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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792672

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between meteorological parameters, air quality and daily COVID-19 transmission in Morocco. We collected daily data of confirmed COVID-19 cases in the Casablanca region, as well as meteorological parameters (average temperature, wind, relative humidity, precipitation, duration of insolation) and air quality parameters (CO, NO2, 03, SO2, PM10) during the period of 2 March 2020, to 31 December 2020. The General Additive Model (GAM) was used to assess the impact of these parameters on daily cases of COVID-19. A total of 172,746 confirmed cases were reported in the study period. Positive associations were observed between COVID-19 and wind above 20 m/s and humidity above 80%. However, temperatures above 25° were negatively associated with daily cases of COVID-19. PM10 and O3 had a positive effect on the increase in the number of daily confirmed COVID-19 cases, while precipitation had a borderline effect below 25 mm and a negative effect above this value. The findings in this study suggest that significant associations exist between meteorological factors, air quality pollution (PM10) and the transmission of COVID-19. Our findings may help public health authorities better control the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Morocco/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 170, 2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have explored the impact of meteorological factors on the epidemic of COVID-19, their relationship remains controversial and needs to be clarified. METHODS: We assessed the risk effect of various meteorological factors on COVID-19 infection using the distributed lag nonlinear model, based on related data from July 1, 2020, to June 30, 2021, in eight countries, including Portugal, Greece, Egypt, South Africa, Paraguay, Uruguay, South Korea, and Japan, which are in Europe, Africa, South America, and Asia, respectively. We also explored associations between COVID-19 prevalence and individual meteorological factors by the Spearman's rank correlation test. RESULTS: There were significant non-linear relationships between both temperature and relative humidity and COVID-19 prevalence. In the countries located in the Northern Hemisphere with similar latitudes, the risk of COVID-19 infection was the highest at temperature below 5 â„ƒ. In the countries located in the Southern Hemisphere with similar latitudes, their highest infection risk occurred at around 15 â„ƒ. Nevertheless, in most countries, high temperature showed no significant association with reduced risk of COVID-19 infection. The effect pattern of relative humidity on COVID-19 depended on the range of its variation in countries. Overall, low relative humidity was correlated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection, while the high risk of infection at extremely high relative humidity could occur in some countries. In addition, relative humidity had a longer lag effect on COVID-19 than temperature. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of meteorological factors on COVID-19 prevalence are nonlinear and hysteretic. Although low temperature and relative humidity may lower the risk of COVID-19, high temperature or relative humidity could also be associated with a high prevalence of COVID-19 in some regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Nonlinear Dynamics , Prevalence , South Africa , Temperature
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(4): e1009973, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775427

ABSTRACT

The drivers behind regional differences of SARS-CoV-2 spread on finer spatio-temporal scales are yet to be fully understood. Here we develop a data-driven modelling approach based on an age-structured compartmental model that compares 116 Austrian regions to a suitably chosen control set of regions to explain variations in local transmission rates through a combination of meteorological factors, non-pharmaceutical interventions and mobility. We find that more than 60% of the observed regional variations can be explained by these factors. Decreasing temperature and humidity, increasing cloudiness, precipitation and the absence of mitigation measures for public events are the strongest drivers for increased virus transmission, leading in combination to a doubling of the transmission rates compared to regions with more favourable weather. We conjecture that regions with little mitigation measures for large events that experience shifts toward unfavourable weather conditions are particularly predisposed as nucleation points for the next seasonal SARS-CoV-2 waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Weather
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(15): 21811-21825, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750802

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic affected the world through its ability to cause widespread infection. The Middle East including the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has also been hit by the COVID-19 pandemic like the rest of the world. This study aims to examine the relationships between meteorological factors and COVID-19 case counts in three cities of the KSA. The distribution of the COVID-19 case counts was observed for all three cities followed by cross-correlation analysis which was carried out to estimate the lag effects of meteorological factors on COVID-19 case counts. Moreover, the Poisson model and negative binomial (NB) model with their zero-inflated versions (i.e., ZIP and ZINB) were fitted to estimate city-specific impacts of weather variables on confirmed case counts, and the best model is evaluated by comparative analysis for each city. We found significant associations between meteorological factors and COVID-19 case counts in three cities of KSA. We also perceived that the ZINB model was the best fitted for COVID-19 case counts. In this case study, temperature, humidity, and wind speed were the factors that affected COVID-19 case counts. The results can be used to make policies to overcome this pandemic situation in the future such as deploying more resources through testing and tracking in such areas where we observe significantly higher wind speed or higher humidity. Moreover, the selected models can be used for predicting the probability of COVID-19 incidence across various regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meteorological Concepts , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Humidity , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Temperature , Wind
5.
Environ Res ; 208: 112690, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611725

