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1.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801589

ABSTRACT

Many novel drugs were used in COVID19 pandemic to improve outcome. One such molecule is Methylene blue which is a, tricyclic phenothiazine compound approved for the treatment of acquired methemoglobinemia and some other uses US FDA. This molecule was found to inhibit the interaction of COVID19 virus and target cells in dose dependent manner. It was also found to inhibit interaction of viron with host cells, by inhibiting interaction of SARS CoV2 spike protein and ACE inhibitor receptor interactions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A) Aim & Objectives: To evaluate the effect of Nebulised Methylene blue on the clinical course and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 infections. B) Study design Observational Study C) Participants 63 COVID19 RT-PCR positive cases divided in 3 groups. Group 1 consists of patients who were prescribed Methylene blue nebulization in form of Methylene blue 0.5 mg via nebulization along with bronchodilator Levosalbutamol (1.25 mg) + Ipratropium (500 mcg) three times a day . Group 2 consists of patients with Methylene blue nebulization in form of Methylene blue 0.5 mg via nebulization along with inhalational steroid Budesonide (1 mg). Group 3 acted were those patients who had no Methylene blue nebulisation in their treatment. OBSERVATION: 1) Analysis 63 cases were divided in 3 groups of 21 each, descriptive and frequency analysis of cases in groups are shown. CONCLUSION: No statistically significant difference in outcome measures like Spo2, duration of hospital stay or inflammatory markers. A general trend of fall in inflammatory markers and O2 requirements in group receiving methylene blue but this difference was not consistantly statistically significant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methemoglobinemia , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102642, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550023

ABSTRACT

The local antiviral photodynamic inactivation (PDI) may prove to be a helpful tool reducing the viral load in the nose and throat area in the early phase of a Covid19 infection. Both the infectivity and the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections in the early phase can depend on the viral load in this area. The aim of our study was to find a simplified PDI therapy option against corona viruses in this region with low dose methylene blue (MB) as photosensitizer and use of LED light instead of laser. As a substitute for SARS-CoV2 viruses we started with BCoV infected U373 cells first. We used an 810nm diode laser with 300mW/cm2 and 100J/cm2 light dose as well as a 590 nm LED and a broadband LED with irradiation intensity of 10,000 lx each (irradiation time 2.5 and 10 min) and concentrations of the sensitizer of 0.001% and 0.0001%. The 0.001% MB sensitizer experiments showed similar results with all exposures. The logarithmic reduction factor varied between ≥ 5.29 and ≥ 5.31, (0.001% MB sensitizer) and ≥ 4.6 and ≥ 5.31 (0.0001% MB) respectively. Extending the LED irradiation time from 2 to 5 and 10 minutes did not change these results. In contrast approaches of BCoV-infected cells in the dark, treated with 0.001% and 0.0001% MB sensitizer alone, a lot of residual viruses could be detected after 10 minutes of incubation (RF 0.9 and RF 1.23 for 0.001% MB and 0.0001% MB respectively) In our SARS-CoV-2 experiments with VERO E6 infected cells the irradiation time was reduced to 1, 2 and 3 minutes for both concentrations with increasing broadband LED radiation intensity from 20 to 50 and 100.000 lx. (RF 4.67 for 0.001% and 0.0001% respectively). This showed a minimum concentration of 0.0001%MB and a minimum radiation intensity of 20,000 lx leads to a 99.99% reduction of intracellular and extracellular viruses after one minute exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photochemotherapy , Humans , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Rev Invest Clin ; 73(3): 190-198, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is no pharmacological intervention on the treatment of hypoxemia and respiratory distress in COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to study the effect of the reduced form of methylene blue (MB) on the improvement of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate (RR). METHODS: In an academic medical center, 80 hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 were randomly assigned to receive either oral MB along with standard of care (SOC) (MB group, n = 40) or SOC only (SOC group, n=40). The primary outcomes were SpO2 and RR on the 3rd and 5th days. The secondary outcomes were hospital stay and mortality within 28 days. RESULTS: In the MB group, a significant improvement in SpO2 and RR was observed on the 3rd day (for both, p < 0.0001) and also the 5th day (for both, p < 0.0001). In the SOC group, there was no significant improvement in SpO2 (p = 0.24) and RR (p = 0.20) on the 3rd day, although there was a significant improvement of SpO2 (p = 0.002) and RR (p = 0.01) on the 5th day. In the MB group in comparison to the SOC group, the rate ratio of increased SpO2 was 13.5 and 2.1 times on the 3rd and 5th days, respectively. In the MB group compared with the SOC group, the rate ratio of RR improvement was 10.1 and 3.7 times on the 3rd and 5th days, respectively. The hospital stay was significantly shortened in the MB group (p = 0.004), and the mortality was 12.5% and 22.5% in the MB and SOC groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of MB to the treatment protocols significantly improved SpO2 and respiratory distress in COVID-19 patients, which resulted in decreased hospital stay and mortality. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04370288.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
4.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 39(6): 386-389, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233835

