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1.
N Engl J Med ; 385(6): 503-515, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tirzepatide is a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that is under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The efficacy and safety of once-weekly tirzepatide as compared with semaglutide, a selective GLP-1 receptor agonist, are unknown. METHODS: In an open-label, 40-week, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 1879 patients, in a 1:1:1:1 ratio, to receive tirzepatide at a dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg or semaglutide at a dose of 1 mg. At baseline, the mean glycated hemoglobin level was 8.28%, the mean age 56.6 years, and the mean weight 93.7 kg. The primary end point was the change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. RESULTS: The estimated mean change from baseline in the glycated hemoglobin level was -2.01 percentage points, -2.24 percentage points, and -2.30 percentage points with 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg of tirzepatide, respectively, and -1.86 percentage points with semaglutide; the estimated differences between the 5-mg, 10-mg, and 15-mg tirzepatide groups and the semaglutide group were -0.15 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.28 to -0.03; P = 0.02), -0.39 percentage points (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.26; P<0.001), and -0.45 percentage points (95% CI, -0.57 to -0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Tirzepatide at all doses was noninferior and superior to semaglutide. Reductions in body weight were greater with tirzepatide than with semaglutide (least-squares mean estimated treatment difference, -1.9 kg, -3.6 kg, and -5.5 kg, respectively; P<0.001 for all comparisons). The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal and were primarily mild to moderate in severity in the tirzepatide and semaglutide groups (nausea, 17 to 22% and 18%; diarrhea, 13 to 16% and 12%; and vomiting, 6 to 10% and 8%, respectively). Of the patients who received tirzepatide, hypoglycemia (blood glucose level, <54 mg per deciliter) was reported in 0.6% (5-mg group), 0.2% (10-mg group), and 1.7% (15-mg group); hypoglycemia was reported in 0.4% of those who received semaglutide. Serious adverse events were reported in 5 to 7% of the patients who received tirzepatide and in 3% of those who received semaglutide. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, tirzepatide was noninferior and superior to semaglutide with respect to the mean change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. (Funded by Eli Lilly; SURPASS-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03987919.).


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/administration & dosage , Glucagon-Like Peptides/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/adverse effects , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Glucagon-Like Peptides/adverse effects , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Incretins/therapeutic use , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Nausea/chemically induced , Weight Loss/drug effects
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1002834, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141737

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a common comorbidity among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Diabetic patients with COVID-19 have a two-fold increased risk of death and tend to have more severe infection compared to the general population. Metformin, a first-line medication for diabetes management, has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Previous studies focusing on metformin and COVID-19 clinical outcomes have had mixed results, with some showing a mortality benefit or decreased complications with metformin use. To date, few studies have analyzed such outcomes among a diverse, multiracial community. Methods: This was a retrospective review of patients with Type 2 diabetes and a confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted to an urban academic medical center from January 1, 2020 to May 7, 2020. Baseline characteristics were collected. The primary outcomes of the study were in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS). Results: A total of 4462 patients with Type 2 diabetes and confirmed COVID-19 were identified. 41.3% were Black, and 41.5% were Hispanic. There were 1021 patients in the metformin group and 3441 in the non-metformin group. Of note, more participants in the metformin group had comorbid disease and/or advanced diabetes. We found no statistically significant differences between the metformin and non-metformin group in in-hospital mortality (28.1% vs 25.3%, P=0.08) or length of hospital stay in days (7.3 vs. 7.5, P=0.59), even after matching patients on various factors (29.3% vs. 29.6%, P=0.87; 7.7 vs. 8.1, P=0.23). Conclusion: While patients had more comorbid disease and advanced diabetes in the metformin group, there were no significant differences with regard to in-hospital mortality or length of stay due to COVID-19 compared to the non-metformin group. Prospective studies are needed to determine if there is clinical benefit for initiating, continuing, or re-initiating metformin in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Humans , Metformin/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Length of Stay , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0271574, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While vaccination is the most important way to combat the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there may still be a need for early outpatient treatment that is safe, inexpensive, and currently widely available in parts of the world that do not have access to the vaccine. There are in-silico, in-vitro, and in-tissue data suggesting that metformin inhibits the viral life cycle, as well as observational data suggesting that metformin use before infection with SARS-CoV2 is associated with less severe COVID-19. Previous observational analyses from single-center cohorts have been limited by size. METHODS: Conducted a retrospective cohort analysis in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for associations between metformin use and COVID-19 outcomes with an active comparator design of prevalent users of therapeutically equivalent diabetes monotherapy: metformin versus dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors (DPP4i) and sulfonylureas (SU). This took place in the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) longitudinal U.S. cohort of adults with +SARS-CoV-2 result between January 1 2020 to June 1 2021. Findings included hospitalization or ventilation or mortality from COVID-19. Back pain was assessed as a negative control outcome. RESULTS: 6,626 adults with T2DM and +SARS-CoV-2 from 36 sites. Mean age was 60.7 +/- 12.0 years; 48.7% male; 56.7% White, 21.9% Black, 3.5% Asian, and 16.7% Latinx. Mean BMI was 34.1 +/- 7.8kg/m2. Overall 14.5% of the sample was hospitalized; 1.5% received mechanical ventilation; and 1.8% died. In adjusted outcomes, compared to DPP4i, metformin had non-significant associations with reduced need for ventilation (RR 0.68, 0.32-1.44), and mortality (RR 0.82, 0.41-1.64). Compared to SU, metformin was associated with a lower risk of ventilation (RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.28-0.98, p = 0.044) and mortality (RR 0.56, 95%CI 0.33-0.97, p = 0.037). There was no difference in unadjusted or adjusted results of the negative control. CONCLUSIONS: There were clinically significant associations between metformin use and less severe COVID-19 compared to SU, but not compared to DPP4i. New-user studies and randomized trials are needed to assess early outpatient treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis with therapeutics that are safe in adults, children, pregnancy and available worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Metformin , Adult , Child , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Sulfonylurea Compounds/therapeutic use , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1025495, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080158