ABSTRACT

The meteorological conditions may affect COVID-19 transmission. However, the roles of seasonality and macro-climate are still contentious due to the limited time series for early-stage studies. We studied meteorological factors' effects on COVID-19 transmission in Brazil from February 25 to November 15, 2020. We aimed to explore whether this impact showed seasonal characteristics and spatial variations related to the macro-climate. We applied two-way fixed-effect models to identify the effects of meteorological factors on COVID-19 transmission and used spatial analysis to explore their spatial-temporal characteristics with a relatively long-time span. The results showed that cold, dry and windless conditions aggravated COVID-19 transmission. The daily average temperature, humidity, and wind speed negatively affected the daily new cases. Humidity and temperature played a dominant role in this process. For the time series, the influences of meteorological conditions on COVID-19 had a periodic fluctuation of 3-4 months (in line with the seasons in Brazil). The turning points of this fluctuation occurred at the turn of seasons. Spatially, the negative effects of temperature and humidity on COVID-19 transmission clustered in the northeastern and central parts of Brazil. This is consistent with the range of arid climate types. Overall, the seasonality and similar climate types should be considered to estimate the spatial-temporal COVID-19 patterns. Winter is a critical time to be alert for COVID-19, especially in the northern part of Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Humidity , Meteorological Concepts , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Temperature
6.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(11): 871-880, 2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that meteorological factors may increase COVID-19 mortality, likely due to the increased transmission of the virus. However, this could also be related to an increased infection fatality rate (IFR). We investigated the association between meteorological factors (temperature, humidity, solar irradiance, pressure, wind, precipitation, cloud coverage) and IFR across Spanish provinces ( n = 52) during the first wave of the pandemic (weeks 10-16 of 2020). METHODS: We estimated IFR as excess deaths (the gap between observed and expected deaths, considering COVID-19-unrelated deaths prevented by lockdown measures) divided by the number of infections (SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals plus excess deaths) and conducted Spearman correlations between meteorological factors and IFR across the provinces. RESULTS: We estimated 2,418,250 infections and 43,237 deaths. The IFR was 0.03% in < 50-year-old, 0.22% in 50-59-year-old, 0.9% in 60-69-year-old, 3.3% in 70-79-year-old, 12.6% in 80-89-year-old, and 26.5% in ≥ 90-year-old. We did not find statistically significant relationships between meteorological factors and adjusted IFR. However, we found strong relationships between low temperature and unadjusted IFR, likely due to Spain's colder provinces' aging population. CONCLUSION: The association between meteorological factors and adjusted COVID-19 IFR is unclear. Neglecting age differences or ignoring COVID-19-unrelated deaths may severely bias COVID-19 epidemiological analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Weather , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(22): 7135-7143, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the coming months is a matter of great importance and urgency for governments worldwide, making fundamental decisions based on what is known about the transmission mechanisms of the virus and its survival in the environment. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of demographic variables, solar radiation and relative humidity on the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic of the various regions in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective longitudinal study was conducted, and data used in this study was obtained from the Italian Health Ministry. Descriptive statistics included mean, frequency, and percentage, and results presented by graphs were calculated. RESULTS: The infection trend was investigated by comparing it with the demographic situation and the irradiation indices of solar ultraviolet light that are detected with the changing seasons. The present study reported that the geographic areas with higher population density and lower solar radiation during the autumn and winter months were most affected by SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis carried out can provide a predictive model for the future phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, regardless of the adoption of lockdown measures and behavioral factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Meteorological Concepts , Seasons , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Population Density , Predictive Value of Tests , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects
8.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211060259, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528627

