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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2803, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735270

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the real need for mechanisms to control the spread of airborne respiratory pathogens. Thus, preventing the spread of disease from pathogens has come to the forefront of the public consciousness. This has brought an increasing demand for novel technologies to prioritise clean air. In this study we report on the efficacy of novel biocide treated filters and their antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi and viruses. The antimicrobial filters reported here are shown to kill pathogens, such as Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and MRSA in under 15 min and to destroy SARS-CoV-2 viral particles in under 30 s following contact with the filter. Through air flow rate testing, light microscopy and SEM, the filters are shown to maintain their structure and filtration function. Further to this, the filters are shown to be extremely durable and to maintain antimicrobial activity throughout the operational lifetime of the product. Lastly, the filters have been tested in field trials onboard the UK rail network, showing excellent efficacy in reducing the burden of microbial species colonising the air conditioning system.


Subject(s)
Air Filters/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Air Filters/virology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Time Factors
2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(7): 8718-8727, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683917

ABSTRACT

Transparent antimicrobial coatings can maintain the aesthetic appeal of surfaces and the functionality of a touch-screen while adding the benefit of reducing disease transmission. We fabricated an antimicrobial coating of silver oxide particles in a silicate matrix on glass. The matrix was grown by a modified Stöber sol-gel process with vapor-phase water and ammonia. A coating on glass with 2.4 mg of Ag2O per mm2 caused a reduction of 99.3% of SARS-CoV-2 and >99.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared to the uncoated glass after 1 h. We envisage that screen protectors with transparent antimicrobial coatings will find particular application to communal touch-screens, such as in supermarkets and other check-out or check-in facilities where a number of individuals utilize the same touch-screen in a short interval.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Oxides/chemistry , Silver Compounds/chemistry , Ammonia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Glass/chemistry , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Oxides/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Silicates/chemistry , Silver Compounds/pharmacology , Water/chemistry
3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0052221, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622001

ABSTRACT

Heme-containing peroxidases are widely distributed in the animal and plant kingdoms and play an important role in host defense by generating potent oxidants. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), the prototype of heme-containing peroxidases, exists in neutrophils and monocytes. MPO has a broad spectrum of microbial killing. The difficulty of producing MPO at a large scale hinders its study and utilization. This study aimed to overexpress recombinant human MPO and characterize its microbicidal activities in vitro and in vivo. A human HEK293 cell line stably expressing recombinant MPO (rMPO) was established as a component of this study. rMPO was overexpressed and purified for studies on its biochemical and enzymatic properties, as well as its microbicidal activities. In this study, rMPO was secreted into culture medium as a monomer. rMPO revealed enzymatic activity similar to that of native MPO. rMPO, like native MPO, was capable of killing a broad spectrum of microorganisms, including Gram-negative and -positive bacteria and fungi, at low nM levels. Interestingly, rMPO could kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making it very useful for treatment of nosocomial infections and mixed infections. The administration of rMPO significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of murine lung infections induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In animal safety tests, the administration of 100 nM rMPO via tail vein did not result in any sign of toxic effects. Taken together, the data suggest that rMPO purified from a stably expressing human cell line is a new class of antimicrobial agents with the ability to kill a broad spectrum of pathogens, including bacteria and fungi with or without drug resistance. IMPORTANCE Over the past 2 decades, more than 20 new infectious diseases have emerged. Unfortunately, novel antimicrobial therapeutics are discovered at much lower rates. Infections caused by resistant microorganisms often fail to respond to conventional treatment, resulting in prolonged illness, greater risk of death, and high health care costs. Currently, this is best seen with the lack of a cure for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To combat such untreatable microorganisms, there is an urgent need to discover new classes of antimicrobial agents. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays an important role in host defense. The difficulty of producing MPO on a large scale hinders its study and utilization. We have produced recombinant MPO at a large scale and have characterized its antimicrobial activities. Most importantly, recombinant MPO significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of murine pneumonia induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Our data suggest that recombinant MPO from human cells is a new class of antimicrobials with a broad spectrum of activity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Peroxidase/pharmacology , Acute Disease , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/classification , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/toxicity , Candida albicans/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Peroxidase/genetics , Peroxidase/therapeutic use , Peroxidase/toxicity , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Recombinant Proteins/toxicity , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 49-56, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608662

