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1.
Trials ; 23(1): 423, 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The specific use of methylprednisolone in severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) has not yet formed a consensus. It is not clear whether the clinical efficacy of methylprednisolone in SCAP is dose-dependent, and how to balance the best efficacy with the least complications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of different doses of methylprednisolone in the adjuvant treatment for patients with SCAP. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of different doses of methylprednisolone in the adjuvant treatment for patients with SCAP. Patients with diagnosed SCAP are randomized to the following four groups at a 1:1:1:1 ratio: group 1 (control group)-standard ICU patient care+100ml of normal saline once a day for 5 days; group 2-standard ICU patient care+40mg of methylprednisolone (dissolved in normal saline with a final volume of 100ml) once a day for 5 days; group 3-standard ICU patient care+80mg of methylprednisolone (dissolved in normal saline with a final volume of 100ml) once a day for 5 days; and group 4-standard ICU patient care+120mg of methylprednisolone (dissolved in normal saline with a final volume of 100ml) once a day for 5 days. The primary outcome is PaO2/FiO2 ratio at day 5 following randomization. The secondary outcomes are 28-day mortality, ventilator-free days at 28 days, mechanical ventilation duration at 28 days, endotracheal intubation rate, time for temperature recovery, duration of vasopressors use, serum CRP and interleukin-6 level at day 5 following randomization, hospital stay, frequency of nosocomial infections, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and hyperglycemia. DISCUSSION: The results of our study may find the optimal dose of glucocorticoid in the adjuvant treatment of SCAP and provide evidence-based proof for clinicians to treat patients with SCAP. Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) also belongs to community-acquired pneumonia, perhaps the results of our study will help to determine the appropriate dose of methylprednisolone in COVID-19 treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100045056 . Registered on 4 April 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Saline Solution , Treatment Outcome
4.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 16(2): 147-151, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1823867

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) , proteinuria in the nephrotic or subnephrotic range and hematuria might be seen in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. In this case study we present a 59 years old manwho was diagnosed with immune-complex glomerulonephritis after development of rapidly progressive kidney failure accompanied by pulmonary hemorrhage, 2 months after COVID-19 infection. The patient was hospitalised with the diagnosis of acute kidney injury and nephrotic syndrome. Hemodialysis was performed due to uremic symptoms. Cyclophosphamide, methylprednisolone and plasmapheresis were started. Pathologic examination of kidney biopsy revealed features compatible with immune complex-related acute glomerulonephritis. Cyclophosphamide and plasmapheresis were discontinued , and treatment with 1 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone was continued. Immune-complex glomerulonephritis can be seen following COVID-19 infection. It is important to diagnose this disease entity as soon as possible . Steroidtherapy and other supportive modalities might be sufficient in the treatment.  DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.6527.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Glomerulonephritis , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Cyclophosphamide , Female , Glomerulonephritis/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
5.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801479