ABSTRACT

Disorders of systemic metabolism can influence immunity. Individuals with obesity are known to have increased inflammation, increased risk to select autoimmune diseases, impaired response to several infections, and impaired vaccine response. For example, over the last decade, it has become clear that individuals with obesity have increased risk of morbidity and mortality from influenza infection. Unsurprisingly, this finding is also observed in the current COVID-19 pandemic: individuals with obesity, particularly severe obesity, have increased risk of poor outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection, including increased rates of hospitalization, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and death. Several studies have now demonstrated a critical role for T cells in the context of obesity-associated immune dysfunction in response to viral infection, and one mechanism for this may be altered T cell metabolism. Indeed, recent studies have shown that activated T cells from obese mice have an altered metabolic profile characterized by increased glucose oxidation, both in vitro and in vivo following viral infection. For that reason, treatments that target abnormal immune cell metabolism in obesity may improve outcomes to viral infection. To that end, several recent studies have shown that use of the metabolic drug, metformin, can reverse abnormal T cell metabolism and restore T cell immunity, as well as survival, in response to viral infection. These findings will be discussed in detail here.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metformin , Animals , Mice , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Obesity/complications , Metformin/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress , Glucose
5.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 64(1): e1-e5, 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with an increased prevalence and mortality from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) globally. With limited access to specialised care, most patients with DKA in South Africa are managed at district hospital level. This study describes the profile of patients admitted to a district hospital in South Africa with DKA and COVID-19 and examines associated risk factors encountered. METHODS:  This was a case series of all patients presenting to a district hospital with DKA and COVID-19 infection between July 2020 and July 2021. Data extracted included patients' demographic profiles, biochemical results, comorbidities and clinical outcomes. RESULTS:  The median age of the 10 patients admitted during the study period was 39 years old (±12), six of whom were male. The hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values on admission ranged from 9.7 to 13.8. Five of the patients had pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Four of the known DM patients were on metformin only, and one was on biphasic insulin. Three patients had other pre-existing comorbidities, two patients with hypertension and one with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Three patients demised, two of whom were hypoxic on admission. CONCLUSION:  Diabetic ketoacidosis appears more commonly in COVID-19 infected patients with type 2 DM and at a young age. Suboptimal glycaemic control was associated with DKA, and hypoxia was a strong predictor for mortality. Treatment inertia was evident in the known DM group, who were on monotherapy despite persistent hyperglycaemia. Greater vigilance is required to detect ketosis in type 2 DM and intensify therapy to improve glycaemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Metformin , Adult , Biphasic Insulins/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/therapeutic use , Hospitals, District , Humans , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology
6.
Inflammopharmacology ; 30(3): 775-788, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003753