ABSTRACT

Evidence regarding the effects of environmental factors on COVID-19 transmission is mixed. We aimed to explore the associations of air pollutants and meteorological factors with COVID-19 confirmed cases during the outbreak period throughout China. The number of COVID-19 confirmed cases, air pollutant concentrations, and meteorological factors in China from January 25 to February 29, 2020, (36 days) were extracted from authoritative electronic databases. The associations were estimated for a single-day lag as well as moving averages lag using generalized additive mixed models. Region-specific analyses and meta-analysis were conducted in 5 selected regions from the north to south of China with diverse air pollution levels and weather conditions and sufficient sample size. Nonlinear concentration-response analyses were performed. An increase of each interquartile range in PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO at lag4 corresponded to 1.40 (1.37-1.43), 1.35 (1.32-1.37), 1.01 (1.00-1.02), 1.08 (1.07-1.10), 1.28 (1.27-1.29), and 1.26 (1.24-1.28) ORs of daily new cases, respectively. For 1°C, 1%, and 1 m/s increase in temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity, the ORs were 0.97 (0.97-0.98), 0.96 (0.96-0.97), and 0.94 (0.92-0.95), respectively. The estimates of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and all meteorological factors remained significantly after meta-analysis for the five selected regions. The concentration-response relationships showed that higher concentrations of air pollutants and lower meteorological factors were associated with daily new cases increasing. Higher air pollutant concentrations and lower temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity may favor COVID-19 transmission. Controlling ambient air pollution, especially for PM2.5, PM10, NO2, may be an important component of reducing risk of COVID-19 infection. In addition, as winter months are arriving in China, the meteorological factors may play a negative role in prevention. Therefore, it is significant to implement the public health control measures persistently in case another possible pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , China , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 120, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a serious public health concern worldwide. Certain regions of the globe were severely affected in terms of prevalence and mortality than other. Although the cause for this pattern is not clearly understood, lessons learned from previous epidemics and emerging evidences suggest the major role of ecological factors like ambient air pollutants (AAP) and meteorological parameters in increased COVID-19 incidence. The present study aimed to understand the impact of these factors on SARS-CoV-2 transmission and their associated mortality in major cities of India. METHODS: This study used secondary AAP, meteorological and COVID-19 data from official websites for the period January-November 2020, which were divided into Pre-lockdown (January-March 2020), Phase I (April to June 2020) and Phase II (July to November 2020) in India. After comprehensive screening, five major cities that includes 48 CPCB monitoring stations collecting daily data of ambient temperature, particulate matter PM2.5 and 10 were analysed. Spearman and Kendall's rank correlation test was performed to understand the association between SARS-CoV-2 transmission and AAP and, meteorological variables. Similarly, case fatality rate (CFR) was determined to compute the correlation between AAP and COVID-19 related morality. RESULTS: The level of air pollutants in major cities were significantly reduced during Phase I compared to Pre-lock down and increased upon Phase II in all the cities. During the Phase II in Delhi, the strong significant positive correlation was observed between the AAP and SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, in Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Mumbai AAP levels were moderate and no correlation was noticed. The relation between AT and SARS-CoV-2 transmission was inconclusive as both positive and negative correlation observed. In addition, Delhi and Kolkata showed a positive association between long-term exposure to the AAP and COVID-19 CFR. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the hypothesis that the particulate matter upon exceeding the satisfactory level serves as an important cofactor in increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and related mortality. These findings would help public health experts to understand the SARS-CoV-2 transmission against ecological variables in India and provides supporting evidence to healthcare policymakers and government agencies for formulating strategies to combat the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Meteorological Concepts , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Cities , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , India/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Climate change poses a real challenge and has contributed to causing the emergence and re-emergence of many communicable diseases of public health importance. Here, we reviewed scientific studies on the relationship between meteorological factors and the occurrence of dengue, malaria, cholera, and leptospirosis, and synthesized the key findings on communicable disease projection in the event of global warming. METHOD: This systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 flow checklist. Four databases (Web of Science, Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, EBSCOhost) were searched for articles published from 2005 to 2020. The eligible articles were evaluated using a modified scale of a checklist designed for assessing the quality of ecological studies. RESULTS: A total of 38 studies were included in the review. Precipitation and temperature were most frequently associated with the selected climate-sensitive communicable diseases. A climate change scenario simulation projected that dengue, malaria, and cholera incidence would increase based on regional climate responses. CONCLUSION: Precipitation and temperature are important meteorological factors that influence the incidence of climate-sensitive communicable diseases. Future studies need to consider more determinants affecting precipitation and temperature fluctuations for better simulation and prediction of the incidence of climate-sensitive communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Climate Change , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Forecasting , Humans , Incidence , Meteorological Concepts
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(15): 21811-21825, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509301