ABSTRACT

The progression of the severity of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-Cov-2 virus is through an exaggerated host immune response called the cytokine storm. Corticosteroids can reduce this storm through their anti-inflammatory action, thus preventing lung damage. However the efficacy and side effect profile of the two commonly used corticosteroids- dexamethasone and methylprednisolone against COVID-19 have to be compared, to enable the selection of the appropriate drug with better outcomes. Thus the objective was to compare the efficacy of adjuvant parenteral methylprednisolone and dexamethasone in reducing COVID-19 disease severity and mortality among the moderate to critical patients. MATERIAL: A retrospective comparative study was done among 162 adult patients who were COVID-19 RTPCR positive with moderate or severe illness, among whom 100 patients had received parenteral dexamethasone and 62 patients had received parenteral methylprednisolone. The radiological changes, inflammatory markers and outcomes -duration of hospital stay, rate of discharges, deaths improvement in oxygen requirement, blood glucose post steroids were compared between the two groups. The same parameters were compared for duration of either steroid of less than five days and more than five days respectively. OBSERVATION: Both corticosteroids had a significant improvement in the inflammatory markers of serum LDH, D-Dimer and CRP (p<0.001) with a significant improvement in D-Dimer levels in the methylprednisolone group compared to the dexamethasone group (p =0.04). Methylprednisolone was found to have significant improvement in the oxygen requirement (p=0.01), disease severity (p= 0.015) and radiological changes (p=0.002) compared to dexamethasone. Both corticosteroids were associated with an increase in blood glucose levels post treatment, but no significant difference in the glucose levels between the two groups (p=0.469). No significant difference was seen in the outcomes on comparing the duration of steroids of either group for less than five days with a duration of more than five days. CONCLUSION: Parenteral Methylprednisolone is associated with a better improvement in the severity of moderate and severe COVID-19 compared to dexamethasone. Both steroids cause a similar increase in blood glucose levels, indicating that either steroid holds the risk of hyperglycemia and its potential complications. A longer duration of steroids is not associated with a significant difference in outcome compared to shorter duration of steroids, it also has a hyperglycemia risk similar to the latter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Adult , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Steroids
6.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 25: 110-123, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776752

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Till date, only systemic corticosteroids have demonstrated definite mortality benefit in management of COVID 19 in various studies. Still certain questions regarding the appropriate dose, duration and timing of corticosteroids remain unanswered. For this reason, the study was planned to determine the efficacy and safety of the pulse dose methyl prednisolone in management of COVID 19 from the publicly available evidence. METHODS: PubMed, the Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials.gov and medRxiv were searched for articles reporting the use of pulse dose methyl prednisolone in COVID 19 from inception till 31st May, 2021. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for estimation of pooled effect by using random effect model and heterogeneity was checked by using I2 statistics. RESULTS: Twelve studies (11 observational and 1 RCT) were included in the systematic review. A total of 3110 patients from 9 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Though the use of pulse dose methyl prednisolone demonstrated statistically significant mortality benefit in comparison to usual care (OR=0.71, 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.97, [P=0.03]), (I2= 21%) with calculated Number needed to treat (NNT) of 23.5, there was no statistically significant difference between the use of pulse dose and low dose corticosteroid (OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.44 to 1.01, [(P=0.05]), (I2= 25%) and the NNT is 23.5. Incidence of adverse events were similar across all the groups. The grade of evidence for primary outcome was of moderate certainty. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis concurs with the previous reports regarding the use of corticosteroid in COVID 19 in comparison to usual care. However, for both the primary and secondary outcome, the study did not find any statistically significant difference between the use of pulse dose methyl prednisolone and low dose corticosteroid to treat COVID 19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methylprednisolone , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use
7.
Steroids ; 183: 109022, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757853

ABSTRACT

The roles of methylprednisolone in treatment of patients with COVID-19 remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of methylprednisolone in treatment of COVID-19 patients. PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science were searched for studies comparing methylprednisolone and no glucocorticoids treatment in patients with COVID-19. Statistical pooling was reported as risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI). Thirty-three studies were eligible, including 5 randomized trials and 28 observational studies. Meta-analysis showed that compared with no glucocorticoids, methylprednisolone in treatment of COVID-19 patients was associated with reduced short-term mortality (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.60-0.89), less need for ICU admission (RR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66-0.91) and mechanical ventilation (RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.57-0.84), increased 28-day ventilator-free days (MD 2.81; 95% CI 2.64-2.97), without increasing risk of secondary infections (RR 1.04; 95% CI 0.82-1.32), but could prolong duration of viral shedding (MD 1.03; 95% CI 0.25-1.82). Subgroup analyses revealed that low-dose (≤2mg/kg/day) methylprednisolone treatment for ≤ 7 days in severe COVID-19 patients was associated with relatively better clinical outcomes, without increasing duration of viral shedding. Compared with no glucocorticoids, methylprednisolone treatment in COVID-19 patients is associated with reduced short-term mortality and better clinical outcomes, without increasing secondary infections, but could slightly prolong duration of viral shedding. Patients with severe COVID-19 are more likely to benefit from short-term low-dose methylprednisolone treatment (1-2 mg/kg/day for ≤ 7 days).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial
8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 107: 108689, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747881