ABSTRACT

Metformin can suppress gluconeogenesis and reduce blood sugar by activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inducing small heterodimer partner (SHP) expression in the liver cells. The main mechanism of metformin's action is related to its activation of the AMPK enzyme and regulation of the energy balance. AMPK is a heterothermic serine/threonine kinase made of a catalytic alpha subunit and two subunits of beta and a gamma regulator. This enzyme can measure the intracellular ratio of AMP/ATP. If this ratio is high, the amino acid threonine 172 available in its alpha chain would be activated by the phosphorylated liver kinase B1 (LKB1), leading to AMPK activation. Several studies have indicated that apart from its significant role in the reduction of blood glucose level, metformin activates the AMPK enzyme that in turn has various efficient impacts on the regulation of various processes, including controlling inflammatory conditions, altering the differentiation pathway of immune and non-immune cell pathways, and the amelioration of various cancers, liver diseases, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), kidney diseases, neurological disorders, etc. Metformin's activation of AMPK enables it to control inflammatory conditions, improve oxidative status, regulate the differentiation pathways of various cells, change the pathological process in various diseases, and finally have positive therapeutic effects on them. Due to the activation of AMPK and its role in regulating several subcellular signalling pathways, metformin can be effective in altering the cells' proliferation and differentiation pathways and eventually in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.


Subject(s)
Metformin , Neoplasms , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Hepatocytes , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/metabolism , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Metformin/pharmacology , Metformin/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/prevention & control
7.
N Engl J Med ; 387(7): 599-610, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early treatment to prevent severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is an important component of the comprehensive response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we used a 2-by-3 factorial design to test the effectiveness of three repurposed drugs - metformin, ivermectin, and fluvoxamine - in preventing serious SARS-CoV-2 infection in nonhospitalized adults who had been enrolled within 3 days after a confirmed diagnosis of infection and less than 7 days after the onset of symptoms. The patients were between the ages of 30 and 85 years, and all had either overweight or obesity. The primary composite end point was hypoxemia (≤93% oxygen saturation on home oximetry), emergency department visit, hospitalization, or death. All analyses used controls who had undergone concurrent randomization and were adjusted for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and receipt of other trial medications. RESULTS: A total of 1431 patients underwent randomization; of these patients, 1323 were included in the primary analysis. The median age of the patients was 46 years; 56% were female (6% of whom were pregnant), and 52% had been vaccinated. The adjusted odds ratio for a primary event was 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.09; P = 0.19) with metformin, 1.05 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.45; P = 0.78) with ivermectin, and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.66 to 1.36; P = 0.75) with fluvoxamine. In prespecified secondary analyses, the adjusted odds ratio for emergency department visit, hospitalization, or death was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.94) with metformin, 1.39 (95% CI, 0.72 to 2.69) with ivermectin, and 1.17 (95% CI, 0.57 to 2.40) with fluvoxamine. The adjusted odds ratio for hospitalization or death was 0.47 (95% CI, 0.20 to 1.11) with metformin, 0.73 (95% CI, 0.19 to 2.77) with ivermectin, and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.33 to 3.76) with fluvoxamine. CONCLUSIONS: None of the three medications that were evaluated prevented the occurrence of hypoxemia, an emergency department visit, hospitalization, or death associated with Covid-19. (Funded by the Parsemus Foundation and others; COVID-OUT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04510194.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fluvoxamine , Ivermectin , Metformin , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Female , Fluvoxamine/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Overweight/complications , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 895458, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963429