ABSTRACT

The development of low-cost, non-toxic, scalable antimicrobial textiles is needed to address the spread of deadly pathogens. Here, we report a polysiloxane textile coating that possesses two modes of antimicrobial inactivation, passive contact inactivation through amine/imine functionalities and active photodynamic inactivation through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This material can be coated and cross-linked onto natural and synthetic textiles through a simple soak procedure, followed by UV cure to afford materials exhibiting no aqueous leaching and only minimal leaching in organic solvents. This coating minimally impacts the mechanical properties of the fabric while also imparting hydrophobicity. Passive inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is achieved with >98% inactivation after 24 h, with a 23× and 3× inactivation rate increase against E. coli and MRSA, respectively, when green light is used to generate ROS. Up to 90% decrease in the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 after 2 h of irradiated incubation with the material is demonstrated. These results show that modifying textiles with dual-functional polymers results in robust and highly antimicrobial materials that are expected to find widespread use in combating the spread of deadly pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Textiles/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Photochemotherapy/methods , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/toxicity , Ultraviolet Rays
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(46): 54706-54714, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514382

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial coatings are one method to reduce the spread of microbial diseases. Transparent coatings preserve the visual properties of surfaces and are strictly necessary for applications such as antimicrobial cell phone screens. This work describes transparent coatings that inactivate microbes within minutes. The coatings are based on a polydopamine (PDA) adhesive, which has the useful property that the monomer can be sprayed, and then the monomer polymerizes in a conformal film at room temperature. Two coatings are described (1) a coating where PDA is deposited first and then a thin layer of copper is grown on the PDA by electroless deposition (PDA/Cu) and (2) a coating where a suspension of Cu2O particles in a PDA solution is deposited in a single step (PDA/Cu2O). In the second coating, PDA menisci bind Cu2O particles to the solid surface. Both coatings are transparent and are highly efficient in inactivating microbes. PDA/Cu kills >99.99% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 99.18% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in only 10 min and inactivates 99.98% of SARS-CoV-2 virus in 1 h. PDA/Cu2O kills 99.94% of P. aeruginosa and 96.82% of MRSA within 10 min and inactivates 99.88% of SARS-CoV-2 in 1 h.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Surface Properties
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0028321, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501550