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of methylprednisolone and tocilizumab in the treatment of patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: During a prospective cohort study, hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 received intravenous methylprednisolone (250-500 mg daily up to three doses), weight-based tocilizumab (maximum 800 mg, one or two doses as daily interval) or dexamethasone (8 mg daily). The primary outcome was time to onset of clinical response. Secondary outcomes were improvement rate of oxygen saturation and CRP, need for ICU admission, duration of hospitalization and 28-day mortality. During study, adverse events of the treatments were recorded. RESULTS: Although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.090), clinical response occurred faster in the tocilizumab group than other groups (10 vs. 16 days). Clinical response was detected in 74.19%, 81.25%, and 60% of patients in the methylprednisolone, tocilizumab, and dexamethasone groups respectively (p = 0.238). Based on the Cox regression analysis and considering dexamethasone as the reference group, HR (95% CI) of clinical response was 1.08 (0.65-1.79) and 1.46 (0.89-2.39) in the methylprednisolone and tocilizumab groups respectively. Improvement rate of oxygen saturation and CRP was not significantly different between the groups (p = 0.791 and p = 0.372 respectively). Also need for ICU admission and 28-day mortality was comparable between the groups (p = 0.176 and p = 0.143 respectively). Compared with methylprednisolone, tocilizumab caused more sleep disturbances (p = 0.019). Other adverse events were comparable among patients in the groups. CONCLUSION: When or where access to tocilizumab is a problem, methylprednisolone may be considered as an alternative for the treatment of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Humans , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(10): e82, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742200

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 can result in fatal comorbidities, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Several reports suggest that children have milder illness, though severe cases have still been reported. We report a 9-year-old boy with ARDS caused by the SARS-CoV-2 delta (B.1.617.2) variant. He was admitted to our hospital and carefully observed due to underlying Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. He developed intractable seizures with a high fever. Although the seizures were controlled, his respiratory condition deteriorated to severe ARDS. High-dose methylprednisolone was administered with high positive end-expiratory pressure and low tidal volume. After ARDS treatment, oxygenation improved sufficiently to permit extubation. This case suggests that close observation is required in pediatric patients with neurologic comorbidities because of an increased risk for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lennox Gastaut Syndrome/complications , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Child , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 254, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic minorities are at higher risk for severe COVID-19. This may be related to social determinants that lead to chronic inflammatory states. The aims of the study were to determine if there are racial/ethnic disparities with inflammatory markers and association of methylprednisolone to in hospital survival. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study of patients ≥ 18 years of age and admitted for severe COVID-19 pneumonia between March and June 2020 in 13 Hospitals in New Jersey, United States. Patients who received other formulation of corticosteroids were not included. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curves were performed to test for discriminatory ability of each inflammatory makers. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression assessed the association of variables to in hospital survival. RESULTS: Propensity matched sample (n = 759) between no methylprednisolone (n = 380) and methylprednisolone (n = 379) had 338 Whites, 102 Blacks, 61 Asian/Indians, and 251 non-Black non-White Hispanics. Compared to CRP, area under receiving operating characteristic curve for d-dimer in Hispanics (0.742) was statistically different (DeLong Test P = 0.0041). Multivariate cox regression showed that different variables in Blacks [age ≥ 60 years (HR = 3.71, P = 0.0281), mechanical ventilation (HR = 5.07, P = 0.0281) and creatinine ≥ 1.5 mg/dL (HR = 3.61, P = 0.0007)], Whites [cancer (HR = 1.68, P = 0.0213), qSOFA score of 1 (HR = 1.81, P = 0.0213), qSOFA score of 2 (HR = 5.16, P < 0.0001), qSOFA score of 3 (HR = 11.81, P < 0.0001) and creatinine ≥ 1.5 mg/dL (HR = 2.16, P = 0.0006)], Hispanics [hypertension (HR = 2.52, P = 0.0007), cancer (HR = 2.99, P = 0.0244 and D-dimer ≥ 2 mcg/mL (HR = 2.22, P = 0.0077)], and Asian/Indians [ chronic kidney disease (HR = 6.36, P = 0.0031) and CRP > 20 mg/L (HR = 5.02, P = 0.0032)] were statistically significant for mortality. Low dose and high dose methylprednisolone were significantly associated with prolonged survival in Whites [low dose (HR = 0.37, P < 0.0001) and high dose (HR = 0.48, P < 0.0183)] and Asian/Indians [low dose (HR = 0.13, P = 0.0101) and high dose (HR = 0.15, P = 0.01)]. However, high dose was not associated with improved survival compared to low dose. Methylprednisolone was not associated with prolonged survival in Blacks and Hispanics. CONCLUSION: Racial/Ethnic disparities with inflammatory markers preclude the use of one marker as a predictor of survival. Methylprednisolone is associated with prolonged survival in Asian/Indians and Whites.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methylprednisolone , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
11.
Neurol India ; 70(1): 409-411, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726256