ABSTRACT

Aims: This study aimed to assess the impact of different antidiabetic agents on individuals with diabetes and COVID-19. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to October 31, 2021 and included seven antidiabetic agents. The data were pooled via traditional pairwise meta-analysis and Bayesian network meta-analysis. Results: The pairwise meta-analysis included 35 studies. Metformin (odds ratio (OR), 0.74; P=0.001), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) (OR, 0.88; P=0.04), sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) (OR, 0.82; P=0.001), and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1RA) (OR, 0.91; P=0.02) treatment were associated with lower COVID-19 mortality in individuals with diabetes compared to respective non-users. However, insulin treatment resulted in higher mortality (OR, 1.8; P=0.001). Mortality did not significantly differ in sulfonylurea (OR, 0.97; P=0.56) and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) (OR, 1.00; P=0.96) users. Furthermore, due to limited data, we analyzed five antidiabetic agents (metformin, DPP4i, sulfonylurea, insulin, and SGLT2i) and found no association between them and severe disease risk (all P>0.05). The Bayesian network meta-analysis included 18 studies. GLP1RA and SGLT2i had the highest first and second rank probability (67.3% and 62.5%, respectively). Insulin showed the maximum probability of ranking seventh (97.0%). Metformin had the third and fourth highest rank probability of 44.8% and 38.9%, respectively. Meanwhile, DPP4i had the fifth-highest rank probability of 42.4%, followed by sulfonylurea at 45.1%. Conclusion: Metformin, DPP4i, SGLT2i, and GLP1RA treatments were highly possible to reduced COVID-19 mortality risk in individuals with diabetes, while insulin might be related to increased mortality risk. Sulfonylurea and TZDs treatments were not associated with mortality. None of the antidiabetic agents studied were associated with the risk of severe disease. Additionally, GLP1RA probably had the most significant protective effect against death, followed by SGLT2i and metformin. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42021288200).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Metformin , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Thiazolidinediones , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Network Meta-Analysis , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 152: 113223, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944323

ABSTRACT

The health crisis caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 highlights the need to identify new treatment strategies for this viral infection. During the past year, over 400 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) treatment patents have been registered; nevertheless, the presence of new virus variants has triggered more severe disease presentations and reduced treatment effectiveness, highlighting the need for new treatment options for the COVID-19. This study evaluates the Metformin Glycinate (MG) effect on the SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in vivo viral load. The in vitro study was conducted in a model of Vero E6 cells, while the in vivo study was an adaptive, two-armed, randomized, prospective, longitudinal, double-blind, multicentric, and phase IIb clinical trial. Our in vitro results revealed that MG effectively inhibits viral replication after 48 h of exposure to the drug, with no cytotoxic effect in doses up to 100 µM. The effect of the MG was also tested against three variants of interest (alpha, delta, and epsilon), showing increased survival rates in cells treated with MG. These results are aligned with our clinical data, which indicates that MG treatment reduces SARS-CoV2-infected patients´ viral load in just 3.3 days and supplementary oxygen requirements compared with the control group. We expect our results can guide efforts to position MG as a therapeutic option for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metformin , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Metformin/pharmacology , Metformin/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 109: 108903, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885844

ABSTRACT

With the widespread use of volatile anesthetic agents in the prolonged sedation for COVID-19 pneumonia and ARDS, there is an urgent need to investigate the effects and treatments of lengthy low-concentration inhaled anesthetics exposure on cognitive function in adults. Previous studies showed that general anesthetics dose- and exposure length-dependently induced neuroinflammatory response and cognitive decline in neonatal and aging animals. The anti-diabetes drug metformin has anti-neuroinflammation effects by modulating microglial polarization and inhibiting astrocyte activation. In this study, we demonstrated that the inhalation of 1.3% isoflurane (a sub-minimal alveolar concentration, sub-MAC) for 6 h impaired recognition of novel objects from Day 1 to Day3 in adult mice. Prolonged sub-MAC isoflurane exposure also triggered typically reactive microglia and A1-like astrocytes in the hippocampus of adult mice on Day 3 after anesthesia. In addition, prolonged isoflurane inhalation switched microglia into a proinflammatory M1 phenotype characterized by elevated CD68 and iNOS as well as decreased arginase-1 and IL-10. Metformin pretreatment before anesthesia enhanced cognitive performance in the novel object test. The positive cellular modifications promoted by metformin pretreatment included the inhibition of reactive microglia and A1-like astrocytes and the polarization of microglia into M2 phenotype in the hippocampus of adult mice. In conclusion, prolonged sub-MAC isoflurane exposure triggered significant hippocampal neuroinflammation and cognitive decline in adult mice which can be alleviated by metformin pretreatment via inhibiting reactive microglia and A1-like astrocytes and promoting microglia polarization toward anti-inflammatory phenotype in the hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics , COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Isoflurane , Metformin , Animals , Cognitive Dysfunction/chemically induced , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Isoflurane/pharmacology , Isoflurane/therapeutic use , Metformin/pharmacology , Metformin/therapeutic use , Mice , Microglia , Neuroinflammatory Diseases
12.
Metabolism ; 133: 155223, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867490

