectification of the pandemic, the virus that causes it and the disease that it materializes. The empirical material that supports our reflections comes from weekly meetings of a therapeutic group that we started to conduct online due to the measures of social isolation in the country, and from participant observation in the internet social media. Based on this, we propose four metaphor keys: the (in)visible, the masked, the divine and the isolated. From these categories, it is possible to reflect on issues present in the pandemic's subjectivation modes such as ethical-political suffering, subjective resistance, mourning, denial, melancholy, and megalomania.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Metaphor , Pandemics , Brazil , Online Social Networking
17.
Sociol Health Illn ; 43(4): 966-970, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158073

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on media framings of COVID-19 in Chinese social and cultural contexts. After analysing nine weeks' news reports of Xinwen Lianbo, one of China's mainstream media, we discovered that the metaphorical war frame dominated throughout the corpus but it did not remain the same. Some of its semantic concepts like the type of war evolved over time. There are also several minor metaphors such as race, challenge, chess and combination blow metaphors, which are not as dominant as the war metaphor but should by no means be neglected. The race and challenge metaphors are complementary with the war metaphor to frame COVID-19, while the chess and combination blow metaphors are culturally loaded. What's more, literal frames like responsibility and collaboration were also found in the corpus. All frames, whether metaphorical or literal, work together to shape what COVID-19 was, what roles people should play and what people could do. In this study, we intend to explore how media framings of COVID-19 were related to media and government's responses as well as how they might have contributed to the public's responses. The media is an important source of information, whose role in public health emergencies deserves our attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Mass Media , Metaphor , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China , Humans , Language , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Behavior
18.
J Med Humanit ; 42(1): 103-107, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121499

ABSTRACT

We have never been so aware of masks. They were in short supply in the early days of COVID-19, resulting in significant risk to health care workers. Now they are highly politicized with battles about mask-wearing protocols breaking out in public. Although masks have obtained a new urgency and ubiquity in the context of COVID-19, people have thought about both the literal and metaphorical role of masks in medicine for generations. In this paper, we discuss three such metaphors-the masks of objectivity, of infallibility, and of benevolence-and their powerful role in medicine. These masks can be viewed as inflexible barriers to communication, contributing to the traditional authoritarian relationship between doctor and patient and concealing the authenticity and vulnerability of physicians. COVID masks, by contrast, offer a more nuanced and morally complex metaphor for thinking about protecting people from harm, authentic and trustworthy communication, and attention to potential inequities both in and beyond medical settings. We highlight the morally relevant challenges and opportunities that masks evoke and suggest that there is much to be gained from rethinking the mask metaphor in medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Medicine , Metaphor , Humans , Morals , SARS-CoV-2
19.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(3): E283-284, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116157

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected patients of color and illuminates long-standing inequity in health status, health outcomes, and access to health care. Maldistribution of burden of disease, risk exposure, and how vulnerable we are to our lives unraveling is not merely unfortunate, not simply due to a bad turn of the cosmic wheel, but unjust, as illustrated in this digital self-portrait.


Subject(s)
Art , COVID-19/psychology , Cost of Illness , Metaphor , Water , Female , Humans , Race Factors
20.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 25, 2021 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092881

ABSTRACT

As witnessed over the last year, immunity emerged as one of most highly debated topics in the current Covid-19 pandemic. Countries around the globe have been debating whether herd immunity or lockdown is the best response, as the race continues for the development and rollout of effective vaccines against coronavirus and as the economic costs of implementing strict containment measures are weighed against public health costs. What became evident all the more is that immunity is precisely what bridges between biological life and political life in the current climate, be it in terms of the contentious notion of herd immunity, the geopolitical struggle for vaccines, or the possible emergence of "Covid-elite", i.e. holders of so-called "immunity passports". Immunity, as such, is certainly not only a matter of science and biology alone, but is inherently political in the way that pandemics themselves are often highly politicised. Drawing on the work of Roberto Esposito and other literature from the field of biopolitics and immunology, this paper provides a critical examination of the concept of immunity in light of the recent events, highlighting the intersections between the politics of defence and the politics of sacrifice which animate governments' immunitary responses to the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper ends with a discussion on the forms of solidarity and local initiatives that have been mobilised during the current pandemic and their potential for an affirmative form of biopolitics. Overall, the main aim of this paper is to provide a critical cultural and philosophical analysis of Covid-19 debates and responses and a nuanced account on the biopolitical effects of the current pandemic, highlighting the paradoxical nature of immunity which straddles at once negative practices of defence and sacrifice as well as affirmative forms of community and solidarity beyond state apparatuses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Participation , Global Health , Government , Immunity, Herd , Immunity , Politics , Armed Conflicts , Humans , Intergenerational Relations , Metaphor , Social Class , Vaccination Coverage
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