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic affected the world through its ability to cause widespread infection. The Middle East including the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has also been hit by the COVID-19 pandemic like the rest of the world. This study aims to examine the relationships between meteorological factors and COVID-19 case counts in three cities of the KSA. The distribution of the COVID-19 case counts was observed for all three cities followed by cross-correlation analysis which was carried out to estimate the lag effects of meteorological factors on COVID-19 case counts. Moreover, the Poisson model and negative binomial (NB) model with their zero-inflated versions (i.e., ZIP and ZINB) were fitted to estimate city-specific impacts of weather variables on confirmed case counts, and the best model is evaluated by comparative analysis for each city. We found significant associations between meteorological factors and COVID-19 case counts in three cities of KSA. We also perceived that the ZINB model was the best fitted for COVID-19 case counts. In this case study, temperature, humidity, and wind speed were the factors that affected COVID-19 case counts. The results can be used to make policies to overcome this pandemic situation in the future such as deploying more resources through testing and tracking in such areas where we observe significantly higher wind speed or higher humidity. Moreover, the selected models can be used for predicting the probability of COVID-19 incidence across various regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meteorological Concepts , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Humidity , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Temperature , Wind
12.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(10): 1320-1327, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: World Health Organization has reported fifty countries have now detected the new coronavirus (B.1.1.7 variant) since a couple of months ago. In Indonesia, the B.1.1.7 cases have been found in several provinces since January 2021, although they are still in a lower number than the old variant of COVID-19. Therefore, this study aims to create a forecast analysis regarding the occasions of COVID-19 and B.1.1.7 cases based on data from the 1st January to 18th March 2021, and also analyze the association between meteorological factors with B.1.1.7 incidences in three different provinces of Indonesia such as the West Java, South Sumatra and East Kalimantan. METHODS: We used the Autoregressive Moving Average Models (ARIMA) to forecast the number of cases in the upcoming 14 days and the Spearman correlation analysis to analyze the relationship between B.1.1.7 cases and meteorological variables such as temperature, humidity, rainfall, sunshine, and wind speed. RESULTS: The results of the study showed the fitted ARIMA models forecasted there was an increase in the daily cases in three provinces. The total cases in three provinces would increase by 36% (West Java), 13.5% (South Sumatra), and 30% (East Kalimantan) as compared with actual cases until the end of 14 days later. The temperature, rainfall and sunshine factors were the main contributors for B.1.1.7 cases with each correlation coefficients; r = -0.230; p < 0.05, r = 0.211; p < 0.05 and r = -0.418; p < 0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We recapitulated that this investigation was the first preliminary study to analyze a short-term forecast regarding COVID-19 and B.1.1.7 cases as well as to determine the associated meteorological factors that become primary contributors to the virus spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Weather , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Humidity , Indonesia/epidemiology , Meteorological Concepts
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(12): 17561-17569, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474084

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of new infectious diseases is threatening human survival. Transmission of such diseases is determined by several factors, with climate being a very important factor. This study was conducted to assess the correlation between the occurrence of infectious diseases and climatic factors using data from the Sentinel Surveillance System and meteorological data from Gwangju, Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea. The climate of Gwangju from June to September is humid, with this city having the highest average temperature, whereas that from December to February is cold and dry. Infection rates of Salmonella (temperature: r = 0.710**; relative humidity: r = 0.669**), E. coli (r = 0.617**; r = 0.626**), rotavirus (r = - 0.408**; r = - 0.618**), norovirus (r = - 0.463**; r = - 0.316**), influenza virus (r = - 0.726**; r = - 0.672**), coronavirus (r = - 0.684**; r = - 0.408**), and coxsackievirus (r = 0.654**; r = 0.548**) have been shown to have a high correlation with seasonal changes, specifically in these meteorological factors. Pathogens showing distinct seasonality in the occurrence of infection were observed, and there was a high correlation with the climate characteristics of Gwangju. In particular, viral diseases show strong seasonality, and further research on this matter is needed. Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, quarantine and prevention have become important to block the spread of infectious diseases. For this purpose, studies that predict infectivity through various types of data related to infection are important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Sentinel Surveillance , Temperature
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5968, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467102