ABSTRACT

Background: Postmarketing surveillance of COVID-19 vaccination reveals that the COVID-19 vaccine administration is associated with several rare but serious neurological complications. Case Report: We report a case of new-onset tumefactive demyelinating brain lesion that developed after administration of an adenovector-based COVID-19 vaccine. A middle-aged female presented with recent right hemiparesis, which was noticed 2 days after she received the first dose of the vaccine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large subcortical T2/FLAIR hyperintensities involving corpus callosum as well. The patient responded to oral methylprednisolone. At 4 weeks, a follow-up MRI revealed a reduction in size of the lesion. Conclusion: To conclude, adenovector-based COVID-19 vaccination may be associated with a tumefactive demyelinating lesion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Demyelinating Diseases/chemically induced , Adenoviridae , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Corpus Callosum/diagnostic imaging , Corpus Callosum/pathology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1745-1747, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718409

ABSTRACT

Methylprednisolone (MP) is usually used to reduce inflammation reaction and tissue damage, which may have a beneficial treatment effect on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, we present the case of a child who manifests significant bradycardia with the use of just low dose MP on the premise of the long-term use of arbidol. Arbidol can affect the activity of CYP3A4, which is also a key metabolic enzyme of MP by competitive inhibition, and which is easy to aggravate the side effects of MP. Therefore, more attention should be paid to bradycardia occurrence in the patient with COVID-19 when MP is considered in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Bradycardia/chemically induced , COVID-19/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Humans , Indoles/adverse effects , Male , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sulfides/adverse effects
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(7): e52, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706942

ABSTRACT

Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) has been reported as rare complication of vaccination. Herein, we report 2 cases of ATM after the administration of an mRNA vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The first one is an 81-year-old man who received the BNT162b2 vaccine. He presented with bilateral hand weakness. Spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed high signal intensity from the C1 to C3 vertebrae. The second is a 23-year-old woman who received the BNT162b2 vaccine and experienced tingling in her legs. Spine MRI showed a high signal intensity lesion at the conus medullaris. These patients were treated with intravenous methylprednisolone and their symptoms improved slightly. Careful follow-up is needed to identify adverse events after the administration of mRNA vaccines for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Hand/physiopathology , Leg/physiopathology , Myelitis, Transverse/pathology , Spinal Cord/physiopathology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnosis , Myelitis, Transverse/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spine/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
16.
Inflamm Res ; 71(3): 331-341, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680666