ABSTRACT

The Infectious Disease Surveillance of Pediatrics (ISPED) program was established in 2015 to monitor and analyze the trends of bacterial epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in children. Clinical bacterial isolates were collected from 11 tertiary care children's hospitals in China in 2016 to 2020. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer method or automated systems, with interpretation according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2019 breakpoints. A total of 288,377 isolates were collected, and the top 10 predominant bacteria were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. In 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic year, we observed a significant reduction in the proportion of respiratory tract samples (from 56.9% to 44.0%). A comparable reduction was also seen in the primary bacteria mainly isolated from respiratory tract samples, including S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and S. pyogenes. Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in children were commonly observed and presented higher rates of drug resistance than sensitive strains. The proportions of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP), carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB), carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were 19.7%, 46.4%%, 12.8%, and 35.0%, respectively. The proportions of CRKP, CRAB, and CRPA strains all showed decreasing trends between 2015 and 2020. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and CRPA gradually decreased with age, while CRAB showed the opposite trend with age. Both CRE and CRPA pose potential threats to neonates. MDROs show very high levels of AMR and have become an urgent threat to children, suggesting that effective monitoring of AMR and antimicrobial stewardship among children in China are required. IMPORTANCE AMR, especially that involving multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), is recognized as a global threat to human health; AMR renders infections increasingly difficult to treat, constituting an enormous economic burden and producing tremendous negative impacts on patient morbidity and mortality rates. There are many surveillance programs in the world to address AMR profiles and MDRO prevalence in humans. However, published studies evaluating the overall AMR rates or MDRO distributions in children are very limited or are of mixed quality. In this study, we showed the bacterial epidemiology and resistance profiles of primary pathogens in Chinese children from 2016 to 2020 for the first time, analyzed MDRO distributions with time and with age, and described MDROs' potential threats to children, especially low-immunity neonates. Our study will be very useful to guide antiinfection therapy in Chinese children, as well as worldwide pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/classification , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Moraxella catarrhalis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus pyogenes
7.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 58(6): 106453, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This retrospective cohort study examined the impact of the pandemic on antimicrobial use (AU) in South Carolina hospitals. METHODS: Antimicrobial use in days of therapy (DOT) per 1000 days-present was evaluated in 17 hospitals in South Carolina. Matched-pairs mean difference was used to compare AU during the pandemic (March-June 2020) with that during the same months in 2019 in hospitals that did and did not admit patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: There was a 6.6% increase in overall AU in the seven hospitals that admitted patients with COVID-19 (from 530.9 to 565.8; mean difference (MD) 34.9 DOT/1000 days-present; 95% CI 4.3, 65.6; P = 0.03). There was no significant change in overall AU in the remaining 10 hospitals that did not admit patients with COVID-19 (MD 6.0 DOT/1000 days-present; 95% CI -55.5, 67.6; P = 0.83). Most of the increase in AU in the seven hospitals that admitted patients with COVID-19 was observed in broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. A 16.4% increase was observed in agents predominantly used for hospital-onset infections (from 122.3 to 142.5; MD 20.1 DOT/1000 days-present; 95% CI 11.1, 29.1; P = 0.002). There was also a 9.9% increase in the use of anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) agents (from 66.7 to 73.3; MD 6.6 DOT/1000 days-present; 95% CI 2.3, 10.8; P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic appears to drive overall and broad-spectrum antimicrobial use in South Carolina hospitals admitting patients with COVID-19. Additional antimicrobial stewardship resources are needed to curtail excessive antimicrobial use in hospitals to prevent subsequent increases in antimicrobial resistance and Clostridioides difficile infection rates, given the continuing nature of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Drug Utilization Review/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Antimicrobial Stewardship , COVID-19 , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , South Carolina
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390656