ABSTRACT

There is conflicting evidence on the influence of weather on COVID-19 transmission. Our aim is to estimate weather-dependent signatures in the early phase of the pandemic, while controlling for socio-economic factors and non-pharmaceutical interventions. We identify a modest non-linear association between mean temperature and the effective reproduction number (Re) in 409 cities in 26 countries, with a decrease of 0.087 (95% CI: 0.025; 0.148) for a 10 °C increase. Early interventions have a greater effect on Re with a decrease of 0.285 (95% CI 0.223; 0.347) for a 5th - 95th percentile increase in the government response index. The variation in the effective reproduction number explained by government interventions is 6 times greater than for mean temperature. We find little evidence of meteorological conditions having influenced the early stages of local epidemics and conclude that population behaviour and government interventions are more important drivers of transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Meteorological Concepts , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pandemics , Regression Analysis , Seasons , Temperature , Weather
15.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 85(1): 14-28, 2022 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390330

ABSTRACT

Meteorological parameters modulate transmission of the SARS-Cov-2 virus, the causative agent related to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) development. However, findings across the globe have been inconsistent attributed to several confounding factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between reported meteorological parameters from July 1 to October 31, 2020, and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in 4 Brazilian cities: São Paulo, the largest city with the highest number of cases in Brazil, and the cities with greater number of cases in the state of Parana during the study period (Curitiba, Londrina and Maringa). The assessment of meteorological factors with confirmed COVID-19 cases included atmospheric pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar irradiation, sunlight, dew point temperature, and total precipitation. The 7- and 15-day moving averages of confirmed COVID-19 cases were obtained for each city. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed significant correlations between COVID-19 cases and all meteorological parameters, except for total precipitation, with the strongest correlation with maximum wind speed (0.717, <0.001) in São Paulo. Regression tree analysis demonstrated that the largest number of confirmed COVID-19 cases was associated with wind speed (between ≥0.3381 and <1.173 m/s), atmospheric pressure (<930.5mb), and solar radiation (<17.98e+3). Lower number of cases was observed for wind speed <0.3381 m/s and temperature <23.86°C. Our results encourage the use of meteorological information as a critical component in future risk assessment models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Meteorological Concepts , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(1): 1106-1116, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340479

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the global lifestyle, and the spreading of the virus is unprecedented. This study is aimed at assessing the association between the meteorological indicators such as air temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), wind speed (w/s), solar radiation, and PM2.5 with the COVID-19 infected cases in the hot, arid climate of Bahrain. Kendall and Spearman rank correlation coefficients and quantile on quantile regression were used as main econometric analysis to determine the degree of the relationship between related variables. The dataset analysis was performed from 05 April 2020, to 10 January 2021. The empirical findings indicate that the air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed indicators, and PM2.5 have a significant association with the COVID-19 newly infected cases. The current study findings allow us to suggest that Bahrain's relatively successful response to neighboring GULF economies can be attributed to the successful environmental reforms and significant upgrades to the health care facilities. We further report that a long-term empirical analysis between meteorological factors and respiratory illness threats will provide useful policy measures against future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meteorological Concepts , Bahrain/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Desert Climate , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(10): 1340-1348, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313253

ABSTRACT

Currently, many countries all over the world are facing the second wave of COVID-19. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases, epidemic spread rate, spatial pattern during the first to the second waves in the South Sumatra Province of Indonesia. This study used the geographical information system (GIS) software to map the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases and epidemic spread rate. The spatial autocorrelation of the COVID-19 cases was carried out using Moran's I, while the Pearson correlation was used to examining the relationship between meteorological factors and the epidemic spread rate. Most infected areas and the direction of virus spread were predicted using wind rose analysis. The results revealed that the epidemic rapidly spread from August 1 to December 1, 2020. The highest epidemic spread rate was observed in the Palembang district and in its peripheral areas (dense urban areas), while the lowest spread rate was found in the eastern and southern parts of South Sumatra Province (remote areas). The spatial correlation characteristic of the epidemic distribution exhibited a negative correlation and random distribution. Air temperature, wind speed, and precipitation have contributed to a significant impact on the high epidemic spread rate in the second wave. In summary, this study offers new insight for arranging control and prevention strategies against the potential of second wave strike.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , China , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatial Analysis
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(47): 67082-67097, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303359