ABSTRACT

Metformin was first used to treat type 2 diabetes in the late 1950s and in 2022 remains the first-choice drug used daily by approximately 150 million people. An accumulation of positive pre-clinical and clinical data has stimulated interest in re-purposing metformin to treat a variety of diseases including COVID-19. In polycystic ovary syndrome metformin improves insulin sensitivity. In type 1 diabetes metformin may help reduce the insulin dose. Meta-analysis and data from pre-clinical and clinical studies link metformin to a reduction in the incidence of cancer. Clinical trials, including MILES (Metformin In Longevity Study), and TAME (Targeting Aging with Metformin), have been designed to determine if metformin can offset aging and extend lifespan. Pre-clinical and clinical data suggest that metformin, via suppression of pro-inflammatory pathways, protection of mitochondria and vascular function, and direct actions on neuronal stem cells, may protect against neurodegenerative diseases. Metformin has also been studied for its anti-bacterial, -viral, -malaria efficacy. Collectively, these data raise the question: Is metformin a drug for all diseases? It remains unclear as to whether all of these putative beneficial effects are secondary to its actions as an anti-hyperglycemic and insulin-sensitizing drug, or result from other cellular actions, including inhibition of mTOR (mammalian target for rapamycin), or direct anti-viral actions. Clarification is also sought as to whether data from ex vivo studies based on the use of high concentrations of metformin can be translated into clinical benefits, or whether they reflect a 'Paracelsus' effect. The environmental impact of metformin, a drug with no known metabolites, is another emerging issue that has been linked to endocrine disruption in fish, and extensive use in T2D has also raised concerns over effects on human reproduction. The objectives for this review are to: 1) evaluate the putative mechanism(s) of action of metformin; 2) analyze the controversial evidence for metformin's effectiveness in the treatment of diseases other than type 2 diabetes; 3) assess the reproducibility of the data, and finally 4) reach an informed conclusion as to whether metformin is a drug for all diseases and reasons. We conclude that the primary clinical benefits of metformin result from its insulin-sensitizing and antihyperglycaemic effects that secondarily contribute to a reduced risk of a number of diseases and thereby enhancing healthspan. However, benefits like improving vascular endothelial function that are independent of effects on glucose homeostasis add to metformin's therapeutic actions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism , Metformin/pharmacology , Metformin/therapeutic use , Reproducibility of Results
13.
Diabetes Metab ; 48(4): 101359, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867036

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of Covid-19, several observational studies on diabetes and Covid-19 have reported a favourable association between metformin and Covid-19-related outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This is not surprising since metformin affects many of the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in SARS-CoV-2 immune response, systemic spread and sequelae. A comparison of the multifactorial pathophysiological mechanisms of Covid-19 progression with metformin's well-known pleiotropic properties suggests that the treatment of patients with this drug might be particularly beneficial. Indeed, metformin could alleviate the cytokine storm, diminish virus entry into cells, protect against microvascular damage as well as prevent secondary fibrosis. Although our in-depth analysis covers many potential metformin mechanisms of action, we want to highlight more particularly its unique microcirculatory protective effects since worsening of Covid-19 disease clearly appears as largely due to severe defects in the structure and functioning of microvessels. Overall, these observations confirm that metformin is a unique, pleiotropic drug that targets many of Covid-19's pathophysiology processes in a diabetes-independent manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Metformin/therapeutic use , Microcirculation , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Theranostics ; 12(6): 2722-2740, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780236

ABSTRACT

Aging is a natural process, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, i.e., aging-related diseases, such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, Alzheimer disease, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, obesity and other metabolic abnormalities. Metformin, the most widely used antidiabetic drug, has been reported to delay aging and display protective effect on attenuating progression of various aging-related diseases by impacting key hallmark events of aging, including dysregulated nutrient sensing, loss of proteostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, altered intercellular communication, telomere attrition, genomic instability, epigenetic alterations, stem cell exhaustion and cellular senescence. In this review, we provide updated information and knowledge on applications of metformin in prevention and treatment of aging and aging-related diseases. We focus our discussions on the roles and underlying mechanisms of metformin in modulating aging and treating aging-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Metformin , Aging/pathology , Cellular Senescence , Genomic Instability , Humans , Metformin/pharmacology , Metformin/therapeutic use , Telomere
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5553, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768861