ABSTRACT

Transparent materials used for facial protection equipment provide protection against microbial infections caused by viruses and bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. However, transparent materials used for this type of application are made of materials that do not possess antimicrobial activity. They just avoid direct contact between the person and the biological agent. Therefore, healthy people can become infected through contact of the contaminated material surfaces and this equipment constitute an increasing source of infectious biological waste. Furthermore, infected people can transmit microbial infections easily because the protective equipment do not inactivate the microbial load generated while breathing, sneezing or coughing. In this regard, the goal of this work consisted of fabricating a transparent face shield with intrinsic antimicrobial activity that could provide extra-protection against infectious agents and reduce the generation of infectious waste. Thus, a single-use transparent antimicrobial face shield composed of polyethylene terephthalate and an antimicrobial coating of benzalkonium chloride has been developed for the next generation of facial protective equipment. The antimicrobial coating was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis. This is the first facial transparent protective material capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in less than one minute of contact, and the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bacterial infections contribute to severe pneumonia associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their resistance to antibiotics is increasing. Our extra protective broad-spectrum antimicrobial composite material could also be applied for the fabrication of other facial protective tools such as such as goggles, helmets, plastic masks and space separation screens used for counters or vehicles. This low-cost technology would be very useful to combat the current pandemic and protect health care workers from multidrug-resistant infections in developed and underdeveloped countries.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Personal Protective Equipment , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Bacteriophage phi 6/drug effects , Benzalkonium Compounds/chemistry , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Polyethylene Terephthalates/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects
9.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(12): 1772-1776, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A wide range of bacterial infections occur in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, particularly in those with severe coronaviral disease. Some of these are community-acquired co-infections. OBJECTIVE: To review recent data that indicate the occurrence of hospital-onset bacterial infections, including with antibiotic-resistant isolates, in COVID-19 patients. SOURCES: Using PubMed, the literature was searched using terms including: 'COVID-19'; 'SARS-CoV-2'; 'bacterial infection'; 'healthcare-associated infection'; 'antibiotic resistance'; 'antimicrobial resistance'; 'multi-drug resistance'; 'Streptococcus'; 'Staphylococcus'; 'Pseudomonas'; 'Escherichia'; 'Klebsiella'; 'Enterococcus'; 'Acinetobacter'; 'Haemophilus'; 'MRSA'; 'VRE'; 'ESBL'; 'NDM-CRE'; 'CR-Ab'; 'VRSA'; 'MDR'. CONTENT: There is a growing number of reports of bacterial infections acquired by patients with severe COVID-19 after hospital admission. Antibiotic-resistant pathogens found to cause healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in COVID-19 patients include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, extended-spectrum ß-lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. COVID-19 has impacted bacterial HAIs in a number of ways with an increase in the incidence of New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii reported at some hospital sites compared with before the pandemic. Recommended guidelines for antimicrobial stewardship in COVID-19 patient treatment are discussed regarding minimization of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic use. Other studies have reported a decrease in methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci cases, which has been attributed to enhanced infection prevention and control practices introduced to minimize intra-hospital spread of COVID-19. IMPLICATIONS: Poorer outcomes have been observed in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with an antibiotic-resistant infection. Although heightened IPC measures have been accompanied by a reduction in some HAIs at specific sites, in other situations, COVID-19 has been associated with an increase in bacterial HAI incidence. Further research is needed to define the cost-benefit relationship of maintaining COVID-19-related infection prevention and control protocols beyond the pandemic to reduce the burden of HAIs. In addition, the longer-term impact of high usage of certain broad-spectrum antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic requires evaluation.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Cross Infection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbapenems , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Pandemics
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(1): 155-163, 2021 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997777

