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Environ Res ; 228: 115886, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297095


Intoxication with methanol most commonly occurs as a consequence of ingesting, inhaling, or coming into contact with formulations that include methanol as a base. Clinical manifestations of methanol poisoning include suppression of the central nervous system, gastrointestinal symptoms, and decompensated metabolic acidosis, which is associated with impaired vision and either early or late blindness within 0.5-4 h after ingestion. After ingestion, methanol concentrations in the blood that are greater than 50 mg/dl should raise some concern. Ingested methanol is typically digested by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and it is subsequently redistributed to the body's water to attain a volume distribution that is about equivalent to 0.77 L/kg. Moreover, it is removed from the body as its natural, unchanged parent molecules. Due to the fact that methanol poisoning is relatively uncommon but frequently involves a large number of victims at the same time, this type of incident occupies a special position in the field of clinical toxicology. The beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an increase in erroneous assumptions regarding the preventative capability of methanol in comparison to viral infection. More than 1000 Iranians fell ill, and more than 300 of them passed away in March of this year after they consumed methanol in the expectation that it would protect them from a new coronavirus. The Atlanta epidemic, which involved 323 individuals and resulted in the deaths of 41, is one example of mass poisoning. Another example is the Kristiansand outbreak, which involved 70 people and resulted in the deaths of three. In 2003, the AAPCC received reports of more than one thousand pediatric exposures. Since methanol poisoning is associated with high mortality rates, it is vital that the condition be addressed seriously and managed as quickly as feasible. The objective of this review was to raise awareness about the mechanism and metabolism of methanol toxicity, the introduction of therapeutic interventions such as gastrointestinal decontamination and methanol metabolism inhibition, the correction of metabolic disturbances, and the establishment of novel diagnostic/screening nanoparticle-based strategies for methanol poisoning such as the discovery of ADH inhibitors as well as the detection of the adulteration of alcoholic drinks by nanoparticles in order to prevent methanol poisoning. In conclusion, increasing warnings and knowledge about clinical manifestations, medical interventions, and novel strategies for methanol poisoning probably results in a decrease in the death load.

COVID-19 , Poisoning , Humans , Child , Methanol/metabolism , Methanol/toxicity , Pandemics , Iran , Poisoning/therapy
Microb Biotechnol ; 15(8): 2145-2159, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961453


The growing world needs commodity amino acids such as L-glutamate and L-lysine for use as food and feed, and specialty amino acids for dedicated applications. To meet the supply a paradigm shift regarding their production is required. On the one hand, the use of sustainable and cheap raw materials is necessary to sustain low production cost and decrease detrimental effects of sugar-based feedstock on soil health and food security caused by competing uses of crops in the feed and food industries. On the other hand, the biotechnological methods to produce functionalized amino acids need to be developed further, and titres enhanced to become competitive with chemical synthesis methods. In the current review, we present successful strain mutagenesis and rational metabolic engineering examples leading to the construction of recombinant bacterial strains for the production of amino acids such as L-glutamate, L-lysine, L-threonine and their derivatives from methanol as sole carbon source. In addition, the fermentative routes for bioproduction of N-methylated amino acids are highlighted, with focus on three strategies: partial transfer of methylamine catabolism, S-adenosyl-L-methionine dependent alkylation and reductive methylamination of 2-oxoacids.

Amino Acids , Corynebacterium glutamicum , Amino Acids/metabolism , Corynebacterium glutamicum/genetics , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Lysine/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Methanol/metabolism