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new pandemic the entire world is facing since December of 2019. Several risk factors are identified in developing severe disease and one of which is preexisting type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin is known to have host-directed anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether these effects offer lower mortality remains unclear. In this retrospective study, we aim to address whether metformin use prior to admission decreases mortality in patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 1356 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus was analyzed by multivariable regression. Covariates that potentially confound the association were further adjusted using propensity score matching or inverse probability of treatment weighting. We found that metformin therapy prior to admission in patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with less primary outcome events including in-hospital mortality and hospice care enrollment with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.25 (95% CI 0.06-0.74) and less in-hospital length of stay, compared to the non-metformin group. Our results provide supporting evidence that metformin may confer increased survival in patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with metformin prior to hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
17.
Metabolism ; 131: 155196, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is an independent predictor of poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. We compared the effects of the preadmission use of antidiabetic medications on the in-hospital mortality of patients with COVID-19 having type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science databases was performed to include studies (except case reports and review articles) published until November 30, 2021. We excluded papers regarding in-hospital use of antidiabetic medications. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate the pooled OR (95% CI) and performed a sensitivity analysis to confirm the robustness of the meta-analyses. MAIN FINDINGS: We included 61 studies (3,061,584 individuals), which were rated as having low risk of bias. The OR (95% CI) indicated some medications protective against COVID-related death, including metformin [0.54 (0.47-0.62), I2 86%], glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) [0.51 (0.37-0.69), I2 85%], and sodium-glucose transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2i) [0.60 (0.40-0.88), I2 91%]. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) [1.23 (1.07-1.42), I2 82%] and insulin [1.70 (1.33-2.19), I2 97%] users were more likely to die during hospitalization. Sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor were mortality neutral [0.92 (95% CI 0.83-1.01, I2 44%), 0.90 (95% CI 0.71-1.14, I2 46%), and 0.61 (95% CI 0.26-1.45, I2 77%), respectively]. The sensitivity analysis indicated that our findings were robust. CONCLUSIONS: Metformin, GLP-1RA, and SGLT-2i were associated with lower mortality rate in patients with COVID-19 having type 2 diabetes. DPP-4i and insulin were linked to increased mortality. Sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors were mortality neutral. These findings can have a large impact on the clinicians' decisions amid the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Insulins , Metformin , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Thiazolidinediones , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/pharmacology , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulins/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sulfonylurea Compounds/therapeutic use , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(3)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742545

ABSTRACT

Metformin (MTF) occupies a major and fundamental position in the therapeutic management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Gender differences in some effects and actions of MTF have been reported. Women are usually prescribed lower MTF doses compared to men and report more gastrointestinal side effects. The incidence of cardiovascular events in women on MTF has been found to be lower to that of men on MTF. Despite some promising results with MTF regarding pregnancy rates in women with PCOS, the management of gestational diabetes, cancer prevention or adjunctive cancer treatment and COVID-19, most robust meta-analyses have yet to confirm such beneficial effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Male , Metformin/pharmacology , Metformin/therapeutic use , Pregnancy , Sex Factors
20.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(6): 2642-2656, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672998

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health emergency and patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are disproportionately affected, exhibiting more severe outcomes. Recent studies have shown that metformin is associated with improved outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and DM and may be a potential candidate for drug repurposing. We aimed to investigate the effects of metformin on outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and DM. METHODS: Databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, Clinicaltrials.gov and Cochrane library) were searched up to 10 April 2021 for studies reporting data on metformin use in COVID-19 patients with DM. The risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Certainty of evidence was rated using the GRADE approach. The primary outcome was mortality reported as odds ratio (OR). A random-effects meta-analysis was carried out on both unadjusted and adjusted ORs. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020221842. RESULTS: In total, 2 916 231 patients from 32 cohort studies were included in the quantitative and qualitative synthesis. The meta-analysis showed that metformin was significantly associated with lower mortality in COVID-19 patients with DM in both unadjusted (OR 0.61 [95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.71], P < .00001, I2  = 70%) and adjusted (OR 0.78 [95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.88], P < .00001, I2  = 67%) models. CONCLUSION: Poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients with DM can be attributed to inadequate glycaemic control and weakened immune responses. Metformin has multiple effects that can improve outcomes in patients with DM and our findings highlight a possible role of its use. However, robust randomised trials are needed to thoroughly assess its use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Metformin , Bias , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Metformin/therapeutic use , Pandemics
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