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Perturbations of peripheral T cell homeostasis and dysregulation of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, especially in severely ill patients, were observed. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytokine producing ability of peripheral blood cells from severely ill COVID-19 patients upon non-specific in vitro stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Possible associations of cytokine levels with patients' age and gender, glucocorticosteroid therapy, as well as the trend of the inflammatory process at the time of sampling (increased or decreased) were also analyzed. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 23 COVID-19 patients and 17 healthy control subjects. The concentrations of selected Th1/Th2/Th9/Th17/Th22 cytokines were determined using a multi-analyte flow assay kit. RESULTS: Our results showed that peripheral blood cells from severely ill COVID-19 patients had a much reduced ability to produce cytokines in comparison to healthy controls. When inflammation was raised, blood cells produced more IL-6 and IL-17, which led to increases of some Th17/Th1 and Th17/Th2 ratios, skewing towards the Th17 type of response. The methylprednisolone used in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 influences the production of several cytokines in dose dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the stage of the inflammatory process at the time of sampling and the dose of the applied glucocorticosteroid therapy might influence cytokine producing ability upon non-specific stimulation of T cells in vitro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cytokines/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Cells/drug effects , Blood Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cells, Cultured , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Mitogens/pharmacology , Phytohemagglutinins/pharmacology
18.
Chest ; 161(2): e71-e73, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664778

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal interstitial lung disease characterized by progressive scar tissue formation. An acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF) is a clinically significant respiratory decompensation that accounts for a significant proportion of IPF-related morbidity and mortality. AE-IPF can be idiopathic or associated with pulmonary embolism, infection, aspiration, surgery, and drug toxicity. In this novel case report, we describe a potential association between AE-IPF and BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination that was successfully treated with a short course of glucocorticoids. While our aim is to raise awareness for this yet-to-be-described adverse event, immunization against vaccine-preventable disease remains widely recommended in vulnerable patients with chronic lung disease such as IPF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , /adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Disease Progression , Drug Tapering/methods , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Male , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
19.
Daru ; 30(1): 211-228, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653835

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Tocilizumab has shown equivocal outcomes in reducing mortality in COVID-19. The corticosteroids appear to be an affordable alternative to tocilizumab. This study aims to estimate the efficacy of tocilizumab and the corticosteroids particularly dexamethasone and methylprednisolone and to identify possible determinants of their efficacy. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched for studies involving tocilizumab, dexamethasone, and methylprednisolone in treating COVID-19. We included case-control and randomized or partially randomized trials. Meta-regression for patient baseline characteristics, co-medications, and tocilizumab dose regimens was performed to identify contributing factors to drug efficacy. RESULTS: Thirteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and twenty-four case-control studies were included in our meta-analysis involving 18,702 patients. Meta-analysis among the RCTs showed that a summary estimate favoring mortality reduction (OR 0.71, 95%CI 0.55 - 0.92) contributed mainly by tocilizumab and dexamethasone. Among case-control studies, meta-analysis showed mortality reduction (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.36 - 0.75) contributed by tocilizumab and tocilizumab-methylprednisolone combination. Methylprednisolone alone did not reduce mortality except for one study involving high dose pulse therapy. Meta-analysis also found that all three drugs did not significantly reduce mechanical ventilation (OR 0.72, 95%CI 0.32 - 1.60). CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab and dexamethasone emerge as viable options in reducing mortality in severe COVID-19 patients. A tocilizumab-corticosteroid combination strategy may improve therapeutic outcome in cases where single therapy fails.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Immunol ; 236: 108936, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650423

ABSTRACT

A 52-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia two years ago; admitted to our hospital with complaints of fever (>38C), shortness of breath, and fatigue. He was receiving fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) regimen for one year after two courses of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (CVP) regimen. The patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 associated cytokine storm and tocilizumab 800 mg was administered in addition to corticosteroids. Significant improvement was observed in both clinical and laboratory parameters and his hypoxemia resolved. The patient whose complaints recurred on the 13 th day of discharge was admitted to the hospital again with severe hypoxemia (oxygen saturation < 90) and fever (>38C). Pulse steroid (250 mg methylprednisolone for three days, followed by 40 mg/day) and anakinra 400 mg/day intravenously were started. Despite the treatment, the patient progressed to respiratory failure and died on the sixth day of second hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
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