ABSTRACT

A substantial increase in the risk of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) has greatly impacted the global healthcare industry. Harmful pathogens adhere to a variety of surfaces and infect personnel on contact, thereby promoting transmission to new hosts. This is particularly worrisome in the case of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, which constitute a growing threat to human health worldwide and require new preventative routes of disinfection. In this study, we have incorporated different loading levels of a porphyrin photosensitizer capable of generating reactive singlet oxygen in the presence of O2 and visible light in a water-soluble, photo-cross-linkable polymer coating, which was subsequently deposited on polymer microfibers. Two different application methods are considered, and the morphological and chemical characteristics of these coated fibers are analyzed to detect the presence of the coating and photosensitizer. To discern the efficacy of the fibers against pathogenic bacteria, photodynamic inactivation has been performed on two different bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli, with population reductions of >99.9999 and 99.6%, respectively, after exposure to visible light for 1 h. In response to the current COVID-19 pandemic, we also confirm that these coated fibers can inactivate a human common cold coronavirus serving as a surrogate for the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Polymers/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Humans , Iatrogenic Disease/prevention & control , Light , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Microfibrils/chemistry , Pandemics , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Porphyrins/chemistry , Porphyrins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Singlet Oxygen
11.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 153, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A considerable proportion of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acquired secondary bacterial infections (SBIs). The etiology and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria were reported and used to provide a theoretical basis for appropriate infection therapy. METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed electronic medical records of all the patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the Wuhan Union Hospital between January 27 and March 17, 2020. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients who acquired SBIs were enrolled. Demographic, clinical course, etiology, and antimicrobial resistance data of the SBIs were collected. Outcomes were also compared between patients who were classified as severe and critical on admission. RESULTS: Among 1495 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 102 (6.8%) patients had acquired SBIs, and almost half of them (49.0%, 50/102) died during hospitalization. Compared with severe patients, critical patients had a higher chance of SBIs. Among the 159 strains of bacteria isolated from the SBIs, 136 strains (85.5%) were Gram-negative bacteria. The top three bacteria of SBIs were A. baumannii (35.8%, 57/159), K. pneumoniae (30.8%, 49/159), and S. maltophilia (6.3%, 10/159). The isolation rates of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae were 91.2 and 75.5%, respectively. Meticillin resistance was present in 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase negative staphylococci, and vancomycin resistance was not found. CONCLUSIONS: SBIs may occur in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and lead to high mortality. The incidence of SBIs was associated with the severity of illness on admission. Gram-negative bacteria, especially A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae, were the main bacteria, and the resistance rates of the major isolated bacteria were generally high. This was a single-center study; thus, our results should be externally examined when applied in other institutions.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/physiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 646, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is known as a new viral infection. Viral-bacterial co-infections are one of the biggest medical concerns, resulting in increased mortality rates. To date, few studies have investigated bacterial superinfections in COVID-19 patients. Hence, we designed the current study on COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs. METHODS: Nineteen patients admitted to our ICUs were enrolled in this study. To detect COVID-19, reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed. Endotracheal aspirate samples were also collected and cultured on different media to support the growth of the bacteria. After incubation, formed colonies on the media were identified using Gram staining and other biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out based on the CLSI recommendations. RESULTS: Of nineteen COVID-19 patients, 11 (58%) patients were male and 8 (42%) were female, with a mean age of ~ 67 years old. The average ICU length of stay was ~ 15 days and at the end of the study, 18 cases (95%) expired and only was 1 case (5%) discharged. In total, all patients were found positive for bacterial infections, including seventeen Acinetobacter baumannii (90%) and two Staphylococcus aureus (10%) strains. There was no difference in the bacteria species detected in any of the sampling points. Seventeen of 17 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii were resistant to the evaluated antibiotics. No metallo-beta-lactamases -producing Acinetobacter baumannii strain was found. One of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates was detected as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and isolated from the patient who died, while another Staphylococcus aureus strain was susceptible to tested drugs and identified as methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings emphasize the concern of superinfection in COVID-19 patients due to Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. Consequently, it is important to pay attention to bacterial co-infections in critical patients positive for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/complications , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Heart Diseases/complications , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Intensive Care Units , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
13.
IUBMB Life ; 72(10): 2097-2111, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696287

ABSTRACT

The pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected millions of people worldwide. To date, there are no proven effective therapies for this virus. Efforts made to develop antiviral strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 are underway. Respiratory viral infections, such as influenza, predispose patients to co-infections and these lead to increased disease severity and mortality. Numerous types of antibiotics such as azithromycin have been employed for the prevention and treatment of bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infections in patients with a viral respiratory infection (e.g., SARS-CoV-2). Although antibiotics do not directly affect SARS-CoV-2, viral respiratory infections often result in bacterial pneumonia. It is possible that some patients die from bacterial co-infection rather than virus itself. To date, a considerable number of bacterial strains have been resistant to various antibiotics such as azithromycin, and the overuse could render those or other antibiotics even less effective. Therefore, bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infection are considered critical risk factors for the severity and mortality rates of COVID-19. Also, the antibiotic-resistant as a result of overusing must be considered. In this review, we will summarize the bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infection in some featured respiratory viral infections, especially COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Haemophilus influenzae/drug effects , Haemophilus influenzae/pathogenicity , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Legionella pneumophila/drug effects , Legionella pneumophila/pathogenicity , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/virology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/pathogenicity , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/microbiology , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Streptococcus pyogenes/pathogenicity
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