ABSTRACT

Objective: This article reports the case of a patient with oral manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treated with photobiomodulation (PBM) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Background: Some dermatological and oral mucosal lesions have recently been linked to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Methods: A 65-year-old female patient with a confirmed real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of COVID-19 presented with dry edematous lips, edema with mucosal desquamation, ulceration and blood crust on the inner aspect of the lips, gingival petechiae and erythematous and pseudomembranous lesions on the dorsum of the tongue. The treatment protocol was three sessions of antimicrobial PDT (aPDT) (660 nm diode laser + methylene blue) to the lips and tongue, every 24 h to control contamination, followed by PBM (low-power laser, 100 mW, 2 J/point) to the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa for additional four sessions every 24 h. Results: Therapy association promoted pain control and healing of oral mucosal lesions in 7 days of treatment. Conclusions: PBM and aPDT could be an interesting approach to manage COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Low-Level Light Therapy , Mouth Diseases/therapy , Mouth Diseases/virology , Photochemotherapy , Aged , Female , Humans , Lasers, Semiconductor/therapeutic use , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 33: 102196, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051903

ABSTRACT

Many oral signs and symptoms related to the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been reported; however, both prevalence and etiology are still undetermined. Since the clinical features of the oral lesions seen in COVID-19 are highly heterogeneous and the treatments differ considerably in the literature, the present study aimed to report a clinical case in which a combination of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) was used for extensive lip lesions in a patient suffering from COVID-19. Within 4 days and without any systemic drug administration, after two sessions of aPDT and one session of PBMT, the lip lesions were completely healed, and the patient recovered her orofacial functions satisfactorily. According to the current case report and taking into consideration the evident lack of information about many aspects of COVID-19 infection, this combination of phototherapy modalities seems to be a promising tool for managing COVID-19-related lip lesions; however, more studies are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lip/drug effects , Lip/pathology , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Photochemotherapy/methods , Female , Humans , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
6.
A A Pract ; 14(9): e01287, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992616

ABSTRACT

Methemoglobinemia is a rare disorder of the blood in which there is an increase in methemoglobin, which occurs when hemoglobin is present in the oxidized form. Methemoglobin impairs hemoglobin's ability to transport oxygen, produces functional anemia, and leads to tissue hypoxia. We report the successful management of a case of refractory hypoxia due to acutely acquired methemoglobinemia in a patient undergoing treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. The cause of methemoglobinemia in this patient remains unknown. Hypoxia and methemoglobinemia did not respond to methylene blue and required administration of packed red blood cell transfusions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hypoxia/etiology , Methemoglobinemia/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Corynebacterium , Corynebacterium Infections/complications , Corynebacterium Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Hematinics/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxocobalamin/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Methemoglobinemia/therapy , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/complications , Pneumonia, Bacterial/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/complications
7.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 885: 173494, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959753

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global catastrophic event that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. The mechanism of the disease remains unclear, and hypoxia is one of the main complications. There is no currently approved protocol for treatment. The microbial threat as induced by COVID-19 causes the activation of macrophages to produce a huge amount of inflammatory molecules and nitric oxide (NO). Activation of macrophages population into a pro-inflammatory phenotype induces a self-reinforcing cycle. Oxidative stress and NO contribute to this cycle, establishing a cascade inflammatory state that can kill the patient. Interrupting this vicious cycle by a simple remedy may save critical patients' lives. Nitrite, nitrate (the metabolites of NO), methemoglobin, and prooxidant-antioxidant-balance levels were measured in 25 ICU COVID-19 patients and 25 healthy individuals. As the last therapeutic option, five patients were administered methylene blue-vitamin C-N-acetyl Cysteine (MCN). Nitrite, nitrate, methemoglobin, and oxidative stress were significantly increased in patients in comparison to healthy individuals. Four of the five patients responded well to treatment. In conclusion, NO, methemoglobin and oxidative stress may play a central role in the pathogenesis of critical COVID-19 disease. MCN treatment seems to increase the survival rate of these patients. Considering the vicious cycle of macrophage activation leading to deadly NO, oxidative stress, and cytokine cascade syndrome; the therapeutic effect of MCN seems to be reasonable. Accordingly, a wider clinical trial has been designed. It should be noted that the protocol is using the low-cost drugs which the FDA approved for other diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04370288.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Compassionate Use Trials , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications
8.
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