ABSTRACT

Understanding the factors affecting COVID-19 transmission is critical in assessing and mitigating the spread of the pandemic. This study investigated the transmissibility and death distribution of COVID-19 and its association with meteorological parameters to study the propagation pattern of COVID-19 in UK regions. We used the reported case and death per capita rate (as of November 13, 2020; before mass vaccination) and long-term meteorological data (temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind speed, and visibility) in 406 UK local authority levels based on publicity available secondary data. We performed correlation and regression analysis between COVID-19 variables and meteorological parameters to find the association between COVID-19 and independent variables. Student's T and Mann-Whitney's tests were used to analyze data. The correlation and regression analyses revealed that temperature, dew point, wind speed, and humidity were the most important factors associated with spread and death of COVID-19 (P <0.05). COVID-19 cases negatively correlated with humidity in areas with high population density, but the inverse in low population density areas. Wind speeds in low visibility areas, which are considered polluted air, may increase the spread of disease (r=0.42, P <0.05) and decrease the spread in high visibility areas (r=-0.16, P <0.05). Among low (T <10°C) and high (T >10°C) temperature areas, the average incidence rates were 2056.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1909.49-2204.23) and 1446.76 (95% CI: 1296.71-1596.81). Also, COVID-19 death per capita rates were 81.55 (95% CI: 77.40-85.70) and 69.78 (95% CI: 64.39-75.16) respectively. According to the comprehensive analysis, the spread of disease will be suppressed as the weather warms and humidity and wind speed decrease. Different environmental conditions can increase or decrease spread of the disease due to affecting spread of disease vectors and by altering people's behavior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Humidity , Meteorological Concepts , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature , United Kingdom
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3602, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267997

ABSTRACT

Improved understanding of the effects of meteorological conditions on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent for COVID-19 disease, is needed. Here, we estimate the relationship between air temperature, specific humidity, and ultraviolet radiation and SARS-CoV-2 transmission in 2669 U.S. counties with abundant reported cases from March 15 to December 31, 2020. Specifically, we quantify the associations of daily mean temperature, specific humidity, and ultraviolet radiation with daily estimates of the SARS-CoV-2 reproduction number (Rt) and calculate the fraction of Rt attributable to these meteorological conditions. Lower air temperature (within the 20-40 °C range), lower specific humidity, and lower ultraviolet radiation were significantly associated with increased Rt. The fraction of Rt attributable to temperature, specific humidity, and ultraviolet radiation were 3.73% (95% empirical confidence interval [eCI]: 3.66-3.76%), 9.35% (95% eCI: 9.27-9.39%), and 4.44% (95% eCI: 4.38-4.47%), respectively. In total, 17.5% of Rt was attributable to meteorological factors. The fractions attributable to meteorological factors generally were higher in northern counties than in southern counties. Our findings indicate that cold and dry weather and low levels of ultraviolet radiation are moderately associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, with humidity playing the largest role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Meteorological Concepts , COVID-19/epidemiology , Geography , Humans , Humidity , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Temperature , Ultraviolet Rays , United States/epidemiology , Weather
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study intends to identify the best model for predicting the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Ningbo by comparing Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Long Short-Term Memory Neural Network (LSTM) models combined and uncombined with exogenous meteorological variables. METHODS: The data of daily HFMD incidence in Ningbo from January 2014 to November 2017 were set as the training set, and the data of December 2017 were set as the test set. ARIMA and LSTM models combined and uncombined with exogenous meteorological variables were adopted to fit the daily incidence of HFMD by using the data of the training set. The forecasting performances of the four fitted models were verified by using the data of the test set. Root mean square error (RMSE) was selected as the main measure to evaluate the performance of the models. RESULTS: The RMSE for multivariate LSTM, univariate LSTM, ARIMA and ARIMAX (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model with Exogenous Input Variables) was 10.78, 11.20, 12.43 and 14.73, respectively. The LSTM model with exogenous meteorological variables has the best performance among the four models and meteorological variables can increase the prediction accuracy of LSTM model. For the ARIMA model, exogenous meteorological variables did not increase the prediction accuracy but became the interference factor of the model. CONCLUSIONS: Multivariate LSTM is the best among the four models to fit the daily incidence of HFMD in Ningbo. It can provide a scientific method to build the HFMD early warning system and the methodology can also be applied to other communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , China/epidemiology , Forecasting , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Meteorological Concepts , Models, Statistical , Neural Networks, Computer
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